The Common Agricultural Policy in figures

The tables below show basic statistical data in several areas relating to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), namely: the agriculture and food industries in the Member States (Table II), the integration of environmental concerns into the CAP (Table III), the forestry sector (Table IV), CAP financing and expenditure (Tables I and V) and trade in agricultural and food products (Table VI).

Table I: The CAP in the 2014/2020 multiannual financial framework (EU-28)

Commitment appropriations
(EUR million at 2011 constant prices)
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Total
2014/2020
A. Total multiannual commitment appropriations
(EU-28)
134 318
(100%)
135 328
(100%)
136 050
(100%)
137 100
(100%)
137 866
(100%)
139 078
(100%)
140 242
(100%)
959 988
(100%)
As a percentage of GNI
(EU-28)
1.03% 1.02% 1.00% 1.00% 0.99% 0.98% 0.98% 1.00%
B. CAP — Pillar 1 (EAGF) 41 585
(30.9%)
40 989 40 421 39 837 39 079 38 335 37 605
(26.8%)
277 851
(28.9%)
Of which: B.1. Direct payments 39 715 (29.1%) 39 139 38 580 38 007 37 265 36 566 35 881 (25.6%) 265 153 (27.6%)
Of which: B.2. Market-related expenditure 2 503 (1.8%) 2 471 2 449 2 427 2 399 2 342 2 286 (1.6%) 16 879 (1.7%)
Of which: B.3. Assigned revenue -633 -621 -609 -597 -585 -574 -562 -4 181
C. CAP — Rural development
(EAFRD)
12 865
(9.6%)
12 613 12 366 12 124 11 887 11 654 11 426
(8.1%)
84 936
(8.8%)
D. TOTAL CAP
(Pillars 1 and 2) (B + C)
54 450
(40.5%)
53 602 52 787 51 961 50 966 49 989 49 031
(34.9%)
362 787
(37.8%)
Appropriations as a percentage of GNI
(EU-28)
0.41% 0.40% 0.38% 0.38% 0.36% 0.35% 0.34% 0.37%

Source: European Commission (based on Council Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 1311/2013 of 2 December 2013 (OJ L 347, 20.12.2013, p. 884), as well as on the political agreement reached in June 2013 by Parliament, the Council and the Commission (vote in Parliament on 20 November 2013 — resolution P7_TA(2013)0455)).

Table II: Basic figures relating to agriculture and the food industry (EU-28)

  Utilised agri-cultural area (UAA)
(1 000 ha)
No of farms
(1 000 farms)
UAA per farm
(ha)
Employment in agriculture
(1 000 persons)
Total agricultural output
(million EUR)
Share of primary sector of GVA/GDP
(%)
Factor income per annual work unit
(EUR/AWU)
Employment in the food industry
(1 000 persons)
Share of food industry in GVA
(%)
  2013 2013 2013 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2012
BE 1 307 37 34.6 51.4 8 116.8 0.6 35 288 109.3 2.0
BG 4 651 254 18.3 177.3 4 033.2 5.1 6 289 110.5 3.8
CZ 3 491 26 133.0 114.2 4 550.4 2.5 17 392 120.7 2.4
DK 2 619 39 67.5 63.1 10 269.2 1.1 30 676 66.7 1.4
DE 16 700 285 58.6 517.0 51 548.2 0.5 19 583 909.9 (2011) 1.7
EE 957 19 49.9 16.6 935.1 3.5 12 718 15.6 2.0
EL 4 857 710 6.8 446.5 10 665.3 4.0 14 519 122.8 (2011) 3.2
ES 23 300 965 24.1 678.7 45 490.7 2.5 29 161 473.5 (2011) 2.7
FR 27 739 472 58.7 664.4 75 167.4 1.7 31 879 656.5 1.9
IE 4 959 139 35.5 104.6 7 397.1 1.0 16 386 52.1 4.7
IT 12 099 1 010 12.0 772.0 55 203.9 2.3 19 685 483.1 1.9
CY 109 35 3.1 12.9 693.4 2.4 13 405 10.7 2.0
HR 1 571 157 10.0 126.6 2 277.4 4.3 4 600 62.1
LV 1 878 82 23.0 49.8 1 402.1 3.3 6 192 26.3 (2010) 2.4
LT 2 861 172 16.7 105.3 2 971.8 3.3 6 210 39.3 4.6
LU 131 2 63.0 2.4 401.4 0.2 16 855 0.9 0.7
HU 4 656 491 9.5 178.8 7 925.5 3.6 8 409 135.8 2.2
MT 11 9 1.2 2.4 128.1 1.4 13 204 4.8 1.7
NL 1 847 67 27.4 173.7 26 708.2 1.8 46 053 135.4 2.8
AT 2 727 140 19.4 178.5 6 778.8 1.3 14 816 71.1 1.9
PL 14 410 1 429 10.1 1 768.6 22 320.2 2.8 4 910 539.9 (2011) 2.9
PT 3 641 264 13.8 317.4 7 079.9 2.4 9 195 104.8 (2011) 2.2
RO 13 056 3 629 3.6 2 129.6 15 535.9 4.8 3 822 196.4 (2011) 6.1
SI 486 72 6.7 60.1 1 263.6 2.3 6 017 18.1 1.5
SK 1 901 23 80.7 57.9 2 160.7 4.0 13 359 53.4 1.7
FI 2 282 54 42.0 75.2 4 270.2 2.5 15 489 38.3 1.6
SE 3 035 67 45.2 67.4 6 239.5 1.4 25 667 47.2 1.3
UK 17 327 185 93.6 314.7 29 623.1 0.7 30 279 432.4 (2011) 1.6
EU- 15 124 573 4 439 28.1 4 427.1 344 959.5 1.4 23 671 3 709.8 1.9
EU-13 50 040 6 402 7.8 4 800.2 66197.4 3.3 5 514 1 333.7 3.3 (EU-12)
EU- 28 174 613 10 841 16.1 9 227.3 411 156.9 1.5 14 808 5 037.7 2.0 (EU-27)

Sources: Eurostat, ‘Statistical book on agriculture, forestry and fishery’, 2016 Edition; European Commission, ‘CAP Context Indicators 2014-2020, 2016 update’.

Table III: Basic agri-environmental indicators (EU-28)

  Share of UAA classed as Natura 2000 area
(%)
Territory classed as nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ)
(%)
Farming intensity (Euro per ha UAA in constant input prices) Share of UAA under organic farming
(%)
Share of agriculture in production of renewable energy
(%)
Share of forestry in production of renewable energy
(%)
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural soils
(1 000 t CO2 equivalent) and share of total (%)
  2014 2012 2013 2015 2013 2013 2014
BE 7.2 76.2 1 238.3 5.1 27.8 48.1 9 942 (8.7%)
BG 22.4 34.6 150.2 2.4 1.2 61.5 5 092 (8.9%)
CZ 6.5 41.6 251.3 13.7 20.7 63.0 8 287 (6.7%)
DK 4.7 100.0 872.7 6.3 6.9 46.4 10 605 (20.9%)
DE 10.6 100.0 447.5 6.3 26.3 32.4 66 070 (7.3%)
EE 5.6 7.2 124.8 15.7 0.0 95.1 1 318 (6.3%)
EL 18.6 24.3 316.6 8.4 8.0 34.0 8 743 (8.6%)
ES 16.2 16.2 242.2 8.2 5.0 32.1 37 406 (11.4%)
FR 8.2 45.5 407.2 4.5 9.8 47.0 79 193 (17.1%)
IE 3.6 100.0 284.1 1.6 4.1 25.5 18 754 (32.2%)
IT 10.8 12.6 337.9 11.8 7.3 31.7 30 338 (7.2%)
CY 6.0 5.3 1 253.3 3.7 11.8 4.6 560 (6.7%)
HR 25.7 n.a. 204.9 4.9 2.8. 47.0 2 300 (10.0%)
LV 6.6 12.8 131.3 12.3 4.3 82.0 2726 (24.0%)
LT 4.5 100.0 136.8 7.1 9.4 80.8 3 887 (20.3%)
LU 10.1 100.0 411.6 3.2 10.7 51.2 672 (6.2%)
HU 14.7 56.2 202.4 2.4 18.4 69.8 6 533 (11.4%)
MT 7.7 100.0 2 722.3 0.3 9.3 0.0 89 (3.0%)
NL 4.2 100.0 1 858.4 2.7 36.9 25.9 18 395 (9.8%)
AT 11.5 100.0 256.4 20.3 5.1 50.2 7 074 (9.3%)
PL 11.5 4.5 266.2 4.0 9.3 80.3 30 410 (8.0%)
PT 18.1 3.7 141.7 6.5 5.0 47.6 7 202 (11.2%)
RO 12.6 57.8 107.6 1.8 3.2 65.8 17 522 (15.7%)
SI 23.5 100.0 209.0 8.8 2.5 53.4 1 699 (10.2%)
SK 16.0 29.8 201.3 9.5 14.1 52.4 3 112 (7.7%)
FI 1.2 100.0 274.6 9.9 3.0 81.7 6 475 (11.0%)
SE 4.1 19.8 291.2 17.1 1.8 54.9 7 143 (13.1%)
UK 2.4 43.6 233.2 2.9 4.3 25.6 44 857 (8.5%)
EU-15 10.0 48.6 372.0 6.8 11.3 41.3 352 870 (10.3%)
EU-13 12.8 35.7 (EU-12) 194.0 4.7 8.7 70.1 83 536 (9.6%)
EU-28 10.8 45.3 (EU-27) 322.6 6.2 10.9 45.9 436 405 (10.2%)

Source: European Commission, ‘CAP Context Indicators 2014-2020, 2016 update’.

Table IV: Basic data on EU forests

Member State
EU-28
Forests[1]
(1 000 ha, 2015)
Other wooded land[2]
(1 000 ha, 2015)
Other land
(1 000 ha, 2015)
Ownership of forest: Public forests
(1 000 ha, 2010)
Forest and other wooded land per inhabitant
(ha, 2015)
Volume of total roundwood removals
(1 000 m³, 2010)
Austria 3 869 153 4 221.5 878.5 0.47 18 614
Belgium 683.4 35.7 2 308.7 317.2 0.06 3 690.9
Bulgaria 3 823 22 7 011 3 286 0.53 5 863.6
Croatia 1 922 569 3 105 1 376 0.59 5 714
Cyprus 172.7 213.5 538 118.9 0.34
Czech Republic 2 667.4 0 5 054.2 2 036.7 0.25 15 773.4
Denmark 612.2 45.5 3 585.3 139.4 0.12 2 621.5
Estonia 2 232 223.6 2 067.2 922.8 1.85 5 889
Finland 22 218 801 7 370 6 744 4.23 48 801.8
France 16 989 590 37 187 4 064 0.27 54 020
Germany 11 419 0 23 442 5 932 0.14 53 267.7
Greece 3 903 2 636 6 351 2 907 0.59 1 238.6
Hungary 2 069.1 121.3 7 113.2 1 178 0.22 5 709.5
Ireland 754 47.2 6 087.8 386.2 0.17 2 476.4
Italy 9 297 1 813 18 304 3 032 0.19
Latvia 3 356 112 2 750 1 755 1.72 11 429
Lithuania 2 180 104 3 983.5 1 333 0.77 6 415.2
Luxembourg 86.8 1.4 170.9 41 0.16 284.9
Malta 0.3 0 31.7 0.3 0.00
The Netherlands 376 0 2 999 181.3 0.02 1 030.2
Poland 9 435 0 21 187 7 643 0.24 36 746.6
Portugal 3 182.1 1 725.1 4 118.3 98.3 0.47 10 210.7
Romania 6 861 90 16 051 4 363 0.35 13 923
Slovakia 1 940 0 2 870 973.9 0.36 9 073.8
Slovenia 1 248 23 743 315.4 0.62 3 063.4
Spain 18 417.9 9 208.8 22 253.3 5 332.8 0.59 15 610.3
Sweden 28 073 2 432 10 528 6 822 3.18 69 700
United Kingdom 3 144 20 21 029 868 0.05 9 379.6
EU-28 160 931 29 987 242 461 64 372 0.36 410 547.1

Source: ‘State of Europe’s Forests 2015’ (Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe).

Table V: CAP expenditure by Member State

  1. Distribution by Member State
Direct Aids/Markets and other measures 2015 / Rural Development 2015
(EUR million)
2. Percentage of farms benefiting from direct aids under the EAGF
(2015)
Member State
 
a. Direct aids EU-28
(1st pillar — EAGF)
b. Total
1st pillar — EAGF EU-28
(incl. (a.))
c. Total EAFRD
EU-27 (2nd pillar)
(b+c) % of total EU d. With aid ≤ EUR 5 000 e. With aid ≤ EUR 20 000 f. With aid ≥ EUR 50 000
BE 550.4 625.4 5.4 1.2 35.10 72.32 5.33
BG 643.8 674.2 404.5 2.1 82.27 94.89 2.61
HR 159.3 165.5 0.0 0.3 94.19 99.28 0.17
CZ 882.5 898.4 0.0 1.8 60.32 81.91 10.16
DK 924.2 936.5 60.8 1.9 45.79 72.61 13.28
DE 5 139.9 5 250.4 287.9 10.8 41.80 78.78 4.85
EE 110.7 119.4 0.0 0.2 81.57 93.10 2.69
EL 2 162.9 2 229.2 379.1 5.1 82.87 98.11 0.17
ES 5 110.1 5 640.2 953.3 12.9 74.61 92.67 1.63
FR 7 602.7 8 165.1 239.9 16.3 30.32 59.50 10.25
IE 1 227.0 1 231.8 0.0 2.4 41.92 87.74 1.70
IT 3 920.2 4 555.9 1 143.3 11.1 86.89 96.84 0.96
CY 51.1 59.1 18.3 0.1 94.28 98.89 0.21
LV 156.5 167.7 0.0 0.3 91.44 97.88 0.66
LT 393.7 414.0 38.1 0.9 89.43 97.85 0.55
LU 33.2 33.7 0.0 0.1 29.76 62.52 5.31
HU 1 282.9 1 334.0 382.1 3.4 80.13 93.73 2.37
MT 5.3 5.7 8.6 0.0 97.41 99.18 0.10
NL 799.6 883.9 10.6 1.8 35.20 69.16 5.36
AT 703.9 727.8 0.0 1.4 59.07 94.00 0.45
PL 3 352.9 3 572.7 1 170.6 9.2 90.96 98.95 0.29
PT 645.1 754.7 31.0 1.5 85.82 96.05 1.40
RO 1 418.9 1 461.0 1 257.6 5.3 97.09 99.07 0.37
SI 136.0 143.0 0.0 0.3 89.68 99.25 0.08
SK 431.3 439.6 30.0 0.9 75.85 86.64 8.55
FI 525.0 542.7 0.0 1.1 46.63 88.34 1.36
SE 687.5 701.3 0.0 1.4 58.93 84.23 4.45
UK 3 111.5 3 150.4 43.3 6.2 41.20 73.02 8.85
EU-28 42 168.0 44 948.1 6 464.3 100.0 78.83 93.09 1.81

Sources: Columns (a) and (b): European Commission, 9th Financial Report on the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund — EAGF 2015. Column (b) does not include expenditure made directly by the Commission (EUR 64.7 million in 2015).

Column (c): European Commission, 9th Financial Report on the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development — EAFRD 2015, Table 11a.

Columns (d), (e) and (f): European Commission, ‘Indicative Figures on the Distribution of Aid, by size-class of aid, received in the context of direct aid paid to the producers in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No 1782/2003 and Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2009 — Financial Year 2015’.

Table VI: Trade in agricultural and food products in EU-28 by selected countries (2015)

EXTRA-EU28 TRADE A. Imports
(EUR million)
% of row 2 B. Exports
(EUR million)
% of row 2 Balance
(B-A)
1. All trade 1 727 125 1 791 534 64 409
2. Agricultural-food trade 113 260 100 129 214 100 15 954
% agricultural-food trade (2/1) 6.6% 7.2% 24.8%
Commodities / primary products 76 643 67.6% 46 403 36.0% -30 240
Processed (incl. wine) 14 056 12.4% 23 308 18.0% 9 252
Food preparations % beverages 9 363 8.3% 44 018 34.0% 34 655
Non-edible 13 198 11.7% 15 485 12.0% 2 287
COUNTRY          
Argentina 5 762 5.1% 205 0.2% -5 557
Brazil 13 143 11.6% 1 594 1.2% -11 549
China 5 153 4.6% 10 342 8.0% 5 189
India 2 997 2.7% 742 0.6% -2 255
Indonesia 4 335 3.8% 735 0.6% -3 600
Japan 238 0.2% 5 354 4.1% 5 116
Russia 1 427 1.3% 5 568 4.3% 4 141
Switzerland 4 590 4.1% 7 673 5.9% 3 083
Turkey 4 993 4.4% 3 406 2.6% -1 587
Ukraine 3 998 3.5% 1 359 1.1% -2 639
United States of America 11 981 10.6% 19 410 15.0% 7 429
SELECTED COUNTRIES 58 617 51.9% 56 388 43.6% -2 229

Source: European Commission (DG AGRI), Agri-Food Trade Statistical Factsheet. EU — Extra EU-28, April 2016; Monitoring EU Agri-Food Trade: Developments until December 2015; Trade Statistics 2015 — DG AGRI (Trade picture files by country — Main EU partners).

[1]‘Forest’: land spanning more than 0.5 ha with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of more than 10%, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ.

[2]‘Other wooded land’: land not classified as ‘forest’, spanning more than 0.5 ha, with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of 5-10%, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ; or with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes and trees above 10%.

Albert Massot

06/2017