Financing the Trans-European Networks

The Trans-European Networks (TENs) are partly funded by the European Union and partly by the Member States. Financial support from the EU serves as a catalyst, the Member States being required to provide the bulk of the financing. The financing of the TENs can also be complemented by Structural Fund assistance, aid from the European Investment Bank or contributions from the private sector. A major reform was introduced across the TENs with the establishment of the Connecting Europe Facility in 2013.

Legal basis

Title XVI of the TFEU, Article 171 of which provides that EU aid may be granted to projects of common interest that meet the requirements laid down in the guidelines.

Regulation (EU) No 1316/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing the Connecting Europe Facility, amending Regulation (EU) No 913/2010 and repealing Regulations (EC) No 680/2007 and (EC) No 67/2010.


To contribute to the establishment of Trans-European Networks in the fields of transport, energy and telecommunications, through targeted EU support (5.8.1).


a.Defining general conditions for project funding

Generally, EU funding has served as a catalyst for starting up projects. Member States must raise most of the funding, except in the case of Cohesion Fund aid, where the EU has traditionally made a more substantial contribution.

The first principles governing funding were laid down in Council Regulation (EC) No 2236/95 of 18 September 1995 laying down general rules for the granting of Community financial aid in the field of trans-European networks.

1.EU aid for projects has taken one or several of the following forms:
  • co-financing of project-related studies and other technical support measures (in general not exceeding 50% of the total cost);
  • contributions towards fees for guarantees for loans from the European Investment Fund or other financial institutions;
  • interest subsidies for loans granted by the European Investment Bank (EIB) or other public or private financial bodies;
  • direct grants for investments in duly justified cases.
2.The following project criteria have been progressively laid down:
  • EU aid to telecommunications and energy networks must not cause distortions of competition between businesses in the sector concerned;
  • projects must help to achieve the networks’ objectives;
  • projects must be potentially economically viable;
  • the maturity of the project, and the stimulative effect of EU intervention;
  • direct or indirect effects on the environment and employment, progressively including increasingly complete cost-benefit analyses (CBAs), environmental impact analyses (AIAs), etc.;
  • coordination of the timing of different parts of the project, for example in the case of cross-border projects.

The projects financed had to comply with EU law and EU policies, in particular in relation to environmental protection, competition, and the award of public contracts. Successive regulations laying down general rules for the granting of EU financial aid introduced a range of new elements, including the following:

  • multiannual and annual programmes in the fields of transport and energy for granting EU financial aid to selected projects;
  • EU aid for studies was capped at 50% irrespective of the project, and aid for priority projects at 10% to 30% in the field of transport (with a maximum of 30% for cross-border sections of priority projects);
  • risk capital was included and interlinked as part of EU financial aid;
  • the financial framework for the 2007-2013 period allocated EUR 8 168 million to the TENs, of which EUR 8 013 million to transport (TEN-T) and EUR 155 million to energy (TEN-E).

b.Additional funding possibilities

1.EU Structural and Cohesion Funds

In the 2000-2006 period, these funds contributed approximately EUR 26 billion to TEN projects — particularly through the Cohesion Fund in Greece, Ireland (until 2003), Portugal, Spain and the EU-10 Member States. The latter were allocated EUR 2.48 billion in pre-accession aid, as well as EUR 4.24 billion from the Cohesion Fund and EUR 2.53 billion from other Structural Funds. Of the aggregate pre-accession and cohesion funding in question, approximately 50%, or EUR 3.9 billion, was allocated to TEN-T projects.

2.European Investment Bank aid

No territorial restrictions apply to EIB loans, as they are granted on the basis of banking criteria, which include the financial (ability to repay), technical and environmental feasibility of the project. For example, over the decade from 1995 to 2005, the EIB granted loans for TEN projects totalling approximately EUR 65 billion.

c.2007-2013 financial framework

For the 2007-2013 financing period, the Commission, with Parliament’s support, initially proposed EUR 20.35 billion for TEN-Transport and EUR 0.34 billion for TEN-Energy. However, the Council insisted on a drastic reduction, and ultimately the TEN financial framework provided for EUR 8.01 billion in the area of transport and EUR 0.16 billion in the area of energy (i.e. only 40% of the amount originally proposed in the area of transport and 45% of the proposed amount for energy). Given the scarcity of resources, Regulation (EC) No 680/2007 stipulated that, in order to complement national (public or private) sources of financing, EU resources were to be focused on certain categories of projects with the greatest added value for the network as a whole (such as cross-border sections and projects aimed at removing bottlenecks). In addition, the contribution to TEN-T from the general cohesion policy operational programmes adopted by the Commission was EUR 43 billion.

Connecting Europe Facility

As of December 2013, the EU has a dedicated new TEN infrastructure policy, with a budget of over EUR 30.4 billion up to 2020: the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) aims to achieve synergies in the transport, telecommunications and energy sectors, enhancing the effectiveness of Union action and enabling implementing costs to be optimised. It aims to accelerate investment in the field of trans-European networks and to leverage funding from both the public and private sectors, while increasing legal certainty and respecting the principle of technological neutrality.

a.General objectives

The CEF aims to:

  • support the implementation of projects of common interest which seek to develop and construct new infrastructure and services, or to upgrade existing infrastructure and services, in the transport, telecommunications and energy sectors;
  • give priority to missing links in the transport sector;
  • help support projects with European added value and significant societal benefits which do not receive adequate financing from the market;
  • contribute to the Europe 2020 strategy by developing trans-European networks which take into account expected future traffic flows and creating an environment more conducive to private, public or public-private investment;
  • enable the Union to achieve its sustainable development targets, thus contributing to its mid-and long-term decarbonisation objectives.
1.In the transport sector, support will be reserved for projects of common interest aimed at:
  • removing bottlenecks, bridging missing links and, in particular, improving cross-border sections;
  • ensuring sustainable and efficient transport systems in the long run, with a view to preparing for expected future transport flows, as well as enabling all modes of transport to be decarbonised; and
  • optimising the integration and interconnection of transport modes and enhancing the interoperability of transport services, while ensuring the accessibility of transport infrastructure.
2.In the energy sector, support will aim to:
  • boost competitiveness by promoting further integration of the internal energy market and interoperability of electricity and gas networks across borders;
  • enhance the security of EU energy supply; and
  • contribute to sustainable development by integrating energy from renewable sources into the transmission network and developing smart energy networks and carbon dioxide networks.
3.In the telecommunications sector, the CEF will support:
  • generic services, core service platforms and programme support actions to be financed through grants and/or procurement;
  • actions in the field of broadband networks to be financed through financial instruments.

b.CEF budget

The financial envelope for the implementation of the CEF for the 2014-2020 period was initially set at over EUR 33.2 billion. However, in 2015 this initial amount was reduced to EUR 30.4 billion as result of the shifting of EUR 2.8 billion to the newly created European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). The CEF budget is distributed as follows:

  • transport sector: EUR 24.05 billion, of which EUR 11.3 billion has been transferred from the Cohesion Fund to be spent, in line with the CEF Regulation, exclusively in those Member States eligible for funding from the Cohesion Fund;
  • telecommunications sector: EUR 1.04 billion;
  • energy sector: EUR 5.35 billion.

Some 80% to 85% of the overall CEF budget will be allocated to projects based on multiannual programmes (along core network corridors and reflecting horizontal priorities), while 15% to 20% will serve objectives within annual programmes (i.e. of a shorter-term nature, with the possibility of being adjusted on an annual basis).

Following a mid-term evaluation, Parliament and the Council will be able, on a Commission proposal, to transfer allocated appropriations between the transport, telecommunications and energy sectors, so as to optimise the use of funds from the EU budget. However, the resources shifted to the CEF from the Cohesion Fund will be available for possible transfer within the yearly budgetary framework only after 1 January 2017. The majority of projects will be co-financed from the CEF through grants allocated following competitive calls for proposals. At the same time, no more than 8.4 % of the total CEF budget can be dedicated to projects to be co-funded through innovative financial instruments such as guarantees and project bonds (the CEF debt instrument). In general, the financial instruments used under the CEF must address specific market needs for actions that have a clear European added value, and should not crowd out private financing. They must improve the leverage effect of Union budget spending and achieve a higher multiplier effect in terms of attracting private-sector financing.

In the transport sector, the bulk of the CEF budget, i.e. EUR 22.5 billion, is to be distributed to project promoters through grants. So far, the Commission has announced two calls for proposals in the field of transport. The first was announced in 2014, with a total budget of EUR 11.93 billion, and the second in 2015, with an allocation of EUR 7.6 billion. On both occasions, the Commission reported a substantial oversubscription by project promoters as against the available allocation. In the light of the evaluation of projects submitted in response to the 2015 CEF transport call, 195 proposals were recommended for funding. Their total value amounted to almost EUR 6.7 billion. Of these, 93 proposals were recommended for funding under the cohesion envelope, with EUR 5.61 billion of funding recommended, compared with the call budget of EUR 6.47 billion. Under the general envelope, 102 proposals were recommended for funding, with EUR 1.07 billion of funding recommended, just below the call budget of EUR 1.09 billion.

Role of the European Parliament

In support of the TENs, Parliament has consistently urged that more environment-friendly modes of transport be given priority in terms of funding, setting the percentage share of funding for infrastructure projects so as to allocate over 50% to rail projects (including combined transport), and set a maximum not exceeding 25% for road projects. Furthermore, Parliament has consistently emphasised the need for the Commission to ensure the coordination and coherence of projects where they are financed by contributions from the Union budget, the EIB, the Cohesion Fund, the European Regional Development Fund or other Union financing instruments.

After the Council agreed massive reductions to the original Commission proposal at the end of 2005, Parliament, in subsequent negotiations on the financial perspective, urged that the amount allocated to the TENs be increased. In the final agreement with the Council, Parliament obtained an increase of EUR 500 million, and extra EIB funding, for the realisation of the TENs.

On 7 June 2011, as part of the review of road transport taxation rules (the ‘Eurovignette’ directive), Parliament approved the compromise with the Council according to which at least 15% of the revenue from the external cost charges and infrastructure charge of each Member State would be used to give financial support to TEN-T projects in order to improve transport sustainability. This percentage is set to increase steadily over time.

With Parliament’s involvement in shaping the CEF Regulation (a collaborative effort by three rapporteurs, across two parliamentary committees and all political groups), it has taken on a major role in securing sizeable EU funds for the TENs over the 2014-2020 period.

In 2014, the new Commission President, Jean-Claude Juncker, put forward an Investment Plan for Europe aimed at boosting the economy and creating jobs in the EU. This plan comprises three main pillars, one of which is EFSI. For the purpose of safeguarding resources for the new EFSI, the Commission submitted an initial proposal to reduce CEF funding by EUR 3.3 billion. Parliament’s active involvement helped to bring about a substantial decrease in the CEF budget cuts initially proposed by the Commission. The final legislative act, of 2015, establishing the European Fund for Strategic Investments (Regulation (EU) 2015/1017) provides for a total transfer of EUR 2.8 billion from the CEF to the EFSI budget. Within this amount, the transport envelope was reduced by EUR 2.2 billion.

When taking decisions on the yearly EU budgets, Parliament has consequently paid attention to the appropriations allocated to both the CEF and Horizon 2020. In its resolution of 8 July 2015 on the mandate for the trilogue on the 2016 draft budget, Parliament welcomed the mobilisation of the Global Margin for Commitments to cover part of the expenditure needed to finance the EUR 8 billion EFSI Guarantee Fund, instead of it relying only on the cuts to the CEF and Horizon 2020. However, Parliament recalled its ultimate goal of minimising, as far as possible, the impact on the two programmes. Accordingly, it insisted on further offsetting the cuts to Horizon 2020 and the CEF in order to allow those programmes to accomplish their objectives fully.

Furthermore, in its resolution of 9 March 2016 on general guidelines for the preparation of the 2017 budget, Parliament reiterated its commitment to reinforcing Horizon 2020 and the CEF through the annual budgetary procedure, in order to compensate as much as possible for the CEF cuts agreed during the negotiations on the creation of EFSI.

Beata Tuszyńska / Frédéric Gouardères