La presente banca dati contiene i documenti elaborati dai vari servizi di ricerca del Parlamento europeo, in particolare studi e note dei dipartimenti tematici, relazioni, note informative e valutazioni delle unità Valutazione d'impatto e Valore aggiunto europeo, nonché dello STOA. Si tratta di documenti intesi a supportare il lavoro dei diversi organi parlamentari.
Il dipartimenti tematici offrono una vasta competenza, tra cui studi su questioni legislative complesse, note comparative e brevi note informative generali. Si tratta di documenti dalle molteplici finalità: possono integrare direttamente il lavoro legislativo di una determinata commissione o fungere da note informative destinate a delegazioni di eurodeputati. Alcuni dei lavori di ricerca sono svolti da esperti esterni (selezionati tramite gara), cioè eminenti professori universitari o consulenti specializzati in ambiti specifici.
La Direzione G della Direzione generale delle Politiche interne del Parlamento europeo fornisce una vasta gamma di prodotti nel settore della valutazione d'impatto, come pure servizi completamente nuovi per quanto riguarda gli ambiti del valore aggiunto europeo e dei costi della "non Europa". Le commissioni del Parlamento europeo possono richiedere diversi tipi di relazioni, note informative e valutazioni in tali ambiti, a supporto del loro lavoro.
Lo STOA contribuisce alla discussione sui temi scientifici e tecnologici strategici di rilevanza politica e le opzioni d'intervento per affrontarli mediante progetti interdisciplinari a medio e lungo termine, nonché attività di informazione e dialogo, i cui risultati sono d'interesse per il Parlamento nella sua veste di legislatore. Le relazioni dello STOA sono disponibili nella banca dati.
Riassunto : Like a number of former Soviet Union republics in Central Asia, Turkmenistan has recently recorded quite high economic growth rates — often in the double digits — mainly thanks to the increasing global demand for energy and other raw materials, which are abundant in the country. Despite recent progress, the country's economic growth is still hampered by inefficient economic and public structures, still largely inspired by Soviet models and lacking modern infrastructure. The geographical location of Turkmenistan, a land-locked country with some 'difficult' neighbours (such as Iran and Afghanistan), also negatively influences its development. Among the former Soviet Union republics, Turkmenistan has what is probably the worst record in terms of economic and trade liberalisation. Despite growing public revenues, malnutrition still plagues remote rural areas, and poverty is widespread.
Autori : Roberto BENDINI (Policy Department, Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union, European Parliament)
Commissioni : Commercio internazionale
Riassunto : Freezing assets is an EU competence; recovering them, on the other hand, is a competence of the Member States. For the EU, recovering the assets of the ousted Tunisian and Egyptian regimes is an issue of political commitment and credibility, with the Union's reputation in Arab Spring countries partly at stake. The United Nations Convention against Corruption (in force since 2005) makes clear that recovering assets is a priority in a coordinated international fight against corruption. There exists a lack of efficient cooperation between 'requesting' and 'requested' states, as well as a paucity of reliable information about the amounts in question. The EU Council has recently adopted a decision to make it easier to share information relating to Egyptian and Tunisian funds in the EU. There are still many procedural problems to tackle, especially in the case of Egypt. An EU special task force could be set up to explore practical ways to better coordinate and exchange best practices between EU Member States and Tunisia and Egypt. The UK is a frontrunner in establishing a central structure facilitating the legal proceedings to recover assets. The European Parliament can send a clear signal of the EU's political commitment to helping Tunisia and Egypt recover their assets.
Autori : Andreas KETTIS and Pekka HAKALA (EP, DG EXPO, Policy Department)
Commissioni : Affari esteri
Riassunto : This is the update of the June 2011 comprehensive digest of the EU legislation on aviation security. It reminds notably of the current obligations on the parties involved, the monitoring process or the international aspects. The note also sheds light on the regime which applies to liquids on board, to the cargo from third countries or to the financing of security measures which all give rise to recurrent significant debate.
Autori : Marc Thomas (Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies, European Parliament)
Commissioni : Trasporti e turismo
Riassunto : In recent years, the United States’ natural gas industry has undergone a significant transformation, dubbed a 'revolution': extraction rates have soared thanks to new technologies. The shale gas boom is having an unprecedented affect on the US energy market, and this, in turn, has important implications for the rest of the world, notably the Middle East and Russia. While the shale gas 'revolution' has spurred a debate on environmental consequences and sustainability within the US, other countries — including countries as diverse as Canada and China — have, in different ways, aimed to replicate the US boom. In the EU, a shale gas 'revolution' appears relatively unlikely, at least for the moment, given Europe’s less favourable geological conditions and its wary public. Nevertheless, some EU Member States rich in shale gas, such as Poland and the United Kingdom, are actively promoting shale gas exploration activities to diversify their energy mix, reduce energy dependency and enhance energy security. Other countries, such as France and Bulgaria, have for the moment chosen to privilege environmental constraints and have implemented bans. The remaining Member States seem to have adopted a 'wait-and-see' attitude. For all these states, however, the EU has an important role to play in ensuring a balanced common approach and encouraging the sustainable development of this industry while ensuring an adequate environmental protection. A recent Commission green paper on shale gas is a good initial step, although this should be followed with concrete action.
Autori : Jacopo BELLELLI supervised by Wanda TROSZCZYNSKA-VAN GENDEREN (Policy Department, Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union, European Parliament)
Commissioni : Affari esteri
Riassunto : The study analyses the role of economically dependent self-employed workers in the labour market by taking institutional factors into account, such as labour law and social protection rights. In addition to setting out the reasons for the increase of dependent self-employed workers, the authors provide case studies across various sectors of selected EU Member States. While the phenomenon of dependent self-employment is highly diverse across EU Member States, it has become increasingly important and can be regarded as part of a general trend towards increasing labour market flexibilisation.
Autori : Eichhorst, Werner (IZA, coordinator), Braga, Michela (Fondazione DeBenedetti), Famira-Mühlberger, Ulrike (WIFO), Gerard, Maarten (IDEA Consult), Horvath, Thomas (WIFO), Kahanec, Martin (CELSI), Kahancová, Marta (CELSI), Kendzia, Michael (IZA), Martišková, Monika (CELSI), Monti, Paola (Fondazione DeBenedetti), Pedersen, Jakob Louis (NIRAS), Stanley, Julian (University of Warwick), Vandeweghe, Barbara (IDEA Consult), Wehner, Caroline (IZA) and White, Caroline (University of Warwick)
Commissioni : Occupazione e affari sociali
Riassunto : This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's Impact Assessment (IA) accompanying the proposals for a Regulation on consumer product safety and for a Regulation on market surveillance for products, the ‘Product safety and market surveillance package’, submitted by the Commission on 13 February 2013. The problem in need of EU intervention is described generally as ‘the existence of unsafe and non-compliant products circulating in the internal market, indicating a failure in the functioning of the legislative framework within which the internal market operates’. This note, prepared by the Impact Assessment Unit for the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO), analyses whether the principal criteria laid down in the Commission’s own Impact Assessment Guidelines, as well as additional factors identified by the Parliament in its Impact Assessment Handbook, appear to be met by the IA. It does not attempt to deal with the substance of the proposal. It is drafted for informational and background purposes to assist the relevant parliamentary committee(s) and Members more widely in their work.
Autori : Elke Ballon
Commissioni : Valutazione d'impatto, Mercato interno e protezione dei consumatori
Riassunto : In recent years, the use of drones and other unmanned robots in warfare and other situations of violence has increased exponentially, and States continue to invest significantly into increasing the operational autonomy of such systems. The present study provides an overview of the current and likely future use of such systems and examines the relevant legal implications under human rights law, international humanitarian law and the UN Charter. The study concludes that the present sense of uncertainty as to the applicable legal standards, the rapid development and proliferation of drone and robotic technology, and the perceived lack of transparency and accountability of current policies have the potential of polarizing the international community, undermining the rule of law and, ultimately, of destabilizing the international security environment as a whole. Accordingly, the study develops the following policy recommendations for European foreign policy: 1. First, the EU should make the promotion of the rule of law in relation to the development, proliferation and use of unmanned weapons systems a declared priority of European foreign policy. 2. In parallel, the EU should launch a broad inter-governmental policy dialogue aiming to achieve international consensus: (a) on the legal standards governing the use of currently operational unmanned weapon systems, and (b) on the legal constraints and/or ethical reservations which may apply with regard to the future development, proliferation and use of increasingly autonomous weapon systems. 3. Based on the resulting international consensus, the EU should work towards the adoption of a binding international agreement, or a non-binding code of conduct, aiming to restrict the development, proliferation or use of certain unmanned weapon systems in line with the legal consensus achieved.
Autori : Nils MELZER (Geneva Centre for Security Policy - GCSP and Swiss Chair of International Humanitarian Law, Geneva Academy - ADH)
Commissioni : Diritti dell'uomo
Riassunto : With the launch of the Eastern Partnership in 2009, the EU stepped up its involvement in Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus. The offer of a closer relationship with Eastern neighbours is contingent upon partner countries converging with EU norms and standards. Effective regulatory approximation in the economic field is therefore critical to anchoring the reform process in partner countries and to fostering further progress in EU’s relations with its Eastern neighbours. Against this backdrop, this briefing paper reviews the achievements to date in regulatory approximation in the economic field in Eastern Partnership countries. Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTAs) are a vital trade instrument for building up long-term economic relationships with eastern neighbours. They are likely to have a far-reaching influence on the reform process in partner countries. However, legal approximation and implementation of approximated legislation remain key challenges. The briefing highlights five major problems hindering legal approximation in the economic field: the complexity of the acquis to be adopted; institutional coordination; implementation capacities; costs of approximation and political sensitivity in partner countries. The briefing offers recommendations to improve the EU’s approach so that DCFTAs could fulfill their potential.
Autori : Laure DELCOUR (IRIS) and Kataryna WOLCZUK (Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Birmingham)
Commissioni : Affari esteri
Riassunto : This study provides an overview of the employment situation of young and old workers in the EU Member States, setting out the most recent developments during the crisis and dealing with policies implemented to promote the employment of both groups. The evidence collected shows that there is no competition between young and older workers on the labour market. Structural or general policies to enhance the functioning of EU labour markets are crucial to improving the situation of both groups. However, the responsibility for employment policies still predominantly lies within Member States of the European Union, although initiatives taken at the EU level can provide added value, particularly through stimulating the exchange of experiences and facilitating regional and cross-border mobility throughout the EU.
Autori : Eichhorst Werner (IZA), Boeri Tito (frdb), Braga Michela (fdb), De Coen An (IDEA Consult), Galasso Vicenzo (frdb), Gerard Maarten (IDEA Consult), Kendzia Michael (IZA), Mayrhuber Christine (WIFO), Pedersen Jakob Louis (NIRAS), Schmidl Ricarda (IZA) and Steiber Nadia (WIFO)
Commissioni : Occupazione e affari sociali
Riassunto : The study analyses the strengths and weaknesses of current EU engagement in fragile states, and in particular its support to conflict prevention and periods of transition, within the broader international context. It examines the limitations of the instruments and methods implemented by the EU to address the problems of fragile states and identifies what could be done to improve them. Key weaknesses of the EU’s programmes in fragile and conflict-affected states include insufficient analysis of the root causes of fragility, ineffective early warning systems, and insufficient coordination with other international actors engaged in fragile and conflictaffected states. These challenges are not dissimilar to those experienced by other international actors. However, the EU’s performance is exacerbated by a number of factors that are specific to its organisational and resourcing arrangements. These include the internal fragmentation of policy responsibility at headquarter level, inadequate translation of policy into programming at country level and insufficient instrumental coherence. Investing in expertise in fragility and conflict-prevention has not, to date, been a priority, particularly at the operational level. The study’s main recommendation is the finalisation of the Action Plan on security, fragility and development, to mutually reinforce the EU’s objectives in development cooperation, humanitarian assistance, peacebuilding, conflict prevention and international security and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the various institutions responsible for fragility and conflict at a policy and operational level. The study also recommends convening a high-level coordination group on fragility at headquarter level to agree policies and monitor progress and devolving decision-making on integrated programming and flexible resource utilisation in fragile and conflict-affected states to Heads of Delegation.
Autori : GAVAS Mikaela (OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE, the UK), DAVIES Fiona (OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE, the UK), MCKECHNIE Alastair (OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE, the UK), BROWN Oli (CHATHAM HOUSE, the UK) and ELIZE Hefer (OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE, the UK), Coordination provided by Ecologic Institute
Commissioni : Sviluppo