Această bază de date conține documentele de cercetare elaborate de diversele servicii de cercetare ale Parlamentului European, în special studiile, analizele aprofundate și briefingurile elaborate de departamentele tematice, de Unitatea de asistență pentru guvernanța economică și de Direcția pentru evaluarea impactului și valoarea adăugată europeană. Scopul acestor documente este de a sprijini activitatea diferitelor organisme parlamentare.
Una dintre responsabilitățile departamentelor tematice este cea de a oferi consultanță politică și de specialitate pentru a sprijini activitățile diverselor organe parlamentare, în special ale comisiilor. Pe baza analizelor efectuate în cadrul instituției sau în extern, departamentele tematice furnizează informații independente, specializate, obiective, actualizate și de înaltă calitate în toate domeniile de activitate ale Parlamentului.
Departamentele tematice furnizează analize ale politicilor într-o gamă largă de formate, cel mai adesea ca răspuns la o cerere din partea unei comisii sau delegații a Parlamentului. În această bază de date veți găsi texte de diverse tipuri, de la studii și analize aprofundate referitoare la țări sau chestiuni specifice până la briefinguri. Aceste documente scrise servesc unor scopuri diverse, ele putând fi folosite în mod direct în activitatea legislativă a unei anumite comisii sau putând servi drept briefinguri pentru delegațiile deputaților.
Unitatea de asistență pentru guvernanța economică furnizează briefinguri pentru dialogurile economice și audierile în materie de responsabilitate organizate de comisia competentă din cadrul Parlamentului. Pe lângă aceasta, ea redactează periodic documente și tabele de referință în domeniu.
Direcția pentru evaluarea impactului și valoarea adăugată europeană din cadrul Serviciul de Cercetare al Parlamentului European (EPRS) desfășoară activități de cercetare cu privire la diverse aspecte ale evaluării ex ante sau ex post a legislației și politicilor UE. În această bază de date puteți găsi: analize detaliate ale studiilor de impact realizate de Comisia Europeană; evaluări ale impactului complementare sau înlocuitoare; evaluări ale impactului privind amendamentele parlamentare; „evaluări ale punerii în aplicare la nivel european” privind punerea în aplicare și eficacitatea legislației și politicilor UE în practică; rapoarte privind „costul non-Europei” în domeniile de politică în care s-ar putea obține o mai mare eficiență sau avantaje colective printr-o acțiune comună la nivel european; precum și „evaluări ale valorii adăugate la nivel european”, care explică motivele care au stat la baza redactării rapoartelor din proprie inițiativă cu caracter legislativ prezentate de comisii.
Unitatea de prospectivă științifică (STOA) efectuează cercetări interdisciplinare și furnizează consiliere strategică în domeniul evaluării opțiunilor științifice și tehnologice și al prospectivei științifice. STOA efectuează studii aprofundate și organizează ateliere privind evoluțiile înregistrate în aceste domenii, sub îndrumarea Grupului STOA format din 24 deputați în Parlamentul European.
Rezumat : The latest response to the situation of refugees in the European Union is the "European Agenda on Migration", which aims to strengthen the common migration and asylum policy. This leaflet provides extracts from relevant supporting analyses prepared by European Parliament’s policy departments for different EP's committees.
Organe : Control bugetar, Libertăţi civile, justiţie şi afaceri interne, Bugete, Drepturile femeii şi egalitatea de gen, Dezvoltare, Ocuparea forţei de muncă şi afaceri sociale, Drepturile omului, Afaceri externe, Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : There is an increasing demand for the EU to become a ‘Security Provider’. This demand comes from Europe’s best ally, namely the U.S., but also from Member States themselves. For the first time ever the defence solidarity clause of article 42.7 of the Treaty on European Union was invoked in November 2015. Ultimately the demand to put ‘more defence in the Union’ comes from European citizens who wonder why Europe does not protect them in the current turmoil. From the answer to this question depends not only Europe’s ‘strategic autonomy’, but possibly the future of the whole European project. Several steps have already been initiated to answer the call for more defence in Europe. Since the beginning of his mandate, President Juncker has declared defence a ‘priority’, called for the implementation of the Permanent Structured Cooperation enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty and reiterated the long term vision of a ’European army’. In June 2016, a ‘global strategy’ will be issued and a Commission Defence Action Plan should follow by the end of 2016. A ‘Pilot Project’, adopted by the European Parliament in autumn 2014, has been launched and should open the path to a ‘Preparatory Action on Defence Research’ that may be voted in 2016 for the 2017-2020 budgets. A natural underpinning of those efforts should be the undertaking of a full-fledged Union programme in defence research. The size, the shape and the steps to be taken towards setting it up are the subject of the present report.
Autori : Frédéric MAURO and Klaus THOMA
Organe : Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : The 2007 European Union (EU) Strategy for Central Asia was reviewed for the fourth time in 2015. Over the last eight years, the EU has successfully established several institutionalised mechanisms for strengthening relations and working with Central Asian governments, including an increased presence on the ground. Despite this, the EU’s engagement in Central Asia is one of limited to no impact. The region has become more unstable; forecast gas deliveries from the region to Europe have so far not materialised; trade is minimal with the exception of EU-Kazakhstan links, democracy is seen by the Central Asian regimes as a threat to their survival; corruption severely undermines economic development and siphons off much of the development aid; and the human rights situation has been backsliding. The EU should not and cannot compete with Russia and China in the region. The EU would do best to focus on a few key areas where it can achieve concrete results. Besides broader economic and some security cooperation, the EU should focus on education in supporting the region’s development while further emphasizing human rights and strengthening political and financial support to civil society.
Autori : Jos BOONSTRA (FRIDE, Spain) and Tika TSERTSVADZE (International Partnership for Human Rights, Belgium)
Organe : Drepturile omului, Afaceri externe, Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : Central Asia, located at the centre of the Eurasian continent and straddling the borders of some of the world’s most pressing hot spots, offers economic opportunities and natural resources but also remains insecure and troublesome. For the European Union, the region is not a priority. It is too distant and Brussels experiences difficulties in executing its democratic and value-based agenda on the ground. Regional dynamics have been significantly influenced by many players present in the region; Russia, China and the United States are the most significant. Russia’s position relies on a holistic approach, including military might and the more recent Eurasian narrative. China, pursuing its Silk Road ideas, has no equal in trade and energy. The US has partially retreated from Central Asia and is reviewing its security-centered strategy. Under these circumstances, what should the EU regional approach look like? What are the shared interests and divergent objectives of the actors present in Central Asia? With what actors could the EU cooperate and with whom should it abstain from regional rapprochement? Finally, what options does the EU have to strengthen its posture in the region from a regional and geopolitical perspective?
Autori : Michal ROMANOWSKI (German Marshall Fund of the United States, Poland, in association with PASOS - Policy Association for Open Society, Czech Republic)
Organe : Drepturile omului, Afaceri externe, Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Libertăţi civile, justiţie şi afaceri interne, Afaceri externe, Mediu, sănătate publică şi siguranţă alimentară, Transporturi şi turism, Control bugetar
Rezumat : Following the terrorist attacks of 13 November 2015 in Paris, the 'mutual defence/assistance clause' of the Treaty of Lisbon (article 42.7 TEU) was invoked for the first time by an EU Member State. This tool is a 'reactive', intergovernmental instrument. Devoid of specific implementation arrangements, the text foresees no explicit role for EU institutions. As a result, any Member State invoking the clause maintains a wide margin of manoeuvre for pursuing bilateral discussions with partners, who are at once bound to assist and free to decide the type and scope of their assistance. Article 42.7 was not the only clause France could have invoked to ask for assistance, but it was the least constraining. At a time when the country's financial and military capabilities are increasingly stretched, the simpler clause was a logical choice Beyond the immediate consequences – Member States' unanimous political support and bilateral discussions on assistance – the act is likely to affect the wider debate about the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). The Union's strategic thinking (including on the future 'EU global Strategy for Foreign and Security Policy') and developments may be influenced by the inauguration, with a renewed focus on preparedness, pooling and sharing of capabilities, and the EU's 'comprehensive approach' to crises. The European Parliament has long supported mutual assistance in cases of crises. With its oversight role (in particular based on Article 36 TEU) and role in coordinating with national parliaments, the Parliament could stimulate and take part in debates on the EU's role in multidimensional and transnational crises. Such debates can contribute to an evaluation of Article 42.7 and potentially improve the EU’s security 'toolbox'.
Autori : Jérôme LEGRAND
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Afaceri externe
Rezumat : Focusing on the support of non-CSDP policies for CSDP measures, both in the field of crisis management and defence, this study submits that CSDP cannot effectively contribute to EU external action by itself, but only in coherence with other EU policies and instruments. The study focuses on nine different issue areas of the EU which are of particular interest in the context of CSDP: European Neighbourhood Policy, development cooperation, internal policies and financing instruments in the context of the EU’s international crisis management, as well as innovation policies, industrial policies, regional policy, trade policy and space policy in the context of the EU’s defence policy. The study builds on existing evidence of synergising effects of CSDP and other non-CSDP policies and points to the potential impact which the closer interplay of CSDP and non-CSDP policies could have. Focusing on policy adaptation as well as institutional cooperation of EU actors in each of the policy relationships, the study provides a comprehensive overview of the linkage between CSDP and each of the respective policies and draws a large set of tailor-made recommendations in the field.
Autori : Kolja RAUBE (University of Leuven, Belgium), Jan WOUTERS (University of Leuven, Belgium), Federica BICCHI (London School of Economics, United Kingdom), Philip DE MAN (University of Leuven, Belgium), Daniel FIOTT (Free University of Brussels, Belgium), Damien HELLY (European Centre for Development Policy Management, the Netherlands), Christian KAUNERT (University of Dundee, United Kingdom), Chantal LAVALLEE (University of Dundee, United Kingdom), Jocelyn MAWDSLEY (University of Nottingham, United Kingdom) and Licinia SIMAO (University of Coimbra, Portugal)
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Afaceri externe
Rezumat : Although EU Regulation 428/2009 setting up a Community regime for the control of exports, transfer, brokering and transit of dual-use items system is in line with the main export control regimes and is seen as a model for others to follow, there are a number of ways in which the regulation could be enhanced and refined. Part One outlines the current state of play, purpose and implementation of the current regulation. In Part Two, against the backdrop of the European Commission's reform proposal, the effectiveness of the EU's dual-use export controls regime is explored further with regard to its potential contribution to international, national and human security, as well as their impact on EU economic and trade interests. The study concludes that the system’s effectiveness could be improved in a number of ways, but that this requires an effort to mobilise political will at different levels and across different institutions within the EU and its Member States, and to enhance human resources, cooperation and capacity-building. The European Parliament should also give consideration on a regular basis to issues relating to the scope and implementation of the regulation, in order to ensure that the objectives continue to be achieved.
Autori : Ian J. STEWART, King’s College London and Sibylle BAUER, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
Organe : Libertăţi civile, justiţie şi afaceri interne, Securitate şi apărare, Industrie, cercetare şi energie, Drepturile omului, Afaceri juridice, Comerţ internaţional
Rezumat : Since the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force in December 2009, major efforts have been made to implement the new institutional set-up it created: the EU has acquired legal personality, the post of Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy has been created, the European External Action Service has been operationalised, and the EU Delegations around the world have boosted the EU’s presence and increased diplomatic and policy outreach. The European Parliament has also acquired a greater role thanks to the Lisbon Treaty, particularly in the fields of foreign policy oversight and budgetary scrutiny. Nevertheless, many provisions of the Lisbon Treaty, designed to provide a boost to foreign, security and defence policies, remain non-implemented owing to a lack of political support stemming from the fears of some EU Member States of the creation of a ‘two-speed Europe’ and loss of control over these fields in favour of the EU institutions.
Autori : Wanda TROSZCZYNSKA VAN GENDEREN
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Afaceri externe
Rezumat : On 16 July 2015, the Lower House of Japan’s Diet (the House of Representatives) approved a controversial package significantly reducing barriers to the deployment of Japanese defence forces overseas. This is the most significant change to have been made to Japan’s security and defence policy since World War II. The reforms promoted by Prime Minister Abe represent a fundamental shift in Japan’s foreign and security policy since WWII. Abe’s reforms are the logical consequence of a process of revision started more than twenty years ago with the end of the Cold War and later fuelled by the need to contest and contain the rising of China as a regional and global power. These reforms, including the reinterpretation of Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, have been undertaken in a context of constantly shifting regional balance in the Asia-Pacific region, where Japan has been increasingly threatened by both China and North Korea. This has prompted a significant upgrade in relations with the US and may pave the way for a new phase of Japanese foreign policy, but also has a negative impact on Japan’s already lukewarm relations with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Koreas.
Autori : Roberto BENDINI
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Piaţa internă şi protecţia consumatorilor, Afaceri externe