Questa banca dati contiene i documenti di ricerca elaborati dai vari servizi di ricerca del Parlamento europeo, in particolare gli studi, le analisi approfondite e i briefing preparati dai dipartimenti tematici, dall'unità Assistenza alla governance economica e dalla direzione della Valutazione d'impatto e del valore aggiunto europeo. Lo scopo di questi documenti è sostenere le attività dei vari organi parlamentari.
I dipartimenti tematici si occupano di fornire pareri specialistici e consulenze strategiche a sostegno delle attività dei vari organi parlamentari, in particolare le commissioni. Sulla base delle analisi effettuate internamente o esternamente, i dipartimenti tematici forniscono informazioni indipendenti, specialistiche, oggettive, aggiornate e di alta qualità in tutti gli ambiti di attività del Parlamento.
I dipartimenti tematici elaborano le analisi strategiche in un'ampia gamma di formati, generalmente in risposta alla richiesta di una commissione o una delegazione del Parlamento. In questa banca dati è possibile reperire testi di tipo diverso, da studi e analisi approfondite su un paese o una questione specifica a briefing. Questi testi scritti hanno diverse finalità, ad esempio contribuire direttamente al lavoro legislativo di una data commissione o fungere da note informative per i membri di una delegazione.
L'unità Assistenza alla governance economica elabora briefing per i dialoghi economici e le audizioni di rendicontazione organizzati dalla commissione competente del Parlamento, e pubblica altresì periodicamente documenti e tabelle informativi in questo ambito.
La direzione della Valutazione d'impatto e del valore aggiunto europeo, interna al Servizio di ricerca del Parlamento europeo (EPRS), elabora ricerche su vari aspetti della valutazione ex ante o ex-post della legislazione e delle politiche dell'UE. Questa banca dati contiene analisi approfondite delle valutazioni d'impatto elaborate dalla Commissione europea, valutazioni d'impatto complementari o sostitutive, valutazioni d'impatto degli emendamenti del Parlamento, "analisi di attuazione europea" sull'attuazione e sull'efficacia nella pratica del diritto e delle politiche dell'UE, relazioni sul costo della non Europa riguardo a settori in cui sarebbe possibile ottenere una maggiore efficienza o benefici collettivi attraverso un'azione comune a livello europeo e valutazioni del valore aggiunto europeo che illustrano la ragione delle relazioni d'iniziativa legislativa presentate dalle commissioni.
L'unità Prospettiva scientifica (STOA) effettua ricerche interdisciplinari e fornisce consulenze strategiche nel campo della valutazione delle opzioni scientifiche e tecnologiche e della prospettiva scientifica. Essa realizza studi approfonditi e organizza seminari sugli sviluppi che interessano tali settori, sotto la guida del comitato STOA, composto da 15 deputati al Parlamento europeo.
Riassunto : China stands now at a crossroads, where factors that for many years contributed to its growth have nearly – if not completely – exhausted their potential. As domestic economic challenges grow more pressing, Beijing has embarked on a new development strategy to 'rebalance' its economy and reinforce its integration into global markets. A number of elements of this strategy – including the 'One Belt One Road' initiative – are likely to have a major impact across the globe.
Autori : Roberto BENDINI, Barbara BARONE
Organi : Affari esteri, Commercio internazionale
Riassunto : The services of the European Commission are currently reflecting on the follow-up to the Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015 (COM (2010) final). The EU's trade policy has not yet been fully integrated into this Strategy, providing an opportunity for the INTA committee to consider whether and how gender issues should be dealt with in the context of the EU's trade policies. Article 8 TFEU provides that “in all its activities, the Union shall aim to eliminate inequalities, and to promote equality between men and women.” The trade policy issues that are discussed by the European Parliament's INTA committee can have differing gender impacts across the various sectors of the economy. Understanding the gender dimension of trade agreements better will therefore contribute to better policy making and to ensuring that both sexes can take advantage of the benefits of trade liberalisation and be protected from its negative effects.
Autori : ELINA VIILUP
Organi : Diritti delluomo, Affari esteri, Commercio internazionale, Sviluppo, Diritti della donna e uguaglianza di genere, Industria, ricerca ed energia
Riassunto : This study provides an overview of China’s current approach to foreign policy and external relations. It focuses more particularly on the role and actions of China in global governance, its territorial claims and relations with countries in Asia, and its emergence as an important actor in Central and Eastern Europe as well as in the EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood. It assesses the implications for the EU and makes recommendations on how the EU should deepen its strategic partnership with China. The study argues that China has not made a unilateral and exclusive turn towards assertiveness in its foreign policy. China’s foreign policy assertiveness represents a policy choice that should be understood in the broader context of its external relations, which is one of uncertainty. Both the impact of China’s emergence in international affairs and the use China intends to make of its power and influence remain uncertain. This uncertainty is explained by the interdependence between a number of international and domestic factors as well as by the absence of a grand strategy. The uncertainty in China’s foreign policy opens avenues for the EU to influence China and further deepen the scope of the EU-China Strategic Partnership.
Autori : Matthieu BURNAY, Kolja RAUBE and Jan WOUTERS
Organi : Affari esteri, Commercio internazionale, Sicurezza e difesa
Riassunto : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.
Organi : Agricoltura e sviluppo rurale, Controllo dei bilanci, Libertà civili, giustizia e affari interni, Bilanci, Diritti delluomo, Diritti della donna e uguaglianza di genere, Sviluppo, Affari esteri, Sicurezza e difesa, Problemi economici e monetari
Riassunto : Nearly half of all people living in extreme poverty are aged 18 or under. Children and young people are particularly vulnerable to social exclusion, violence and abuse. In 2014 the European Parliament called on the High Representative of the Union to report back to Parliament every year on the results of the EU's child-focused external action. The Parliament had also previously underlined the urgent need for the Union to pay special attention to the most vulnerable and socially excluded girls and boys. International commitments to improve the lives of children are reflected in various Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly the one on infant mortality. One in four children under five (162 million) remains stunted, risking diminished cognitive and physical development. The Parliament recently called on the Commission to scale up its nutrition-specific commitments. The proposed Sustainable Development Goals include numerous targets to improve the situation of children and youth and represent an important leap forward.
Autori : Manuel MANRIQUE GIL
Organi : Diritti delluomo, Sviluppo, Affari esteri
Riassunto : Plans for gas pipelines in south-eastern Europe have experienced great upheaval in recent years, the result of business competition as well as the ongoing stand-off between Europe and Russia. The projects' advances and reversals reflect shifting strategies: those of new suppliers to find clients, those of traditional suppliers to conserve their markets and avoid regulatory impediments, and those of both suppliers and clients to ensure greater reliability. For many, this means planning to bypass Ukraine. Yet Europe a as a whole does not have a single, coherent strategy. Different European countries have divergent relations with Moscow, and their multiple approaches to energy security impede coherence, particularly when it comes to Ukraine. Even within the EU institutions, the messages sometimes appear contradictory, with political declarations deviating from the technical statements of the European Commission. Ukraine's fate – whether or not it remains a transit country for gas to the EU – depends on multiple factors: its own internal reforms, its integration with the EU market, and the EU's continued support.
Autori : Pasquale DE MICCO
Organi : Affari esteri
Riassunto : During the last decades, technological changes and globalisation have altered international relations. Just as the growth of telecommunications and transport technologies has facilitated the rapid dissemination of information and the global movement of people, traditional diplomacy has gradually grown to incorporate new methods, in which people-to-people contacts, networks and non-state actors play an influential role. The EU engages in cultural, education and scientific cooperation activities with most Asian countries, and particularly with China, India, Japan and South Korea. Yet despite the diverse outreach efforts of the EU Delegations across Asia, and despite the increasing number of Asian students coming to study and research in Europe, knowledge of the EU remains scant in Asia.
Autori : Laurence VANDEWALLE
Organi : Industria, ricerca ed energia, Affari esteri
Riassunto : The EU's trade and economic relations with China, the global leader in trade, are generally good, and the number of disputes reasonable. Yet the EU is dissatisfied with China's reluctance to fully implement its commitments to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and, more generally, with its protectionist measures, which often hurt EU interests. For its part, Beijing is still dissatisfied with the EU's refusal to grant the country 'market economy' status and with other measures it believes limit China's access to the Single Market. Negotiations for an EU-China partnership and cooperation agreement, initiated in 2007, have yet to be concluded. In January 2014, China and the EU held the first round of negotiations for a bilateral investment agreement. Negotiations are progressing steadily but their end is not in sight. More recently, Beijing has suggested opening talks for an EU-China FTA, but Europe’s reaction has been lukewarm.
Autori : Roberto BENDINI, Barbara BARONE
Organi : Mercato interno e protezione dei consumatori, Affari esteri, Commercio internazionale, Industria, ricerca ed energia
Riassunto : The Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of China have enjoyed long-lasting and friendly ties – despite their ideological differences, evident in their very names. The two share far more than a 520 kilometre border, as underscored by the April 2015 visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to Pakistan. On that trip – his first trip abroad in 2015 – Xi announced a EUR 41.30-billion commitment to building a multi-faceted network called the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). The CPEC can be understood as part of China's 'pivot to Asia' and plays a role in Beijing's broader 'One Belt One Road' initiative. If completed, the CPEC has the potential to fundamentally alter South Asia's economy and geopolitics.
Autori : Laurence VANDEWALLE
Organi : Diritti delluomo, Sicurezza e difesa, Sviluppo, Commercio internazionale, Affari esteri
Riassunto : The EU-India strategic partnership has lost momentum. Bilateral ties are not receiving sufficient priority from both sides. Economics remains at the core of this relationship. Since negotiations on the Broad-based Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA) may take time to be concluded, EU-India ties should not be held hostage to developments at BTIA level. On defence and security matters, India deals with EU Member States directly and has a good framework for cooperation with major European powers. The recent Indian decision to buy Rafale jets from France will also have long-term implications for EU-India links. Unlike its partnerships with the US and Russia, India has yet to discover the relevance of EU-India relations within evolving Asian security and economic architecture. Growing Indo-American relations and the close transatlantic partnership could provide new opportunities to work together. Collaboration in research and innovation has expanded significantly and dialogues on global governance, energy, counter-terrorism, migration and mobility as well as human rights all show great potential. New dialogues could be initiated on Afghanistan, maritime security, development cooperation and the Middle-East. Indian engagement in resolving the Ukraine crisis could be explored.
Autori : Gulshan SACHDEVA (Centre for European Studies, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India)
Organi : Sicurezza e difesa, Affari esteri, Commercio internazionale