Această bază de date conține documentele de cercetare elaborate de diversele servicii de cercetare ale Parlamentului European, în special studiile, analizele aprofundate și briefingurile elaborate de departamentele tematice, de Unitatea de asistență pentru guvernanța economică și de Direcția pentru evaluarea impactului și valoarea adăugată europeană. Scopul acestor documente este de a sprijini activitatea diferitelor organisme parlamentare.
Una dintre responsabilitățile departamentelor tematice este cea de a oferi consultanță politică și de specialitate pentru a sprijini activitățile diverselor organe parlamentare, în special ale comisiilor. Pe baza analizelor efectuate în cadrul instituției sau în extern, departamentele tematice furnizează informații independente, specializate, obiective, actualizate și de înaltă calitate în toate domeniile de activitate ale Parlamentului.
Departamentele tematice furnizează analize ale politicilor într-o gamă largă de formate, cel mai adesea ca răspuns la o cerere din partea unei comisii sau delegații a Parlamentului. În această bază de date veți găsi texte de diverse tipuri, de la studii și analize aprofundate referitoare la țări sau chestiuni specifice până la briefinguri. Aceste documente scrise servesc unor scopuri diverse, ele putând fi folosite în mod direct în activitatea legislativă a unei anumite comisii sau putând servi drept briefinguri pentru delegațiile deputaților.
Unitatea de asistență pentru guvernanța economică furnizează briefinguri pentru dialogurile economice și audierile în materie de responsabilitate organizate de comisia competentă din cadrul Parlamentului. Pe lângă aceasta, ea redactează periodic documente și tabele de referință în domeniu.
Direcția pentru evaluarea impactului și valoarea adăugată europeană din cadrul Serviciul de Cercetare al Parlamentului European (EPRS) desfășoară activități de cercetare cu privire la diverse aspecte ale evaluării ex ante sau ex post a legislației și politicilor UE. În această bază de date puteți găsi: analize detaliate ale studiilor de impact realizate de Comisia Europeană; evaluări ale impactului complementare sau înlocuitoare; evaluări ale impactului privind amendamentele parlamentare; „evaluări ale punerii în aplicare la nivel european” privind punerea în aplicare și eficacitatea legislației și politicilor UE în practică; rapoarte privind „costul non-Europei” în domeniile de politică în care s-ar putea obține o mai mare eficiență sau avantaje colective printr-o acțiune comună la nivel european; precum și „evaluări ale valorii adăugate la nivel european”, care explică motivele care au stat la baza redactării rapoartelor din proprie inițiativă cu caracter legislativ prezentate de comisii.
Unitatea de prospectivă științifică (STOA) efectuează cercetări interdisciplinare și furnizează consiliere strategică în domeniul evaluării opțiunilor științifice și tehnologice și al prospectivei științifice. STOA efectuează studii aprofundate și organizează ateliere privind evoluțiile înregistrate în aceste domenii, sub îndrumarea Grupului STOA format din 15 deputați în Parlamentul European.
Rezumat : On 16 July 2015, the Lower House of Japan’s Diet (the House of Representatives) approved a controversial package significantly reducing barriers to the deployment of Japanese defence forces overseas. This is the most significant change to have been made to Japan’s security and defence policy since World War II. The reforms promoted by Prime Minister Abe represent a fundamental shift in Japan’s foreign and security policy since WWII. Abe’s reforms are the logical consequence of a process of revision started more than twenty years ago with the end of the Cold War and later fuelled by the need to contest and contain the rising of China as a regional and global power. These reforms, including the reinterpretation of Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, have been undertaken in a context of constantly shifting regional balance in the Asia-Pacific region, where Japan has been increasingly threatened by both China and North Korea. This has prompted a significant upgrade in relations with the US and may pave the way for a new phase of Japanese foreign policy, but also has a negative impact on Japan’s already lukewarm relations with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Koreas.
Autori : Roberto BENDINI
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Piaţa internă şi protecţia consumatorilor, Afaceri externe
Rezumat : This study provides an overview of China’s current approach to foreign policy and external relations. It focuses more particularly on the role and actions of China in global governance, its territorial claims and relations with countries in Asia, and its emergence as an important actor in Central and Eastern Europe as well as in the EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood. It assesses the implications for the EU and makes recommendations on how the EU should deepen its strategic partnership with China. The study argues that China has not made a unilateral and exclusive turn towards assertiveness in its foreign policy. China’s foreign policy assertiveness represents a policy choice that should be understood in the broader context of its external relations, which is one of uncertainty. Both the impact of China’s emergence in international affairs and the use China intends to make of its power and influence remain uncertain. This uncertainty is explained by the interdependence between a number of international and domestic factors as well as by the absence of a grand strategy. The uncertainty in China’s foreign policy opens avenues for the EU to influence China and further deepen the scope of the EU-China Strategic Partnership.
Autori : Matthieu BURNAY, Kolja RAUBE and Jan WOUTERS
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Comerţ internaţional, Afaceri externe
Rezumat : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Libertăţi civile, justiţie şi afaceri interne, Afaceri externe, Bugete, Control bugetar, Drepturile femeii şi egalitatea de gen, Agricultură şi dezvoltare rurală, Afaceri economice şi monetare, Dezvoltare, Drepturile omului
Rezumat : The Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of China have enjoyed long-lasting and friendly ties – despite their ideological differences, evident in their very names. The two share far more than a 520 kilometre border, as underscored by the April 2015 visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to Pakistan. On that trip – his first trip abroad in 2015 – Xi announced a EUR 41.30-billion commitment to building a multi-faceted network called the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). The CPEC can be understood as part of China's 'pivot to Asia' and plays a role in Beijing's broader 'One Belt One Road' initiative. If completed, the CPEC has the potential to fundamentally alter South Asia's economy and geopolitics.
Autori : Laurence VANDEWALLE
Organe : Afaceri externe, Securitate şi apărare, Drepturile omului, Dezvoltare, Comerţ internaţional
Rezumat : The EU-India strategic partnership has lost momentum. Bilateral ties are not receiving sufficient priority from both sides. Economics remains at the core of this relationship. Since negotiations on the Broad-based Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA) may take time to be concluded, EU-India ties should not be held hostage to developments at BTIA level. On defence and security matters, India deals with EU Member States directly and has a good framework for cooperation with major European powers. The recent Indian decision to buy Rafale jets from France will also have long-term implications for EU-India links. Unlike its partnerships with the US and Russia, India has yet to discover the relevance of EU-India relations within evolving Asian security and economic architecture. Growing Indo-American relations and the close transatlantic partnership could provide new opportunities to work together. Collaboration in research and innovation has expanded significantly and dialogues on global governance, energy, counter-terrorism, migration and mobility as well as human rights all show great potential. New dialogues could be initiated on Afghanistan, maritime security, development cooperation and the Middle-East. Indian engagement in resolving the Ukraine crisis could be explored.
Autori : Gulshan SACHDEVA (Centre for European Studies, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India)
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Comerţ internaţional, Afaceri externe
Rezumat : The World Humanitarian Summit (WHS) in May 2016 will be the culmination of a global consultation process. The three-year initiative responds to the need to adapt the humanitarian system in order to make humanitarian action more efficient and effective in keeping pace with the rapidly changing context of emergencies. Consultations leading up to the Summit have provided the opportunity to gain perspectives from different regions of the world. As a result, three main priorities have been highlighted: the need for humanitarians to protect and preserve the dignity of people affected by conflict and disaster; a call to find innovative and sustainable ways of meeting people's needs; and a demand from the global South to 'localise' humanitarian response by strengthening local, national and regional capacities to prevent, manage and respond to crisis. There is potential for the European Union (EU) to take a leadership role in the process and influence the WHS outcome. ECHO´s new need assessment tools and the Linking Relief Rehabilitation and Development (LRRD) as well as Resilience approaches offer a framework for responding to the challenges posed by protracted crises. This study recommends that the European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid should be applied as a model for a 'Global Consensus on Humanitarian Action' or a 'Global Compact' recognising the diversity of today's humanitarian response system while taking advantage of all actors' complementary role. Furthermore, the EU and member states must commit to placing protection at the centre of humanitarian action and ensure that the EU´s humanitarian aid is not regarded as a crisis management tool, and allowed to become an instrument of its foreign policy.
Autori : Cristina Churruca Muguruza (Institute of Human Rights, University of Deusto, NOHA Network of Universities in Humanitarian Action, Spain)
Organe : Afaceri externe, Securitate şi apărare, Drepturile omului, Dezvoltare
Rezumat : This study examines the state of 'Pooling and Sharing' (P&S) at EU and Member State (MS) level. Instead of the demanded change in mindset, we witness another episode in the traditional struggle to make classic defence cooperation work. The marginal results of P&S are not yet adequate to the size of problems. The cooperation initiative misses definitions of success, useful models of cooperation and a permanent monitoring of opportunities and capabilities. MS make progress at a snail’s pace: many projects kicked off in the first phase of P&S are still in their early stages and thus do not deliver capabilities. At the same time, Member States paralyse efforts of the EDA. NATO has not performed much better. This underlines that the core of the problem remains the sovereignty question within Member States. The developments have to be seen against the simultaneous evolution of the European defence landscape: budgets and capabilities have been cut further. Member States have lost time and money but most importantly, they have also lost many options to safeguard capabilities through pooling or sharing. The European Parliament should encourage first, a new politico-military flagship project around which defence can be organised, second, an efficiency perspective towards spending and procuring capabilities; third, the discussion on the future of sovereignty in defence; and fourth, a European Defence Review that offers a sober assessment of the current and future European defence landscape, including the opportunities for cooperation. This would enable a public debate on Europe with or without defence.
Autori : Christian MÖLLING
Organe : Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : The 7-8 June 2015 Group of Seven (G7) summit in Schloss Elmau (Germany) marked the second meeting of seven leading industrialised nations without Russia since the disbanding of the Group of Eight (G8). The group's smaller configuration – a response to Russia's illegal annexation of Crimea – appears here to stay. The summit provided an opportunity for G7 leaders to discuss a number of topics pertaining to foreign policy, economy, health, energy, climate and sustainable development. Ukraine and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) featured prominently on the meeting’s agenda, as did discussions on to the post-2015 development and climate agendas. The revival of the G7 has served to ensure its members' unity on key policy files, shape joint policy responses and influence EU policies and global governance, particularly through its nexus with the Group of 20 (G20), the United Nations and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The German presidency of G7 has been praised its inclusive approach ahead of the summit, with consultations conducted with non-governmental stakeholders.
Autori : Wanda TROSZCZYNSKA VAN GENDEREN
Organe : Afaceri externe, Securitate şi apărare, Drepturile omului, Comerţ internaţional, Dezvoltare
Rezumat : As work on a new European Security Strategy begins, this briefing examines the impact of changes in the security environment of Europe. It argues in favour of an ambitious new security strategy which, twelve years after the adoption of the 2003 European Security Strategy, is most needed in a degraded security environment. It looks back at the process and content of that document and identifies its successes environment since 2003. Mapping those changes, the report points at new threats and challenges and the changing nature of conflict. It also focuses on the and North Africa, which have challenged the assessment that Europe is not facing threats on its borders. The briefing presents an assessment of the changes in the institutional and political architecture of the EU in the post-Lisbon context, which is significantly different from the 2003 institutional environment. It emphasises the multiple tools the EU is using to develop its security policy. Finally, the briefing provides some recommendations for the process and the substance of the starting strategic review and future strategy.
Autori : Ian ANTHONY (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Sweden), Camille GRAND (Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, France) and Patricia LEWIS (Chatham House, United Kingdom)
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Afaceri externe
Rezumat : In the post-Cold War international system, new actors, including parliaments, emerge and they challenge the traditional dominance by governments of international relations and foreign policy. In democratic societies it is increasingly difficult to sustain the traditional notion that foreign policy is incompatible with democratic decision-making and scrutiny and that state sovereignty in this domain is the exclusive, unquestionable competence of governments, as the perceived sole representative of the state. As the core institution of democracy and elected representatives, parliaments are increasingly expected to contribute to resolving complex foreign policy and international issues which are impacting more and more directly on citizens’ lives by discussing diverse views on strategic direction and policy priorities, by legitimising complex policies and initiatives and by building up public trust (and support) on complex issues in a way that is comprehensible to citizens. The paper examines the role and functions of parliaments in shaping and controlling foreign policy, also by discussing some case studies (US, German, British and French). It reflects particularly on the gradual parliamentarisation of Member State-dominated EU foreign policy. It analyses the nature of the European Parliament’s actorhood in international relations, the EP’s emerging role in EU foreign policy as well as the tools and powers available to exert influence on the Union’s decisions and relations. It finally concludes that EU foreign policy can become efficient and democratic at the same time in the process of building an EU 'representative democracy'.
Autori : PETER BAJTAY
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Drepturile omului, Dezvoltare, Afaceri externe