Tato databáze obsahuje výzkumné práce vypracované různými útvary Evropského parlamentu pro výzkum, zejména studie a sdělení z tematických sekcí, zprávy, informační přehledy a analýzy z oddělení pro posuzování dopadů a oddělení pro evropskou přidanou hodnotu a z oddělení pro hodnocení vědecko-technických možností (STOA). Cílem těchto dokumentů je podpořit práci různých parlamentních orgánů.
Tematické sekce nabízejí širokou škálu odborných posudků zahrnujících posouzení složitých legislativních otázek, srovnávací přehledy a stručné komentáře. Slouží k různým účelům: jako přímý příspěvek k legislativní práci konkrétního výboru nebo jako průvodní informace pro delegace poslanců Evropského parlamentu. Některé z těchto výzkumů provádějí externí odborníci vybrání na základě výběrového řízení, tj. přední vědecko-výzkumní pracovníci nebo poradci v konkrétním oboru.
Ředitelství G v rámci generálního ředitelství Evropského parlamentu pro vnitřní politiky poskytuje širokou škálu produktů v oblasti posuzování dopadů a zcela nové služby v souvislosti s evropskou přidanou hodnotou a náklady v důsledku neexistence společného evropského postupu. Výbory EP mohou zadat vypracování různých zpráv, informačních přehledů a analýz v těchto oblastech, které slouží jako podklady pro jejich práci.
STOA přispívá k diskusi o politicky relevantních strategických otázkách vědy a techniky a možnostech politiky řešit je prostřednictvím střednědobých a dlouhodobých projektů mezioborového charakteru a k informačním činnostem a dialogům, jejichž výsledky souvisí s úlohou Parlamentu jako zákonodárce. Jeho zprávy jsou k dispozici v databázi.
Shrnutí : In the context of the work which the European Parliament has undertaken on this important and controversial subject Petitions Committee organised this workshop to provide a platform for petitioners and experts to compare, contrast and confront their views. Answering to the allegations, questions and demands of different petitioners (from France, Romania, Poland, Bulgaria, United Kingdom and Germany), the experts highlight the important implications of shale gas exploration on the environment and the climate, and at the same time its potential significance in terms of the diversification of energy supply and security. In addition to the petitioners and the members' representatives of the shale gas industry, Member States and European Commission officials have been invited to take the floor.
Autoři : Florent Pelsy and Marta Ballesteros (Legal analysis of petitions on shale gas extraction) ; Michael LaBelle (Analysis of the petitions from Bulgaria and Poland on shale gas extraction) ; John Broderick and Kevin Anderson (Regulation of the Unconventional fossil fuels extraction - Climate Change Considerations) ; Matthias Altmann and Werner Zittel (Analysis of the petition from Germany on shale gas extraction)
Výbory : Petice
Shrnutí : This study discusses the possible impacts of hydraulic fracturing on the environment and on human health updating a study published in 2011. Detailed studies of environmental risks arising from unconventional gas extraction activities have been published recently on European and national levels substantially broadening and deepening the scientific basis. However, knowledge and availability of information are still limited. High risks are identified in a number of environmental aspects, notably when taking into account the cumulative risks of multiple installations typical for unconventional gas activities.
Autoři : Matthias ALTMANN, Werner Weindorf and Werner ZITTEL (Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH) ; Stefan LECHTENBÖHMER (Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy)
Výbory : Petice
Shrnutí : How can the Internet contribute to the development and establishment of a genuinely European public (e-public)? What are good practices for e-participation in Europe and how can public organisations profit from opening up their processes to a wider audience (e-participation)? Is e-voting a realistic means to increase electoral turnout and what are the conditions for the success of e-voting? These are the main questions being dealt with in this report, which is the final report of the STOA-project on e-democracy. The report includes the analysis and insights of a research and consultation project in which three scientific institutes, eleven external experts as participants of two workshops and several Members of the European Parliament were involved. The aim of the project, which went from January 2010 to September 2011, was to analyse current developments in the area of e-democracy and to relate the insights to the European policy context, especially to the needs of the European Parliament. Within the three areas of e-democracy covered in the study, e-voting is the area in which the recommendation to the European Parliament is the most explicit: Based on the analysis, the build-up of a comprehensive system for e-voting in Europe cannot be recommended for the time being. The reasons for this are primarily cost-benefit considerations, technological issues and reasons of political legitimacy. Underlying the analysis was the conviction that elections are at the heart of the democratic process and that existing and working election routines in the countries will not be changed without good reasons. Concerning e-public and e-participation the report argues that a European public sphere includes and requires an active citizenry endowed with political rights as well as with a sense of identity which motivates engagement and political concern. European citizenship cannot be based in common language and traditions but only in a sense of belonging to a political community with shared values and rights. E-participation as such, when related to relevant policy-making processes on the level of European institutions, would constitute a new element of European citizenship beyond the right to vote. It provides an additional democratic form of European citizenship which – if successfully established – could also help to foster European citizenship in its subjective or cultural meaning. However this would imply to organise e-participation in a way that is accessible, transparent and meaningful to the European citizenry. It must be clear where there are opportunities for citizens to raise their voice and at the same time it must be clear in which way and to what end e-participation spaces are related to the very core of policy-making. From what is known from e-participation exercises at all levels, participants do not expect to rule out or bypass the representative democratic structures. On the other hand it is also obvious that a lack of responsiveness of political institutions to formats of online participation leads to disappointment on the participants’ side that in the long run would be detrimental to any process of developing feelings of citizenship.
Autoři : Bernd Beckert (Fraunhofer ISI), Ralf Lindner (Fraunhofer ISI), Kerstin Goos (Fraunhofer ISI), Leonhard Hennen (ITAS), Georg Aichholzer (ITA) and Stefan Strauβ (ITA)
Výbory : Orgán pro vyhodnocování vědeckých a technologických alternativ (STOA), Průmysl, výzkum a energetika, Ústavní záležitosti, Prostor svobody, bezpečnosti a práva, Petice
Shrnutí : The European Parliament frequently receives petitions from EU citizens. A number of these petitions relate to the improper implementation of EU waste legislation, which causes negative environmental and health impacts. The relevant petitions were grouped according to defined criteria. Based on these criteria, twelve petitions were selected and analysed in detail. The selected petitions relate to deficiencies in the waste management system, the operation of existing installations (mainly incinerators and landfills) and the permitting procedure for new facilities. Based on the identified problems, recommendations have been derived to improve the situation.
Autoři : All from Umweltbundesamt GmbH : Jürgen Schneider, Brigitte Karigl, Christian Neubauer, Thomas Weissenbach, Hubert Reisinger, Eva Margelik, Helmut Frischenschlager, Brigitte Winter, Milla Neubauer, Brigitte Read
Výbory : Petice
Shrnutí : Divorces or separations classed as "cross-border" (parents of different nationalities or leaving in different Member States) lead to very complicated legal situations, notably regarding the relationship between the parents and the children of these former couples. An in-depth analysis of the national situations has been conducted in 6 Member States (France, Germany, Spain, UK, Sweden and Poland). In order to comprehend the breadth and types of problems connected to a cross-border separation of parents, various series of information has been collected and analysed for each of these Member States: available statistical data, international and European legal frameworks; national legislations and practices essentially linked to parental responsibility. Even though progress has been made thanks to the quoted legal instruments, notably the Regulation Brussels IIa, some difficulties of interpretation and implementation together with some gaps have been identified. Several actions may be recommended to enable cross-border separation in the European Union to be dealt more efficiently, notably in terms of mediation and international judicial cooperation.
Autoři : Institut suisse de droit comparé (ISDC) - Lausanne, Suisse
Výbory : Petice
Shrnutí : Some transformations occurred in the area of private property ownership following the change of political regime in former socialist or communist countries. The six analysed countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania and Serbia) illustrate well the whole range of contentious problems in a region where the Communist regimes have varied tremendously in their approach to private property, intensity of social control, repression and overall legitimacy. This diversity of situations poses today different types of dilemmas for the property restitution process and these six countries responded in different manners to these general challenges, in the context of their own peculiar social and economic history.
Autoři : Romanian Academic Society (RAS), Romania ; with the collaboration of: Centre for Liberal Strategies (CLS), Bulgaria, Partnership for Social Development (PSD), Croatia
Výbory : Petice
Shrnutí : The conflict or war in former Yugoslavia had profound humanitarian consequences, amongst others a massive displacement of the population, which lies at the basis of property issues resulting from this conflict. The legal questions at European and national level related to such issues together with the enforcement mechanisms and implementation problems have been analysed in order to give an overview of the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Kosovo.
Autoři : Michaela Salamun, Tatjana Josipović, Meliha Povlakić, Evis Halili (Baholli) Graz University
Výbory : Petice
Autoři : Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs - European Parliament
Výbory : Prostor svobody, bezpečnosti a práva, Rovnost pohlaví, Právní záležitosti, Ústavní záležitosti, Petice
Shrnutí : This study reviews national legislations and practices regarding the implementation of Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora, in particular Article 6. It is based on eight national reports Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Romania and UK, each containing on one to four case studies concerning implementation of the key provision for implementing the EU’s Natura 2000 system.
Autoři : Nicolas de Sadeleer ; Milieu Ltd.
Výbory : Petice
Shrnutí : The briefing paper examines the environmental impacts of a proposed project compassing a 1200-kilometre offshore gas pipeline from Russia to Germany through the Baltic Sea. The paper also states the enforceable international and European legislation relevant to the project and reviews the alternatives presented for the proposed pipeline. The expected environmental impacts are assembled from information provided in the statements of authorities and the public in the affected states and by the project developer. The reviewed environmental impacts comprise effects on biota, conservation areas, fishing and shipping activities as well as on the public. Legislation relevant to the project includes the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the UNECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context, the EU Directive on environmental impact assessment (EIA) as well as national legislation in force associated to European and international agreements or regulations in each affected state. The project is managed by Nord Stream AG, the ownership of which is shared between Russian, German and Dutch enterprises. The most significant impacts of the project are expected to be associated with the construction and installation of the pipeline. Investigations on the environmental impacts and thus the environmental impact assessment process are currently underway.
Autoři : Riina Pelkonen and Jorma Jantunen, Finnish Environment Institute, Finlande
Výbory : Petice