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Joint comprehensive plan of action, 14 July 2015

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) imposed a series of sanctions on the Islamic Republic of Iran between 2006 and 2010 after Iran refused to suspend its uranium enrichment program. The EU's trade with Iran was restricted as a result of these measures.

A group of EU and non-EU countries (China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States, with the European Union) and Iran reached an agreement on a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) in Vienna on 14 July 2015. This Plan is often called the "Iran deal" or the "Iran nuclear deal".

The agreement limits Iran's nuclear programme and foresees greater monitoring and transparency in exchange for lifting international sanctions, including on trade. In response to the JCPOA, the UN began lifting some sanctions in January 2016.

The JCPOA and its implementation open up the possibility of a gradual but substantive reengagement with Iran at different levels, including bilateral trade.