Această bază de date conține documentele de cercetare elaborate de diversele servicii de cercetare ale Parlamentului European, în special studiile, analizele aprofundate și briefingurile elaborate de departamentele tematice și de Direcția pentru evaluarea impactului și valoarea adăugată europeană. Scopul acestor documente este de a sprijini activitatea diverselor organe parlamentare.
Una dintre responsabilitățile departamentelor tematice este cea de a oferi consultanță politică și de specialitate pentru a sprijini activitățile diverselor organe parlamentare, în special ale comisiilor. Pe baza analizelor efectuate în cadrul instituției sau în extern, departamentele tematice furnizează informații independente, specializate, obiective, actualizate și de înaltă calitate în toate domeniile de activitate ale Parlamentului.
Departamentele tematice furnizează analize ale politicilor într-o gamă largă de formate, cel mai adesea ca răspuns la o cerere din partea unei comisii sau delegații a Parlamentului. În această bază de date veți găsi texte de diverse tipuri, de la studii și analize aprofundate referitoare la țări sau chestiuni specifice până la briefinguri. Aceste documente scrise servesc unor scopuri diverse, ele putând fi folosite în mod direct în activitatea legislativă a unei anumite comisii sau putând servi drept briefinguri pentru delegațiile deputaților.
Direcția pentru evaluarea impactului și valoarea adăugată europeană din cadrul Serviciul de Cercetare al Parlamentului European (EPRS) desfășoară activități de cercetare cu privire la diverse aspecte ale evaluării ex ante sau ex post a legislației și politicilor UE. În această bază de date puteți găsi: analize detaliate ale studiilor de impact realizate de Comisia Europeană; studii de impact complementare sau de înlocuire; studii de impact privind amendamentele parlamentare; „evaluări ale punerii în aplicare la nivel european” privind punerea în aplicare și eficacitatea în practică a legislației și politicilor UE; rapoarte privind „costul non-Europei” în domeniile de politică în care s-ar putea obține o mai mare eficiență sau avantaje colective printr-o acțiune comună la nivel european; precum și „evaluări ale valorii adăugate la nivel european”, care explică motivele care au stat la baza redactării rapoartelor din proprie inițiativă cu caracter legislativ prezentate de comisii.
Unitatea de evaluare a opțiunilor științifice și tehnologice (STOA) analizează aspecte politice emergente în domeniile științei și tehnologiei, organizând o gamă largă de studii, ateliere și alte activități.
Rezumat : Federica Mogherini, the recently-confirmed High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy / Vice-President of the Commission, appeared before the European Parliament on 6 October 2014 to answer MEPs' questions. In that hearing and in her answers to the questionnaire prepared for the meeting, High Representative /Vice President Mogherini made a number of statements of interest to the European Parliament. This document provides a summary of her most salient points.
Autori : Wanda TROSZCZYNSKA VAN GENDEREN
Organe : Dezvoltare, Securitate şi apărare, Comerţ internaţional, Afaceri externe, Drepturile omului
Rezumat : This compilation of briefings presents the most salient points and essential commitments made by the commissioners-designate during the hearings held in September/October 2014 before the parliamentary committees. These commitments concern the main on-going legislative procedures, the preparation of future legislative proposals as well as the scrutiny of the implementation of existing legislation. They also touch upon the crucial issue of inter-institutional cooperation.
Autori : Darren NEVILLE, Fernando GARCES DE LOS FAYOS TOURNAN, Alexandre MATHIS, Marek KOŁODZIEJSKI, Pasquale DE MICCO, OTTAVIO MARZOCCHI, Celine CHATEAU, Doris KOLASSA, Frederic GOUARDERES, PRIIT OJAMAA, Laurence SMAJDA, Wanda TROSZCZYNSKA VAN GENDEREN, Purificacion TEJEDOR DEL REAL, Pietr NOVAK, Manuel MANRIQUE GIL, Miklos Laszlo GYORFFI, Annamaria FORGACS, Carine PIAGUET, Marcel MAGNUS, Dagmara STOERRING, Martin HRADISKY, Dirk VERBEKEN, Guillaume RAGONNAUD, Piero SOAVE, Judit BARNA, Mariusz MACIEJEWSKI, Manica HAUPTMAN, Jost ANGERER, Alessandro DAVOLI, Sarah Salome SY
Organe : Unitatea de asistență pentru guvernanța economică, Control bugetar, Afaceri economice şi monetare, Drepturile omului, Afaceri juridice, Drepturile femeii şi egalitatea de gen, Cultură şi educaţie, Industrie, cercetare şi energie, Bugete, Comerţ internaţional, Dezvoltare, Petiţii, Libertăţi civile, justiţie şi afaceri interne, Securitate şi apărare, Agricultură şi dezvoltare rurală, Piaţa internă şi protecţia consumatorilor, Mediu, sănătate publică şi siguranţă alimentară, Dezvoltare regională, Ocuparea forţei de muncă şi afaceri sociale, Pescuit, Transporturi şi turism, Afaceri externe, Afaceri constituţionale
Rezumat : A dangerous political crisis ignited in Afghanistan this year – just months before the International Security Assistance Force was to be replaced by a reduced US and NATO force. Both presidential candidates, Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah, alleged that the second, June round of the presidential elections had been marred by fraud. A power-sharing agreement was finally reached between President Ghani and 'CEO' Abdullah in September, following intense international pressure. The outcome has frustrated the Afghan people, whose high turnout at the poll, despite high security risks, demonstrated a real commitment to democracy. Turnout in the 2015 parliamentary elections will suggest whether voters' disappointment persists. Providing a minimum of security to the population and to international agencies will be the new government's highest priority. Violent attacks are on the rise, though government camps may disagree on whether and how to negotiate with the Taliban insurgency. Disputes about the appointments of high officials from different political and ethnic groups may also distract Ghani from one of his principal goals: fighting corruption. The European Parliament could ask the EU to reinforce its support for the new government and reiterate its call that a new EU-Afghan agreement stress democracy and human rights – particularly those of women.
Autori : Fernando GARCES DE LOS FAYOS TOURNAN
Organe : Drepturile omului, Securitate şi apărare, Afaceri externe
Rezumat : A dispute that has simmered for more than 40 years between Japan and China (and Taiwan) has flared up, bringing Beijing and Tokyo close to a potentially devastating armed confrontation. At issue is the control of small, uninhabited islands in the East China Sea, known by the Japanese as the Senkaku Islands and by the Chinese as the Diaoyu Islands. In recent years China has radically changed its approach, moving from the relatively moderate and reasonable attitude to world affairs it had adopted for decades to a very assertive foreign policy aimed at, inter alia, bolstering its military and political role in Asia and securing key strategic positions off its coastline. China has unilaterally attempted to modify the status quo in the region to conform to an old vision of Asia, in which Imperial China played a hegemonic role. With increasing frequency, China’s Communist Party has played the ‘nationalism’ card to bolster its domestic legitimacy. For its part, Japan appears unready to accept the Chinese claim over the desolate, barren archipelago, and has refused even to acknowledge the dispute’s existence. The quarrel has resuscitated nationalist sentiments in an otherwise pacifist Japan, even leading to a revision of the constitution to allow the Japanese armed forces to assist allies, and to an expansion of the country’s military cooperation with the US.
Autori : Roberto BENDINI
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Afaceri externe
Rezumat : The African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) was established by the African Union in collaboration with Africa’s Regional Economic Communities with the goal of preventing, managing and resolving conflicts on the continent. The impetus for its creation in 2001, in parallel with the African Union, was the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. The African Union's Constitutive Act allows it to intervene in a member state in grave circumstances, such as genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. Yet building the APSA has been slower than expected, and to some extent the process remains incomplete. The African Standby Force, the APSA’s military and police arm, has yet to become fully operational, and the African Union’s Peace Fund remains under-funded. As a result, the EU has become a major investor in the project. To date, EUR 740 million have been earmarked by the EU to establish the African Peace and Security Architecture and to conduct peace support operations, such as the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) and the Mission to the Central African Republic.
Autori : Ulrich KAROCK
Organe : Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : The study aims to offer a comprehensive analysis of the role of space-based capabilities in supporting the security and defence policies of the European Union and of its Member States. Moving from the description of the current and future space-based systems developed at the national, intergovernmental and European level, the study tries in first place to point out the contribution of these assets to the security initiatives undertaken in Europe. Second, it describes the roles of the actors and the functioning of the institutional framework through which these capabilities are developed and exploited for Europe's security purposes. Finally, it provides options regarding the development of space capabilities for European security which could be implemented under the current treaties and within the scope of the forthcoming Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) of the Union.
Autori : Anna C. VECLANI (Istituto Affari Internazionali - IAI, ITALY), Nicolò SARTORI (Istituto Affari Internazionali - IAI, ITALY), Emiliano Jr. BATTISTI (Istituto Affari Internazionali - IAI, ITALY), Jean Pierre DARNIS (Scientific Supervisor, Istituto Affari Internazionali - IAI, ITALY) and Elena CESCA (Research Support, Istituto Affari Internazionali - IAI, ITALY)
Organe : Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : The report 'Preparing for Complexity - The European Parliament in 2025', presented by the Secretary General of the European Parliament in January 2013, identified the core set of problematic issues in defence policy as a) duplication, b) lack of a common strategic view and c) lack of a clear vision for the future. The purpose of this paper is to develop these considerations and to focus on the benefits of greater cooperation at European level. Setting out the economic argument of the added value of Europe in defence, and the current cost to the Member States of ‘non-Europe’, can highlight the need to build on the structures, systems and under-utilised legal bases that have been put in place in recent years. Cost of Non-Europe reports examine policy areas or sectors of strategic importance where the possibilities for greater efficiency or the realisation of a 'public good' through common action at EU level are potentially significant. The case for more Europe is perhaps more compelling in defence than in almost any other policy area, given that no single Member State can achieve an optimal level of security without cooperation. The costs involved go beyond the purely economic, and include political and opportunity costs.
Autori : Maria Blanca BALLESTER MARTINEZ
Organe : Valoare adăugată europeană, Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : Proceedings of the workshop on "The Implementation of the Common Security and Defence Policy", held on 10 July 2013, in Brussels.
Autori : Anita SĘK (Marie Curie Integrated Training Network on EU External Action - EXACT, TEPSA, Brussels, Belgium)
Organe : Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : The past three summits of NATO in Strasbourg / Kehl (2009), Lisbon (2010) and Chicago (2012) have addressed rather turbulent developments in the alliance's strategic environment, requiring it to adapt to new situations faster than ever before. NATO's structures have been revised several times, and from the 16 headquarters with 20 000 staff in the 1990s only 7 will survive, with less than 9 000 staff. Territorial defence, once key element of NATO's defence posture, will mainly consist of missile and cyber defence, and - perhaps - critical infrastructure protection. So far, NATO has become much more focused on sustainable high-end operations abroad, but the perspective of more such action is rather unlikely. With the financial crisis and the concentration of the US on its security interests on their pacific coast, the European allies are required to do more for European security. Previous such attempts in the 1990s 'drowned' during the war on terror; NATO and the EU now need to emerge in a true and mutually benefiting cooperation. With the arrival of the Lisbon treaty abolishing the pillar divides between the security and defence policy and the other Union policies, the EU can play its security role thoroughly. The Treaty on European Union requires the 'progressive framing of common Union defence policy'. This process, however, is all but well underway. It is unclear if the forthcoming European Council on defence matters in December 2013 will put this issue on its strategic agenda. The model of NATO, on which the EU treaties are based since Maastricht and Amsterdam, refers to a NATO that has significantly changed since. This is why reflecting on this matter becomes more important than ever before.
Autori : Ulrich KAROCK
Organe : Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : In 2007 the EU member states inaugurated a European Defence Technological and Industrial Base strategy. The gradual integration of national DTIB should lead to selfsufficiency for security of supply – but on a European rather than national level. A better co-ordinated, less duplicative defence landscape was to emerge, to better serve the political objectives of European defence. Six years on, with the European Council on defence scheduled for later this year, this is the right time to define where EDTIB stands today and what added value can EU institutions offer to sustain and develop it. The current state and the long-term trend of the defence policies and industrial activities make the materialisation of the current vision of the EDTIB increasingly improbable. The joint political vision has lost contact with the individual political and industrial reality of the growing export orientation of European suppliers. In addition, security of supply depends ever more on the influx of civilian and defence goods as well as raw materials from beyond Europe’s borders. The EDTIB is trapped between the national and global developments. New solutions have to be added to the already existing recommendations. A key step would be a revision of the 2007 EDTIB Strategy.
Autori : Valerio BRIANI (Istituto Affari Internazionali - IAI, Italy), Alessandro MARRONE (Istituto Affari Internazionali - IAI, Italy), Christian MÖLLING (lead , German Institute for International and Security Affairs - SWP, Germany) and Tomas VALASEK (Central European Policy Institute - CEPI, Slovakia)
Organe : Securitate şi apărare