Questa banca dati contiene i documenti di ricerca elaborati dai vari servizi di ricerca del Parlamento europeo, in particolare gli studi, le analisi approfondite e i briefing preparati dai dipartimenti tematici, dall'unità Assistenza alla governance economica e dalla direzione della Valutazione d'impatto e del valore aggiunto europeo. Lo scopo di questi documenti è sostenere le attività dei vari organi parlamentari.
I dipartimenti tematici si occupano di fornire pareri specialistici e consulenze strategiche a sostegno delle attività dei vari organi parlamentari, in particolare le commissioni. Sulla base delle analisi effettuate internamente o esternamente, i dipartimenti tematici forniscono informazioni indipendenti, specialistiche, oggettive, aggiornate e di alta qualità in tutti gli ambiti di attività del Parlamento.
I dipartimenti tematici elaborano le analisi strategiche in un'ampia gamma di formati, generalmente in risposta alla richiesta di una commissione o una delegazione del Parlamento. In questa banca dati è possibile reperire testi di tipo diverso, da studi e analisi approfondite su un paese o una questione specifica a briefing. Questi testi scritti hanno diverse finalità, ad esempio contribuire direttamente al lavoro legislativo di una data commissione o fungere da note informative per i membri di una delegazione.
L'unità Assistenza alla governance economica elabora briefing per i dialoghi economici e le audizioni di rendicontazione organizzati dalla commissione competente del Parlamento, e pubblica altresì periodicamente documenti e tabelle informativi in questo ambito.
La direzione della Valutazione d'impatto e del valore aggiunto europeo, interna al Servizio di ricerca del Parlamento europeo (EPRS), elabora ricerche su vari aspetti della valutazione ex ante o ex-post della legislazione e delle politiche dell'UE. Questa banca dati contiene analisi approfondite delle valutazioni d'impatto elaborate dalla Commissione europea, valutazioni d'impatto complementari o sostitutive, valutazioni d'impatto degli emendamenti del Parlamento, "analisi di attuazione europea" sull'attuazione e sull'efficacia nella pratica del diritto e delle politiche dell'UE, relazioni sul costo della non Europa riguardo a settori in cui sarebbe possibile ottenere una maggiore efficienza o benefici collettivi attraverso un'azione comune a livello europeo e valutazioni del valore aggiunto europeo che illustrano la ragione delle relazioni d'iniziativa legislativa presentate dalle commissioni.
L'unità Prospettiva scientifica (STOA) effettua ricerche interdisciplinari e fornisce consulenze strategiche nel campo della valutazione delle opzioni scientifiche e tecnologiche e della prospettiva scientifica. Essa realizza studi approfonditi e organizza seminari sugli sviluppi che interessano tali settori, sotto la guida del comitato STOA, composto da 24 deputati al Parlamento europeo.
Riassunto : The European Union has been increasing efforts to maintain gas supply security especially vis-à-vis its main gas supplier, Russia. In that context, Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries, serving either as gas suppliers (Azerbaijan) or transit/corridor countries (all the others except Armenia), have an undeniable role for the EU. Security of gas supply depends on close EU cooperation with its EaP partners and interconnections between them. There have been some welcome developments, such as the Southern Gas Corridor that transports Caspian gas to the EU, which reflects the importance of the EaP partners and also contributes to EU energy security and the ambitious Energy Union project. On the other hand, a project aimed at doubling the capacity of the Nord Stream gas pipeline directly connecting Germany and Russia under the Baltic Sea has raised some criticism.
Autori : Konur Alp KOCAK, Pasquale DE MICCO
Organi : Affari esteri
Riassunto : EU Arctic policy has evolved significantly in recent years, culminating in the April 2016 Joint Communication from the European Commission and the HRVP for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Communication focuses on the environment and climate change, sustainable development, and peaceful international cooperation, with overarching support for scientific research. This coincides with most of the priorities of the EU’s Arctic Member States, Denmark, Finland and Sweden. The Communication does not focus on security issues or on hydrocarbon development. Arctic oil and gas are not the primary keys to EU energy security, but do play a role, and are important for the EU’s two main suppliers, Norway and Russia – sustainable management of these resources is in the EU’s interest. While the region has been a model for cooperation – Arctic collaboration with Russia continues via multiple mechanisms, despite wider tensions. That it will remain so cannot be taken for granted. The EU supports peaceful Arctic cooperation via multiple mechanisms, including the Arctic Council, the Barents-Euro Arctic Council, and via multiple cross-border collaboration platforms. As the EU becomes increasingly engaged in Arctic issues, continued focus on policy coherence, engagement with other Arctic stakeholders, and the priorities of the region’s citizens will be essential.
Autori : Gerald STANG (European Union Institute for Security Studies)
Organi : Diritti delluomo, Sicurezza e difesa, Sviluppo, Affari esteri
Riassunto : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.
Organi : Occupazione e affari sociali, Affari esteri, Controllo dei bilanci, Trasporti e turismo, Affari giuridici
Riassunto : The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the prospective Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), if enacted, will reshape trade and investment flows between the United States, Asia, and Europe. Together, these agreements encompass more than 60 % of the global economy, including the leading industrial economies of North America, the European Union and Japan. TPP is the economic anchor of the US ‘pivot’ to Asia. TPP is as much a geopolitical project to reinforce US leadership in Asia as it is a deal driven by an economic logic of spurring new sources of trade and investment. The EU has concluded or is negotiating a series of bilateral trade and investment agreements, including with Singapore, Vietnam, Australia, Japan, Malaysia, and New Zealand. But Europe as a whole needs to take a more strategic and coherent approach to Asia, beyond commerce and investment ties, and particularly to unify its approach to China. This is a compelling requirement given both China’s enormous economic power and the risks its ascendancy poses to the liberal international order. Beyond the politics around both trade deals, however, lies a conviction among trade liberalisers in both the Atlantic and Pacific theatres that the agreements could provide a positive shock to a global economy badly in need of new engines of growth.
Autori : Daniel TWINING? Hans KUNDNANI and Peter SPARDING
Organi : Affari esteri
Riassunto : This report outlines the potential for a more structured and strategic relationship between the European Union and the Islamic Republic of Iran following the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). To both address areas of disagreement and complaints, as well as pursue common interests and matters of mutual benefit, the EU needs to put in place an institutional framework that can withstand the various setbacks that have, to date, derailed all previous efforts of political dialogue. There are a number of areas where both actors can benefit from cooperation; trade, environmental and sustainability issues, education, and combatting drug trade. Even when pursuing more contentious issues such as human rights, having a strategic and fully-fledged multilevel relationship will be helpful. There are also a number of political crisis in the region (ISIS, migration) where reaching a solution without Iranian involvement will either be unnecessarily costly or near impossible.
Autori : Rouzbeh PARSI (European Iran Research Group, Lund University, Sweden)
Organi : Sicurezza e difesa, Affari esteri
Riassunto : Energy security is increasingly occupying a top spot on the EU’s foreign policy agenda. The unconventional oil and gas revolution, OPEC’s supply response, increased global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) trade, persistent concerns about the reliability of Russian gas supplies and the need to expand low carbon energies such as renewables to address climate change pose opportunities and challenges to European energy security. The EU has upgraded the issue with its flagship Energy Union communication and its EU Energy Diplomacy Action Plan. The United States has developed into a major exporter of Natural Gas Liquids and refined petroleum products as a result of its unconventional oil and gas revolution. It might develop export capacities for LNG and continues to be a major coal exporter. The mutual energy trade could expand if the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) were concluded successfully. The United States is also a crucial partner of the EU for transport security and the protection of critical energy infrastructure. Against this backdrop, this study analyses opportunities and challenges of transatlantic energy cooperation in a changing global energy landscape.
Autori : Eckart Woertz
Organi : Affari esteri
Riassunto : The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was one of the most tragic periods in China's history. It unleashed a decade of violence, in which more than a million Chinese died, some 16 million were banished to the countryside and many others suffered imprisonment, seizure of property, torture or humiliation. It left in its wake a shattered country, a fractured society in turmoil and a devastated economy. The Chinese Communist Party ignored the 50th anniversary on 16 May of the start of the Cultural Revolution, with no official commemoration. The state-controlled media then exhorted the people to regard the Cultural Revolution as a closed chapter and to look ahead. They distanced the Party from its responsibilities for the disaster, in an indication that the country's leaders are still haunted by its spectre. Nonetheless, the Cultural Revolution's legacy lives on in modern China and some parallels are being drawn with the current President Xi Jinping's crackdown against corruption. Xi's use of some of the Revolution's methods seems to reflect a pragmatic attempt to reassert the Party's authority in response to the new challenges posed by the rapid transformation of China, rather than heralding a repeat of the Cultural Revolution. The Party has said its lessons have been learned and it must not be repeated. Nevertheless, the former Premier, Wen Jiabao, cautioned in 2012 that without effective political reforms, a similar historical tragedy might happen again.
Autori : Roberto BENDINI
Organi : Diritti delluomo, Affari esteri
Riassunto : The Korean Workers’ Party (KWP) held its Seventh Congress, the first since 1980, from 6 to 9 May 2016. In theory, the Congress is the highest deliberative body of the only governing party of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The Congress yielded relatively modest results, with no real breakthrough, apart from establishing the 'defensive' nuclear deterrence concept. Kim Jong-un’s position as North Korea's supreme leader was fully formalised and now seems to be stronger than ever. The Party is likely to gain further power at the expense of the military. Nuclear deterrence is now firmly enshrined in the Party's statutes as well as the country’s constitution. Pyongyang has made clear that no nuclear deal is possible unless the US and its allies accept North Korea as a 'nuclear state'. Despite its propaganda announcements, North Korea is not ready to modernise its sclerotic economy. While some cautious developments cannot be ruled out, the regime's open criticism of the Chinese economic model suggest that any reforms would be limited and very probably inconclusive.
Autori : Roberto BENDINI
Organi : Sicurezza e difesa, Affari esteri, Diritti delluomo
Riassunto : Emanating from Russia in the east and the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in the south, the EU has been increasingly hit by destabilising messages amounting – in different forms and to different degrees – to coherent hostile ‘strategic communications’ campaigns, or the processes of infusing communications activities with an agenda or plan to impact the behaviour of a target audience. Both Russia and ISIL have engaged in aggressive messaging and deceptive media campaigns, albeit with distinct narratives, targets and audiences. This paper analyses the ‘what’ and the ‘how’: the respective narratives of each actor, their specificities, their similarities and their differences. The analysis also draws attention to strategic communications efforts undertaken by the EU, which are vectored into defensive (react and respond) and offensive (probe and push) dimensions. This understanding of the present context finally allows for an evaluation of what actions can be taken to enhance the effectiveness of the EU’s own strategic communications.
Autori : European Union Institute for Security Studies - EUISS, France
Organi : Affari esteri, Sicurezza e difesa
Riassunto : The case is made paper maintains that the EU-Turkey CU of 1995 covering industrial goods should be modernised and modified to take into account the various and growing criticisms of the original CU. Furthermore, economic integration between the EU and Turkey should be strengthened by signing a complementary deep integration regional trade agreement (RTA) between the EU and Turkey, covering agriculture, SPS measures, services, government procurement, investment, and dispute settlement. For Turkey, the objective would be to achieve comprehensive liberalisation, while for the EU this is an ideal opportunity to harness the economic and political potential of deeper integration with Turkey, in line with its wider trade and investment policy.
Autori : Kamala Dawar (University of Sussex, the UK) and Sübidey Togan (Center for International Economics, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey)
Organi : Industria, ricerca ed energia, Mercato interno e protezione dei consumatori, Pesca, Trasporti e turismo, Commercio internazionale, Agricoltura e sviluppo rurale, Affari esteri