Această bază de date conține documentele de cercetare elaborate de diversele servicii de cercetare ale Parlamentului European, în special studiile, analizele aprofundate și briefingurile elaborate de departamentele tematice, de Unitatea de asistență pentru guvernanța economică și de Direcția pentru evaluarea impactului și valoarea adăugată europeană. Scopul acestor documente este de a sprijini activitatea diferitelor organisme parlamentare.
Una dintre responsabilitățile departamentelor tematice este cea de a oferi consultanță politică și de specialitate pentru a sprijini activitățile diverselor organe parlamentare, în special ale comisiilor. Pe baza analizelor efectuate în cadrul instituției sau în extern, departamentele tematice furnizează informații independente, specializate, obiective, actualizate și de înaltă calitate în toate domeniile de activitate ale Parlamentului.
Departamentele tematice furnizează analize ale politicilor într-o gamă largă de formate, cel mai adesea ca răspuns la o cerere din partea unei comisii sau delegații a Parlamentului. În această bază de date veți găsi texte de diverse tipuri, de la studii și analize aprofundate referitoare la țări sau chestiuni specifice până la briefinguri. Aceste documente scrise servesc unor scopuri diverse, ele putând fi folosite în mod direct în activitatea legislativă a unei anumite comisii sau putând servi drept briefinguri pentru delegațiile deputaților.
Unitatea de asistență pentru guvernanța economică furnizează briefinguri pentru dialogurile economice și audierile în materie de responsabilitate organizate de comisia competentă din cadrul Parlamentului. Pe lângă aceasta, ea redactează periodic documente și tabele de referință în domeniu.
Direcția pentru evaluarea impactului și valoarea adăugată europeană din cadrul Serviciul de Cercetare al Parlamentului European (EPRS) desfășoară activități de cercetare cu privire la diverse aspecte ale evaluării ex ante sau ex post a legislației și politicilor UE. În această bază de date puteți găsi: analize detaliate ale studiilor de impact realizate de Comisia Europeană; evaluări ale impactului complementare sau înlocuitoare; evaluări ale impactului privind amendamentele parlamentare; „evaluări ale punerii în aplicare la nivel european” privind punerea în aplicare și eficacitatea legislației și politicilor UE în practică; rapoarte privind „costul non-Europei” în domeniile de politică în care s-ar putea obține o mai mare eficiență sau avantaje colective printr-o acțiune comună la nivel european; precum și „evaluări ale valorii adăugate la nivel european”, care explică motivele care au stat la baza redactării rapoartelor din proprie inițiativă cu caracter legislativ prezentate de comisii.
Unitatea de prospectivă științifică (STOA) efectuează cercetări interdisciplinare și furnizează consiliere strategică în domeniul evaluării opțiunilor științifice și tehnologice și al prospectivei științifice. STOA efectuează studii aprofundate și organizează ateliere privind evoluțiile înregistrate în aceste domenii, sub îndrumarea Grupului STOA format din 24 deputați în Parlamentul European.
Rezumat : EU Arctic policy has evolved significantly in recent years, culminating in the April 2016 Joint Communication from the European Commission and the HRVP for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Communication focuses on the environment and climate change, sustainable development, and peaceful international cooperation, with overarching support for scientific research. This coincides with most of the priorities of the EU’s Arctic Member States, Denmark, Finland and Sweden. The Communication does not focus on security issues or on hydrocarbon development. Arctic oil and gas are not the primary keys to EU energy security, but do play a role, and are important for the EU’s two main suppliers, Norway and Russia – sustainable management of these resources is in the EU’s interest. While the region has been a model for cooperation – Arctic collaboration with Russia continues via multiple mechanisms, despite wider tensions. That it will remain so cannot be taken for granted. The EU supports peaceful Arctic cooperation via multiple mechanisms, including the Arctic Council, the Barents-Euro Arctic Council, and via multiple cross-border collaboration platforms. As the EU becomes increasingly engaged in Arctic issues, continued focus on policy coherence, engagement with other Arctic stakeholders, and the priorities of the region’s citizens will be essential.
Autori : Gerald STANG (European Union Institute for Security Studies)
Organe : Drepturile omului, Securitate şi apărare, Dezvoltare, Afaceri externe
Rezumat : This report outlines the potential for a more structured and strategic relationship between the European Union and the Islamic Republic of Iran following the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). To both address areas of disagreement and complaints, as well as pursue common interests and matters of mutual benefit, the EU needs to put in place an institutional framework that can withstand the various setbacks that have, to date, derailed all previous efforts of political dialogue. There are a number of areas where both actors can benefit from cooperation; trade, environmental and sustainability issues, education, and combatting drug trade. Even when pursuing more contentious issues such as human rights, having a strategic and fully-fledged multilevel relationship will be helpful. There are also a number of political crisis in the region (ISIS, migration) where reaching a solution without Iranian involvement will either be unnecessarily costly or near impossible.
Autori : Rouzbeh PARSI (European Iran Research Group, Lund University, Sweden)
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Afaceri externe
Rezumat : The Korean Workers’ Party (KWP) held its Seventh Congress, the first since 1980, from 6 to 9 May 2016. In theory, the Congress is the highest deliberative body of the only governing party of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The Congress yielded relatively modest results, with no real breakthrough, apart from establishing the 'defensive' nuclear deterrence concept. Kim Jong-un’s position as North Korea's supreme leader was fully formalised and now seems to be stronger than ever. The Party is likely to gain further power at the expense of the military. Nuclear deterrence is now firmly enshrined in the Party's statutes as well as the country’s constitution. Pyongyang has made clear that no nuclear deal is possible unless the US and its allies accept North Korea as a 'nuclear state'. Despite its propaganda announcements, North Korea is not ready to modernise its sclerotic economy. While some cautious developments cannot be ruled out, the regime's open criticism of the Chinese economic model suggest that any reforms would be limited and very probably inconclusive.
Autori : Roberto BENDINI
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Afaceri externe, Drepturile omului
Rezumat : Emanating from Russia in the east and the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in the south, the EU has been increasingly hit by destabilising messages amounting – in different forms and to different degrees – to coherent hostile ‘strategic communications’ campaigns, or the processes of infusing communications activities with an agenda or plan to impact the behaviour of a target audience. Both Russia and ISIL have engaged in aggressive messaging and deceptive media campaigns, albeit with distinct narratives, targets and audiences. This paper analyses the ‘what’ and the ‘how’: the respective narratives of each actor, their specificities, their similarities and their differences. The analysis also draws attention to strategic communications efforts undertaken by the EU, which are vectored into defensive (react and respond) and offensive (probe and push) dimensions. This understanding of the present context finally allows for an evaluation of what actions can be taken to enhance the effectiveness of the EU’s own strategic communications.
Autori : European Union Institute for Security Studies - EUISS, France
Organe : Afaceri externe, Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : This study proposes a process, framed in the Lisbon Treaty, for the EU to produce a White Book (WB) on European defence. Based on document reviews and expert interviewing, this study details the core elements of a future EU Defence White Book: strategic objectives, necessary capabilities development, specific programs and measures aimed at achieving the improved capabilities, and the process and drafting team of a future European WB. The study synthesizes concrete proposals for each European institution, chief among which is calling on the European Council to entrust the High Representative with the drafting of the White Book.
Autori : Javier SOLANA (ESADE Center for Global Economy and Geopolitics, Spain), Angel SAZ-CARRANZA (ESADE Center for Global Economy and Geopolitics, Spain), María GARCÍA CASAS (ESADE Center for Global Economy and Geopolitics, Spain) and Jose Francisco ESTÉBANEZ GÓMEZ (ESADE Center for Global Economy and Geopolitics, Spain)
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Afaceri externe
Rezumat : The latest response to the situation of refugees in the European Union is the "European Agenda on Migration", which aims to strengthen the common migration and asylum policy. This leaflet provides extracts from relevant supporting analyses prepared by European Parliament’s policy departments for different EP's committees.
Organe : Control bugetar, Libertăţi civile, justiţie şi afaceri interne, Bugete, Drepturile femeii şi egalitatea de gen, Dezvoltare, Ocuparea forţei de muncă şi afaceri sociale, Drepturile omului, Afaceri externe, Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : There is an increasing demand for the EU to become a ‘Security Provider’. This demand comes from Europe’s best ally, namely the U.S., but also from Member States themselves. For the first time ever the defence solidarity clause of article 42.7 of the Treaty on European Union was invoked in November 2015. Ultimately the demand to put ‘more defence in the Union’ comes from European citizens who wonder why Europe does not protect them in the current turmoil. From the answer to this question depends not only Europe’s ‘strategic autonomy’, but possibly the future of the whole European project. Several steps have already been initiated to answer the call for more defence in Europe. Since the beginning of his mandate, President Juncker has declared defence a ‘priority’, called for the implementation of the Permanent Structured Cooperation enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty and reiterated the long term vision of a ’European army’. In June 2016, a ‘global strategy’ will be issued and a Commission Defence Action Plan should follow by the end of 2016. A ‘Pilot Project’, adopted by the European Parliament in autumn 2014, has been launched and should open the path to a ‘Preparatory Action on Defence Research’ that may be voted in 2016 for the 2017-2020 budgets. A natural underpinning of those efforts should be the undertaking of a full-fledged Union programme in defence research. The size, the shape and the steps to be taken towards setting it up are the subject of the present report.
Autori : Frédéric MAURO and Klaus THOMA
Organe : Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : The 2007 European Union (EU) Strategy for Central Asia was reviewed for the fourth time in 2015. Over the last eight years, the EU has successfully established several institutionalised mechanisms for strengthening relations and working with Central Asian governments, including an increased presence on the ground. Despite this, the EU’s engagement in Central Asia is one of limited to no impact. The region has become more unstable; forecast gas deliveries from the region to Europe have so far not materialised; trade is minimal with the exception of EU-Kazakhstan links, democracy is seen by the Central Asian regimes as a threat to their survival; corruption severely undermines economic development and siphons off much of the development aid; and the human rights situation has been backsliding. The EU should not and cannot compete with Russia and China in the region. The EU would do best to focus on a few key areas where it can achieve concrete results. Besides broader economic and some security cooperation, the EU should focus on education in supporting the region’s development while further emphasizing human rights and strengthening political and financial support to civil society.
Autori : Jos BOONSTRA (FRIDE, Spain) and Tika TSERTSVADZE (International Partnership for Human Rights, Belgium)
Organe : Drepturile omului, Afaceri externe, Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : Central Asia, located at the centre of the Eurasian continent and straddling the borders of some of the world’s most pressing hot spots, offers economic opportunities and natural resources but also remains insecure and troublesome. For the European Union, the region is not a priority. It is too distant and Brussels experiences difficulties in executing its democratic and value-based agenda on the ground. Regional dynamics have been significantly influenced by many players present in the region; Russia, China and the United States are the most significant. Russia’s position relies on a holistic approach, including military might and the more recent Eurasian narrative. China, pursuing its Silk Road ideas, has no equal in trade and energy. The US has partially retreated from Central Asia and is reviewing its security-centered strategy. Under these circumstances, what should the EU regional approach look like? What are the shared interests and divergent objectives of the actors present in Central Asia? With what actors could the EU cooperate and with whom should it abstain from regional rapprochement? Finally, what options does the EU have to strengthen its posture in the region from a regional and geopolitical perspective?
Autori : Michal ROMANOWSKI (German Marshall Fund of the United States, Poland, in association with PASOS - Policy Association for Open Society, Czech Republic)
Organe : Drepturile omului, Afaceri externe, Securitate şi apărare
Rezumat : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.
Organe : Securitate şi apărare, Libertăţi civile, justiţie şi afaceri interne, Afaceri externe, Mediu, sănătate publică şi siguranţă alimentară, Transporturi şi turism, Control bugetar