Questa banca dati contiene i documenti di ricerca elaborati dai vari servizi di ricerca del Parlamento europeo, in particolare gli studi, le analisi approfondite e i briefing preparati dai dipartimenti tematici, dall'unità Assistenza alla governance economica e dalla direzione della Valutazione d'impatto e del valore aggiunto europeo. Lo scopo di questi documenti è sostenere le attività dei vari organi parlamentari.
I dipartimenti tematici si occupano di fornire pareri specialistici e consulenze strategiche a sostegno delle attività dei vari organi parlamentari, in particolare le commissioni. Sulla base delle analisi effettuate internamente o esternamente, i dipartimenti tematici forniscono informazioni indipendenti, specialistiche, oggettive, aggiornate e di alta qualità in tutti gli ambiti di attività del Parlamento.
I dipartimenti tematici elaborano le analisi strategiche in un'ampia gamma di formati, generalmente in risposta alla richiesta di una commissione o una delegazione del Parlamento. In questa banca dati è possibile reperire testi di tipo diverso, da studi e analisi approfondite su un paese o una questione specifica a briefing. Questi testi scritti hanno diverse finalità, ad esempio contribuire direttamente al lavoro legislativo di una data commissione o fungere da note informative per i membri di una delegazione.
L'unità Assistenza alla governance economica elabora briefing per i dialoghi economici e le audizioni di rendicontazione organizzati dalla commissione competente del Parlamento, e pubblica altresì periodicamente documenti e tabelle informativi in questo ambito.
La direzione della Valutazione d'impatto e del valore aggiunto europeo, interna al Servizio di ricerca del Parlamento europeo (EPRS), elabora ricerche su vari aspetti della valutazione ex ante o ex-post della legislazione e delle politiche dell'UE. Questa banca dati contiene analisi approfondite delle valutazioni d'impatto elaborate dalla Commissione europea, valutazioni d'impatto complementari o sostitutive, valutazioni d'impatto degli emendamenti del Parlamento, "analisi di attuazione europea" sull'attuazione e sull'efficacia nella pratica del diritto e delle politiche dell'UE, relazioni sul costo della non Europa riguardo a settori in cui sarebbe possibile ottenere una maggiore efficienza o benefici collettivi attraverso un'azione comune a livello europeo e valutazioni del valore aggiunto europeo che illustrano la ragione delle relazioni d'iniziativa legislativa presentate dalle commissioni.
L'unità Prospettiva scientifica (STOA) effettua ricerche interdisciplinari e fornisce consulenze strategiche nel campo della valutazione delle opzioni scientifiche e tecnologiche e della prospettiva scientifica. Essa realizza studi approfonditi e organizza seminari sugli sviluppi che interessano tali settori, sotto la guida del comitato STOA, composto da 15 deputati al Parlamento europeo.
Riassunto : The need to reform the United Nations to adapt the organisation to new global power configurations has been widely recognised. Yet these reforms have often been hampered by a lack of global consensus on how they could be carried and what they would entail. The UN 'reform agenda' touches upon virtually all areas of the organisation's activities, including peace support, development and human rights. The proposals also concern institutional issues, including budgetary and management reforms of the UN system. This paper takes stock of progress in key areas of reform and outlines possible ways forward.
Autori : Wanda TROSZCZYNSKA VAN GENDEREN
Organi : Affari esteri
Riassunto : The six countries in the EU's Eastern Partnership are sandwiched between two large, potent trading blocs: the EU to the west, and the Russian-led Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to the east. Most of the six have chosen to pursue a deeper alliance with one or the other bloc – a tough choice, reflecting both political and economic factors. Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine signed Association Agreements with the EU on 27 June 2014. Armenia and Belarus chose to accede to the Eurasian Economic Union (belatedly, in the case of Armenia). For all these countries, a choice for East or West has meant a loss: a loss of trade policy sovereignty – and likely the growth that comes with open trade policies – for some; a loss of the vital and once-fluid exchanges with the EAEU for the others. The trade and economic separation between the EU and EAEU has not aided the Eastern partners. In fact, the division is not simply a commercial one: it has been drawn – and deepened – by political and geopolitical considerations. But from a purely trade perspective, all the partners – the countries choosing one or another alliance, as well as the dozens composing the EU and EEAU – would benefit from a new and more constructive approach.
Autori : Pasquale DE MICCO
Organi : Affari esteri
Riassunto : Economic and political discrimination undermines women’s opportunity to break the cycle of poverty and marginalisation. International development cooperation recognises the importance of gender equality, to promote both human rights and sustainable development. Official aid focused on gender equality has tripled since 2002. The concrete situation of women and girls varies tremendously between countries and regions. Gender equality is a fundamental principle of European integration, and has been integrated in EU development cooperation. EU development aid focusing on gender equality doubled between 2009 and 2012. The EP has called for a strong focus on women and girls in the post-2015 development framework. Parliament has established internal structures to ensure that gender equality is 'mainstreamed' throughout its work.
Autori : Marika LERCH
Organi : Affari esteri, Diritti della donna e uguaglianza di genere, Diritti delluomo
Riassunto : The first five years of the Eastern Partnership have witnessed the most challenging period of relations between the EU and its eastern neighbours since the fall of communism in 1991. The year 2014 was a pivotal one, marked by the signing of Association Agreements with the European Union by three partners countries – Ukraine, Republic of Moldova, and Georgia – but also by Russian military intervention in Ukraine, including the annexation of Crimea. The continued aggression of a revanchist and intransigent Russia has altered the political and social landscape, and the original concept of the Eastern Partnership, however well-intentioned and suitable for a previous era, is not adequate to meet the challenges of 2015 and beyond. Therefore, there is a need for the EU to rethink its policy towards the Eastern Partnership countries and Russia, and build new approaches to suit the new reality. More than ever, the EU needs to focus its attention on relations with those Eastern Partner countries that are willing to cooperate more closely and who truly wish to integrate with the Union, politically, economically and socially. Ukraine, Republic of Moldova, and Georgia should be perceived as more than partners, and the ‘more for more’ approach should be strengthened. Such an approach would send a clear political signal to all parties involved, and make for a better use of limited resources.
Autori : Grzegorz GROMADZKI (Institute of Public Affairs, Poland)
Organi : Affari esteri, Sicurezza e difesa, Commercio internazionale
Riassunto : Access to quality education is essential for development: estimates suggest global poverty could drop by 12 % if all children in low income countries could read. The European Parliament has called for gender equality in education and for providing vulnerable groups special attention. The percentage of aid devoted to education has remained constant. While amounts increased between 2002 and 2010, they have begun to decline since. Global net enrolment for primary education grew from 83 % to 90 % between 2000 and 2012. But progress is uneven: 58 million children are out of school, often because of poverty, location, gender or conflict. Half the children who do not attend school live in regions affected by conflict. The EU institutions spent EUR 4.2 billion on education in 2007-2013. The EP recognises the need to: •guarantee education for women and girls, •pay attention to emergency situations, and •build 'knowledge-based' societies that encourage citizens to participate.
Autori : Eulalia CLAROS GIMENO, Manuel MANRIQUE GIL
Organi : Diritti delluomo, Affari esteri, Cultura e istruzione
Riassunto : This is a monthly publication giving an overview “At a glance” of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a list of their latest and forthcoming publications, and useful links.
Organi : Affari costituzionali , Bilanci, Trasporti e turismo, Industria, ricerca ed energia, Affari esteri
Riassunto : The world has changed in recent years, in ways that have undermined the traditional development model. The new 'Sustainable Development Goals' (SDGs) – to be agreed in September 2015 by the UN – will need to reflect these new realities and emerging challenges. A majority of the world's poorest people live in developing countries, where aid represents only a small percentage of all development financing. Aid remains important: its exclusive goal is promoting development, and it composes a large share of low income countries' development financing. The EU's new development policy aims to focus aid on the poorest countries. The European Parliament (EP) has welcomed this, while warning about the criteria used to judged countries' need. Together, the EU and its Member States remain the world's largest donor, although they contribute far less than the 0.7 % of gross national income (GNI) to which Member States committed. The EP has called on the EU to meet its commitments and adopt concrete measures to make internal policies coherent with development objectives.
Autori : Manuel MANRIQUE GIL
Organi : Affari esteri, Diritti delluomo
Riassunto : This publication includes a study on "Assessment of EU Support to Afghanistan for the Last Decade and Lessons Learnt for the Future", and presentations from three experts on related subjects.
Autori : Steven BLOCKMANS (CEPS, Belgium), Rebecca DAVIS (CEPS, Belgium), Seed PARTO (Afghanistan Public Policy Research Organisation, Afghanistan), Rachel REID (Open Society Foundations) and Hekmat Khalil KARZAI (Centre for Conflict and Peace Studies, Afghanistan)
Organi : Affari esteri, Sicurezza e difesa, Diritti delluomo
Riassunto : This leaflet provides a compilation of papers prepared by the European Parliament’s Policy Departments in relation to the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. The magnitude of the transatlantic economic exchange and the chance to boost growth and create jobs provided the initial impetus for launching talks on the TTIP. The EP has supported the negotiations while expressing caution about several sensitive issues. Papers produced by the Policy Departments have addressed these and other issues, including the potential implications on EU Member States, the US Congress’s view of the Partnership, and its impact on areas such as employment and agriculture.
Organi : Ambiente, sanità pubblica e sicurezza alimentare, Agricoltura e sviluppo rurale, Problemi economici e monetari, Affari esteri, Commercio internazionale, Occupazione e affari sociali, Industria, ricerca ed energia
Riassunto : This briefing scrutinises the status of the transitional process taking place in Yemen. It analyses the political, economic, humanitarian and security conditions in Yemen. This briefing aims at helping Members of the European Parliament to have a better understanding of the country's situation and the latest developments. The case of Yemen suggests that overthrowing a despotic regime could be relatively easy but building new democracy to replace it is much harder. Adding to these difficulties is the fact that Yemen remains one of the least developed countries in the region making the short-term socioeconomic impact of the transition pose further challenges. Moreover, the prevailed conflicts in various parts of the country and the absence of state institutions exacerbate the crisis. While the GCC initiative was successful in facilitating the appointment of a new president and forming a new transitional government, it fell short of providing solutions to the massive and intractable challenges threatening the unity and a sustainable peace in Yemen. This briefing provides a policy-oriented action plan to strengthen state building in Yemen, which is the core of many problems Yemen is suffering from. It is only through effective state building that an accountable and transparent state could be created. The EU, in the context of the GCC initiative, can play an important role to facilitate the process of state building in Yemen. This role varies from consultation, training, diffusing experience, to direct contribution to the process.
Autori : Ahmed A. Saif (Sheba Centre for Strategic Studies, Sanaa, Yemen)
Organi : Affari esteri