Reforming the European Union 

Duff, Andrew  

London : Federal Trust



Andrew Duff, OBE, (British, born in Birkenhead, 25 December 1950) is a founding member of the European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR) and a Liberal Democrat MEP since 1999.

Member of the EU Convention on the Charter of Fundamental Rights from 1999 to 2000 and the Convention on the Future of Europe from 2002 to 2003, he was also one of the European Parliament's representatives at the 2007 Intergovernmental Conference which led to the Lisbon Treaty.

He has written extensively on the EU, from an integrationist perspective.


Andrew Duff is the editor of this collection of papers by the Federal Trust for Education & Research - a think tank, of which he was then director, specialising in research on government with a particular interest in the British position vis-à-vis the EU. The selection of papers focus on the influence of the 1996 Intergovernmental Conference on the development of European integration.

At the time of writing, preparations were under way for the Intergovernmental Conference launched at the Turin European Council in March 1996, which would lead to the Amsterdam Treaty. The principal responsibility conferred upon the Conference was to prepare the ground for enlargement of the European Union, in particular by resolving the issues which had arisen in implementing the 1992 Treaty of Maastricht.

Difficulties in ratifying the Maastricht Treaty, the UK's exit from the Exchange Rate Mechanism, and rows over the extent of the UK's opt-outs from the Treaty's social provisions, had almost led to the fall of the Conservative government of John Major in the UK. Confidence in the EU was at a new low in the run-up to the Amsterdam Conference. Accordingly, the author, a committed federalist himself, analyses the causes of the problems inherent in the Maastricht Treaty and sets out a series of reforms which he sees as necessary to prepare the EU for future enlargement and further integration. He proposes a new approach for British relations with the EU, and suggests that greater British involvement in the development of the EU would be to the benefit of both parties.