Questa banca dati contiene i documenti di ricerca elaborati dai vari servizi di ricerca del Parlamento europeo, in particolare gli studi, le analisi approfondite e i briefing preparati dai dipartimenti tematici e dalla direzione Valutazione d'impatto e valore aggiunto europeo. Lo scopo di questi documenti è sostenere le attività dei vari organi parlamentari.
I dipartimenti tematici si occupano di fornire pareri specialistici e consulenze strategiche a sostegno delle attività dei vari organi parlamentari, in particolare le commissioni. Sulla base delle analisi effettuate internamente o esternamente, i dipartimenti tematici forniscono informazioni indipendenti, specialistiche, oggettive, aggiornate e di alta qualità in tutti gli ambiti di attività del Parlamento.
I dipartimenti tematici elaborano le analisi strategiche in un'ampia gamma di formati, generalmente in risposta alla richiesta di una commissione o una delegazione del Parlamento. In questa banca dati è possibile reperire testi di tipo diverso, da studi e analisi approfondite su un paese o una questione specifica a briefing. Questi testi scritti hanno diverse finalità, ad esempio contribuire direttamente al lavoro legislativo di una data commissione o fungere da note informative per i membri di una delegazione.
La direzione Valutazione d'impatto e valore aggiunto europeo presso il Servizio di ricerca del Parlamento europeo (EPRS) elabora ricerche su vari aspetti della valutazione ex-ante o ex-post della legislazione e delle politiche dell'UE. Questa banca dati contiene: analisi approfondite delle valutazioni d'impatto elaborate dalla Commissione europea; valutazioni d'impatto complementari o sostitutive; valutazioni d'impatto degli emendamenti del Parlamento; "analisi di attuazione europea" sull'attuazione e sull'efficacia nella pratica del diritto e delle politiche dell'UE; relazioni sul costo della non Europa riguardo a settori in cui sarebbe possibile ottenere una maggiore efficienza o benefici collettivi attraverso un'azione comune a livello europeo e valutazioni del valore aggiunto europeo che illustrano la ragione delle relazioni d'iniziativa legislativa presentate dalle commissioni.
L'unità Valutazione delle opzioni scientifiche e tecnologiche (STOA) analizza le questioni politiche emergenti nei settori della scienza e della tecnologia, realizzando un'ampia gamma di studi, seminari e altre attività.
Riassunto : A recent agreement between Moscow and Kyiv, triumphantly heralded by the European Commission, is unlikely to prove everything promised by an outgoing Commission President José Manuel Barroso. Brokered by the EU, the deal should preclude a repeat of the winter gas crisis that hit Ukraine and the EU in 2006 and 2009. Already, Russia – which cut supplies to Ukraine in June 2014, when pro-Russian separatists were waging war in eastern Ukraine – has agreed to restore the supply in the cold months ahead. Prices and conditions have also been settled. But the plan’s short-term solutions leave a number of problems unresolved. Ukraine’s national reserves and the IMF will pay for some of Ukraine’s gas, although a contribution from EU taxpayers cannot be ruled out. Not all of the agreement has been made public, and its sustainability is questionable: even if the deal has taken the bite out of winter, the ramifications for the following seasons are uncertain. The EU’s energy security is likely to remain hostage to tensions between Kyiv and Moscow until Ukraine’s structural weaknesses are repaired and the country’s role as guardian of the pipelines reduced.
Autori : Pasquale DE MICCO
Organi : Affari esteri
Riassunto : This study, prepared by Policy Department A, aims to support Members of the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) in monitoring on-going negotiations for a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). It analyses the main differences between EU and US legislation in eight areas, namely: human medicines and medical devices, cosmetics, food and nutrition, sanitary and phyto-sanitary, nanomaterials, cloning, raw materials and energy, and motor vehicles. Existing collaboration between the EU and US, progress already achieved in the negotiations and potential future developments in these areas are also addressed.
Autori : Shailendra Mudgal, Katherine Salès, Alice Landowski, Otto Kern, Juliette Mansard, Christiane Gerstetter, Max Grünig, Elizabeth Dooley, Elizabeth Tedsen, Martin Nesbit, Kamila Paquel and Sirini Withana
Organi : Ambiente, sanità pubblica e sicurezza alimentare, Affari esteri
Riassunto : The crisis in Ukraine has led to seven rounds of sanctions between Russia and the EU – and may well lead to more. Energy is the most alarming casualty in this clash, with the EU and Russia largely interdependent in the domain. The level of dependency among EU Member States varies greatly, as does their ability to respond to Russian warnings and actions. Ukraine's gas situation is also at stake. The Russian gas exporter Gazprom ceased exporting to Ukraine in June. In late September, gas cuts were registered in Slovakia, Austria, Poland and Romania – in some cases to prevent Russian gas from being diverted to Ukraine. A provisional solution for Ukraine's winter supplies was reached in Berlin on 26 September, but has yet to be completely endorsed by Moscow and Kiev. However, the risk of gas shortages for the rest of Europe has not been averted. Military and political tensions have obliged the EU to boost its energy security mechanisms and seek alternatives to Russian gas. The European Commission has just concluded a stress test on the EU gas system to assess the impact of a potential gas crisis. Several studies have suggested that, in the short term, the EU could substitute Algerian, Norwegian and Qatari supplies for Russian gas, although this would cost more and require new gas terminals. The Union’s reserves – at present 90 % full – will also help, but for how long depends on the coming winter. In the longer term, gas supplies from Azerbaijan, the United States, Iran, Mozambique, Australia, Israel and Turkmenistan could also supply the thirsty European market. EU energy policies (on renewable sources, greater efficiency, shale gas and interconnection of energy grids) could also play a role in reducing – if not completely eliminating – Europe’s dependence on Russian gas.
Autori : DOVYDAS VYTAUTAS BLAZAITIS, Pasquale DE MICCO, LEA HANNAOUI-SAULAIS
Organi : Affari esteri
Riassunto : On 26 October 2014, almost 142 million voters will elect Brazil's president for the next four years. The elections take place against a backdrop of economic stagnation and widespread discontent with inadequate public services and the political system, highlighted by social protests in 2013. After a decade of economic and social progress, and a parallel rise in the country's global stature, the sustainability of the country's last two decades of achievements is increasingly questioned. Facing these challenges, all major political forces have advocated 'change' in the run-up to the October elections. There are strong expectations that the government that takes over on 1 January 2015 will initiate a new phase in Brazil's social, economic and political development. The new government will have to address demands to renew the political system and to implement reforms to make the economy more competitive and capable of generating the growth needed to continue improving social conditions.
Autori : Jesper TVEVAD
Organi : Sviluppo, Commercio internazionale, Affari esteri
Riassunto : A dangerous political crisis ignited in Afghanistan this year – just months before the International Security Assistance Force was to be replaced by a reduced US and NATO force. Both presidential candidates, Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah, alleged that the second, June round of the presidential elections had been marred by fraud. A power-sharing agreement was finally reached between President Ghani and 'CEO' Abdullah in September, following intense international pressure. The outcome has frustrated the Afghan people, whose high turnout at the poll, despite high security risks, demonstrated a real commitment to democracy. Turnout in the 2015 parliamentary elections will suggest whether voters' disappointment persists. Providing a minimum of security to the population and to international agencies will be the new government's highest priority. Violent attacks are on the rise, though government camps may disagree on whether and how to negotiate with the Taliban insurgency. Disputes about the appointments of high officials from different political and ethnic groups may also distract Ghani from one of his principal goals: fighting corruption. The European Parliament could ask the EU to reinforce its support for the new government and reiterate its call that a new EU-Afghan agreement stress democracy and human rights – particularly those of women.
Autori : Fernando GARCES DE LOS FAYOS TOURNAN
Organi : Diritti delluomo, Sicurezza e difesa, Affari esteri
Riassunto : This is a monthly publication giving an overview “At a glance” of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a list of their latest and forthcoming publications, and useful links.
Organi : Affari esteri, Libertà civili, giustizia e affari interni, Occupazione e affari sociali, Controllo dei bilanci, Trasporti e turismo
Riassunto : On 4 November 2014, midterm elections will be held for all 435 seats in the US House of Representatives and for 36 seats in the US Senate. Additionally, 36 of 50 states will hold gubernatorial races on that day. The Republican majority in the House of Representatives is widely expected to be maintained, and the Party stands a decent chance of gaining the six additional seats it would need to control the Senate as well – giving the party a hold over the entire Congress, with its legislative and oversight powers. Whatever results the Senate race produces, the midterms will not end the country’s long-standing political gridlock. President Obama is certain to face a difficult two years before the end of his tenure.
Autori : Wanda TROSZCZYNSKA VAN GENDEREN
Organi : Affari esteri
Riassunto : Les pays du Conseil de Coopération du Golfe occupent une place de plus en plus importante dans les économies du Maghreb. Celles du Maroc et de la Tunisie apparaissent, pour diverses raisons, comme des destinations très attractives pour ces investisseurs. Les principaux secteurs sont les domaines traditionnels de l'économie (bancaire, énergétique, immobilier, des mines, les télécommunications et touristique) ainsi que des secteurs plus innovants (énergies renouvelables). Mais depuis 2011, une autre forme d'investissements en provenance des monarchies du Golfe voit le jour dans des domaines moins tangibles: aide humanitaire, éducation et culture. Ces investissements pourraient dissimuler des desseins politiques permettant d'assoir l'influence des pays du CCG dans une perspective à long terme. Ces autres leviers d'influence risquent également d'impacter les comportements des sociétés civiles marocaines ou tunisiennes. L'identification de secteurs clés permet donc à l'Union européenne de trouver des axes communs de coopération avec le CCG (l'éducation, l'efficacité énergétique et les nouvelles technologies) dans l'éventuel but d'assurer une convergence des intérêts au Maghreb.
Autori : Perla SROUR
Organi : Affari esteri
Riassunto : China's legislature, the People's National Congress (NPC), has made recommendations about the 2017 direct election of Hong Kong's Chief Executive, foreseen in Hong Kong's constitution. Hong Kong's legislature could reject the recommendations, although the NPC has final say. China's authorities have warned that civil disobedience and protestors' calls to respect international standards may have serious consequences. The European Parliament has called for 'international standards' to be respected in Hong Kong's politics. The selection of candidates will be less free. A candidate will now need to gain the support of at least 50 % of the nomination committee, instead of the 12.5 % required in 2012. During public consultations, a number of initiatives were proposed to make the nomination process more democratic. Beijing has insisted that Hong Kong's administrators respect their nation and support China's jurisdiction over Hong Kong. The events in Hong Kong have been echoed in Macao. Beijing sees its relations with Hong Kong as a model for Taiwan, which it also hopes to incorporate into a 'one China, two systems' arrangement. In the past, the European Parliament has adopted positions on electoral reform in Hong Kong. The EP has stated that 'respect for the full autonomy of Hong Kong is one of the key issues upon which to base the development of future relations between the EU and China'.
Autori : Marika ARMANOVICA
Organi : Affari esteri
Riassunto : A dispute that has simmered for more than 40 years between Japan and China (and Taiwan) has flared up, bringing Beijing and Tokyo close to a potentially devastating armed confrontation. At issue is the control of small, uninhabited islands in the East China Sea, known by the Japanese as the Senkaku Islands and by the Chinese as the Diaoyu Islands. In recent years China has radically changed its approach, moving from the relatively moderate and reasonable attitude to world affairs it had adopted for decades to a very assertive foreign policy aimed at, inter alia, bolstering its military and political role in Asia and securing key strategic positions off its coastline. China has unilaterally attempted to modify the status quo in the region to conform to an old vision of Asia, in which Imperial China played a hegemonic role. With increasing frequency, China’s Communist Party has played the ‘nationalism’ card to bolster its domestic legitimacy. For its part, Japan appears unready to accept the Chinese claim over the desolate, barren archipelago, and has refused even to acknowledge the dispute’s existence. The quarrel has resuscitated nationalist sentiments in an otherwise pacifist Japan, even leading to a revision of the constitution to allow the Japanese armed forces to assist allies, and to an expansion of the country’s military cooperation with the US.
Autori : Roberto BENDINI
Organi : Sicurezza e difesa, Affari esteri