Procedure : 2014/2242(INI)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected : A8-0319/2015

Texts tabled :

A8-0319/2015

Debates :

PV 02/12/2015 - 12
CRE 02/12/2015 - 12

Votes :

PV 02/12/2015 - 13.5
CRE 02/12/2015 - 13.5
Explanations of votes

Texts adopted :

P8_TA(2015)0423

REPORT     
PDF 365kWORD 176k
13.11.2015
PE v02-00 A8-0319/2015

on sustainable urban mobility

(2014/2242(INI))

Committee on Transport and Tourism

Rapporteur: Karima Delli

AMENDMENTS
MOTION FOR A EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT RESOLUTION
 EXPLANATORY STATEMENT
 OPINION of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety
 OPINION of the Committee on Regional Development
 RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE

MOTION FOR A EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT RESOLUTION

on sustainable urban mobility

(2014/2242(INI))

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 17 December 2014 entitled ‘Together towards competitive and resource-efficient urban mobility’ (COM(2013)0913),

–  having regard to its resolution of 15 December 2011 on ‘the Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system’(1),

–  having regard to its resolution of 23 June 2011 on ‘European Urban Agenda and its Future in Cohesion Policy’(2),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 30 September 2009 entitled ‘Action Plan on Urban Mobility’ (COM(2009)0490),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 18 July 2014 entitled ‘The urban dimension of EU policies – Key features of an EU urban agenda’ (COM(2014)0490),

–  having regard to the Commission Green Paper of 25 September 2007 entitled ‘Towards a new culture for urban mobility’ (COM(2007)0551),

  having regard to the Commission's Special Eurobarometer 406 of December 2013 on ‘Attitudes of Europeans towards urban mobility’,

–  having regard to the Commission’s launch of the European Platform on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans,

–  having regard to the Commission Green Paper of 29 November 1995 entitled ‘The Citizens’ Network: fulfilling the potential of public passenger transport in Europe’ (COM(1995)0601),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 31 March 1998 entitled ‘Transport and CO2 – Developing a Community Approach’ (COM(1998)0204),

  having regard to the Commission communication of 4 March 2015 entitled 'The Paris Protocol – A blueprint for tackling global climate change beyond 2020' (COM(2015)0081),

–  having regard to Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe(3),

  having regard to Regulations (EC) No 715/2007(4) and (EC) No 595/2009(5) regarding the reduction of pollutant emissions from road vehicles,

–  having regard to its resolution of 27 October 2015 on emission measurements in the automotive sector(6),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 18 December 2013 entitled ‘A clean air programme for Europe’ (COM(2013)0918),

  having regard to the World Health Organisation air quality guidelines and the Health Economic Assessment Tool,

–  having regard to the World Health Organisation report entitled ‘Burden of disease from environmental noise – Quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe’,

–  having regard to the European Environment Agency’s TERM report of December 2013 entitled ‘A closer look at urban transport’,

–  having regard to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities,

–  having regard to its resolution of 3 July 2013 on ‘Road safety 2011-2020 – First milestones towards an injury strategy’(7),

–  having regard to its resolution of 12 October 1988 on the protection of pedestrians and the European charter of pedestrians’ rights(8),

–  having regard to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic;

–  having regard to the Commission communication entitled ‘CARS 2020: Action Plan for a competitive and sustainable automotive industry in Europe’ (COM(2012)0636),

–  having regard to its resolution of 10 December 2013 on ‘CARS 2020: Action Plan for a competitive and sustainable automotive industry in Europe’(9),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 2 July 2014 entitled ‘Towards a circular economy: A zero waste programme for Europe’ (COM(2014)0398),

–  having regard to Directive 2004/17/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 coordinating the procurement procedures of entities operating in the water, energy, transport and postal services sectors(10),

  having regard to Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure(11),

  having regard to European Court of Auditors Special Report No 1/2014 on the ‘Effectiveness of EU-supported public urban transport projects’,

–  having regard to the Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities,

–  having regard to the Covenant of Mayors,

–  having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on Transport and Tourism and the opinions of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety and the Committee on Regional Development (A8-0319/2015),

A.  whereas estimates suggest that by 2050 up to 82 % of EU citizens will live in urban areas;

B.   whereas the expected significant increase in urban population confronts urban centres with societal, quality of life and sustainable development challenges, which will require holistic planning measures;

C.    whereas urban mobility still relies overwhelmingly on the use of conventionally powered cars, and whereas transport in the EU is consequently dependent on oil and oil products for more than 96 % of its energy needs, or about one third of total energy consumption;

D.  whereas urban transport is responsible for up to 25 % of all CO2 emissions and for some 70 % of all emissions in urban areas that are responsible for climate change, and is the only sector in the EU whose greenhouse gas emissions are continuing to increase;

E.  whereas according to Special Eurobarometer 406, published in 2013, some 50 % of European citizens use their private cars every day, whilst only 16 % use public transport and only 12 % bicycles;

F.    whereas according to the same report, European citizens regard lower public transport fares (59 %), better public transport services (56 %) and better facilities for cyclists (33 %) as effective ways to improve urban mobility;

G.  whereas about 50 % of journeys in urban areas are shorter than 5 km and in many cities could therefore be made on foot, by bicycle, or by public/collective or any other available means of transport, such as ride-sharing;

H.  whereas the widespread use of diesel in transport, especially in older vehicles and those without particle filters, is one of the main causes of high particulate concentration in EU cities and whereas, therefore, in urban transport modes the use of alternative fuel and changes in the customary ways of using these modes should be promoted, without jeopardising urban mobility;

I.    whereas, according to the European Environment Agency, in 2011 more than 125 million European citizens were exposed to noise pollution above the safety limit of 55 dB, with road traffic being the main cause;

J.    whereas high-quality transport services are of fundamental importance for people living in urban areas to meet their mobility needs in their working lives and their training, tourism and leisure activities; whereas sustainable urban transport can help to reduce energy consumption, atmospheric and noise pollution, the number of accidents, traffic congestion, land use and soil sealing;

K.   whereas targeted measures towards sustainable urban mobility are possible and necessary in order to achieve EU targets and enforce legislation related to transport and environment;

L.  whereas, with due regard for subsidiarity, the EU should help to develop, in support of local actions, an integrated, long-term approach to urban mobility, which will reduce traffic pollution, congestion, noise and road accidents, provide due support to cities and ensure better information, coordination and cooperation among EU Member States;

M.  whereas it is important to underline the significance of public transport for urban economies, including deprived areas, and to recognise its social benefits, such as helping to fight poverty and social exclusion and ensuring access to jobs for all citizens;

N.    whereas good, easy public collective transport is the best deterrent against private transport and one of the best ways to alleviate traffic jams;

O.  whereas 73 % of European citizens consider road safety to be a serious problem in cities, and whereas more than 30 % of road fatalities and serious injuries happen in urban areas and often involve vulnerable road users (VRUs) and pedestrians;

P.  whereas 38 % of all fatalities occur in urban areas and 55% on inter-urban roads, whereas the victims are most often cyclists and other vulnerable road users, and whereas accidents are linked to high vehicle concentrations and speed;

Q.    whereas sustainable urban transport is one aspect of broader territorial planning policies, and whereas green urban areas can partially offset the impact of road traffic pollution;

R.    whereas the use of alternative propellants and means of transport involves the development of the necessary infrastructure, together with efforts to change people’s mobility‑related behaviour;

S.   whereas, as important centres of economic activity and innovation, cities and other larger urban areas have rightly been recognised as crucial nodes in the new TEN-T strategy and are the main link in the transport chain for passengers and freight;

T.   whereas multimodal networks and the integration of different transport modes and services in and around urban areas are potentially beneficial in improving passenger and freight transport efficiency, thus helping to reduce carbon and other harmful emissions;

U.   whereas the Heads of State and Government, meeting at the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), made a commitment to supporting the development of sustainable transport networks(12);

V.   whereas a 'one size fits all urban areas' solution does not exist and cities across the European Union face specific situations and needs, related in particular to geographical and climate conditions, demographic structure, cultural traditions, and other factors;

W.    whereas urban mobility and urban transport management are the responsibility of local and regional authorities, which design and implement these public policies within their areas, in conjunction with the national framework in force and the EU urban agenda;

X.    whereas it is concerned that the Commission is talking in terms of transport concepts to be devised at European level, which would then have to be adapted according to the circumstances in Member States; whereas, rather than adopting a top-down approach along those lines and without disregarding the need for common rules and standards, it would be preferable to follow a bottom-up approach involving parallel experimentation on the ground, thereby encouraging innovation; whereas, accordingly, it strongly supports the setting-up of platforms for exchanges of experience among local stakeholders with a view to enabling success stories to be publicised more widely;

1.  Underlines that the work done so far at European level and in many cities has been positive and should be continued, and therefore welcomes the aforementioned Commission communication on urban mobility;

Giving space and infrastructure back to all citizens and improving accessibility

2.   Points out that land planning is the most important phase for creating smooth and safe transportation networks that are long-lasting and have a real impact on traffic volumes and distribution; stresses that safety must always be viewed as a key element of sustainable urban planning;

3.   Is convinced that the provision of information to, and the consultation of, EU citizens, retailers, freight transport operators and other stakeholders involved in urban mobility are crucial in order to make planning, development, and decision-making more transparent; stresses that this information should be publicly and easily accessible; points out that it is desirable to foster cooperation among the relevant actors and between cities at EU level with a view to sharing sustainable mobility solutions;

4.   Is convinced that long-term Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) supported by ICT technologies are important tools for providing adequate and safe mobility solutions for all citizens; invites the competent authorities to take account in SUMPs of special needs as regards communications for persons with reduced mobility (PRMs); emphasises that barrier free infrastructure is crucial for PRMs mobility; stresses that it is necessary that SUMPs encompass specific strategies on road safety and provide safe infrastructure with adequate space for the most vulnerable road users;

5.  Emphasises the importance of SUMPs in achieving EU targets regarding CO2 emissions, noise, air pollution and accident reduction; considers that the development of SUMPs should be an important element to be considered in financing EU projects in the area of urban transport and that EU financing and informational support could provide incentives for the development and implementation of such plans; calls on the Commission to provide the competent authorities with the necessary advisory and technical support in the development of SUMPs, taking full account of the principle of subsidiarity;

6.  Encourages the authorities in the Member States to draw up sustainable urban mobility plans which give priority to low-emission transport modes, including electric traction and vehicles powered by alternative fuels, and which include intelligent transport systems; supports the establishment of traffic zones and intermodal platforms where priority is given to use by public transport;

7.   Encourages the Member States and European cities to develop a parking policy (parking space supply, use of intelligent parking systems and appropriate pricing) which can be part of an integrated urban policy and at the same time to put greater efforts into the development of functional intermodal hubs, providing varied transport services and enabling a smooth combination of transport solutions, such as collective transport, shared transport, cycling and rental services; calls for better connectivity of suburban parking spaces with rail and public transport services through, for example, ‘park and ride’ options; recalls the need to eliminate deficiencies in provision for citizens with disabilities;

8.  Underlines that, taking into account the need to reduce the negative impact on the environment of oil dependency in the EU transport system (run overwhelmingly on oil and its by-products), the ESI funds should be systematically used for the development and implementation of comprehensive, integrated SUMPs which will complementarily and mutually reinforce urban mobility measures in the wider spatial planning context, without generating additional transport needs for excessive use of cars, by putting emphasis on an integrated transport system based on cooperation among individual types of transport;

9.    Strongly believes that the Commission’s Platform on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans should provide strong support for cities and regions in the design and implementation of SUMPs; stresses the importance of considering all cities, regardless of size, for investment in urban mobility and of the key role that European cities and regions have to play in boosting and promoting sustainable urban mobility; calls for the involvement of representatives of local and regional authorities of different sizes and representatives of diverse stakeholders (e.g. cyclists’ associations) in the European Platform and the Member States’ Expert Group on Urban Mobility and Transport;

10.  Emphasises that SUMPs should be consistent with the current EU agenda and objectives, in particular those on the modal shift from road to rail set out in the 2011 White Paper;

11.    Urges the Commission, the Member States and regional and local authorities to assess and audit the Urban Mobility Plans in line with the objectives and goals of the Transport 2050 strategy;

Improving the environment, quality of life and health

12.    Points in particular to the many harmful effects of the current transport model on fundamental elements of the natural environment, including air, water and soil, and on the various ecosystems;

13.  Is convinced that air pollution has a local, regional, national and cross-border dimension and requires action at all levels of governance; asks, therefore, for a strengthening of the multi-level governance approach where all actors take the responsibility for measures that can and should be taken at that very level;

14.  Invites cities to carefully assess the needs of citizens and businesses and the specificities of transport modes, in order to ensure sustainable mobility in cities, and to take the necessary measures to improve the quality of life in cities, inter alia by fostering a modal shift towards sustainable modes of transport, including walking and cycling, and by promoting an integrated intermodal and/or co-modal policy;

15.  Invites local authorities to take the wellbeing of their citizens into account when designing sustainable mobility plans: in particular, invites the competent authorities to take measures to reduce traffic-related noise in cities;

16.  Encourages the competent authorities to take preventive measures, in accordance with the precautionary and proportionality principles, to improve air quality in towns and cities and to guarantee that pollutant concentrations do not exceed the levels set in the World Health Organization guidelines; to that end, supports local setting-up of low‑emission zones; stresses that it is the responsibility of the competent authorities to offer safe and healthy mobility solutions to their citizens; is of the opinion that these solutions could be based on affordable, smart, reliable, accessible public transport systems; encourages the Member States, as well as local authorities, to consider, when there is a risk of the abovementioned WHO guidelines being exceeded, to take measures to improve access to public transport, for example by alternating traffic;

17.  Points out that there is a need for a holistic approach to air pollution in European cities; calls on the Commission, therefore, to put forward effective measures that enable the Member States to comply with the Ambient Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC), notably by setting effective and ambitious emission ceilings for 2025 and 2030 under the National Emission Ceilings Directive (NEC), and by ensuring better coordination of measures under the NEC Directive and the Ambient Air Quality Directive, by setting ambitious car emission performance standards for 2025 and 2030 in a timely review of the CO2 and cars Regulation (EC) No 443/2009, and by setting a clear timeframe for the implementation of Real-World Driving Emission Testing for private vehicles;

18.  Calls on the Commission to make assessments, within the Member States’ individual plans, regarding the siting of stations used to measure and monitor atmospheric pollution in the main urban agglomerations with air quality problems, bearing in mind that poor siting of such stations very often renders the data inaccurate and could thus create a public health risk;

19.  Notes the behavioural changes in the area of vehicle ownership and use (car-sharing, car-pooling); encourages the Commission to develop and support transport systems involving collective and public forms of mobility;

20.  Believes that the Commission should assess how society is likely to be affected by new forms of mobility based on the sharing-economy model, including ride-sharing; takes the view that, at national level, Member States should pursue the concept of a ‘shareable city’, where mobility and transport are concerned, since this could benefit citizens, especially in small and medium-sized towns and cities, where the public transport network is smaller, and might make it possible to develop peer-to-peer mobility solutions;

21.  Emphasises that highly developed, efficient, affordable, safe and accessible public transport is an integral part of sustainable urban development; is convinced that reliable public transport services may play an important role in reducing congestion, air pollution and noise in cities; calls on the Member States, therefore, to promote public transport with the view to increasing its use by 2030; also encourages national and local authorities to promote the availability of digital services on public transport and stations, to support the development of innovative forms of mobility and to implement intelligent transport solutions and other state-of-the-art technologies; stresses that car-sharing, ride-sharing and car-pooling services make better use of existing resources and help to reduce the number of cars in cities; recognises the importance of the European satellite navigation programmes Galileo and EGNOS and mobile high-speed networks; supports the formation of a regulatory framework that enables the use of new forms of mobility and new sharing models that make better use of existing resources;

22.  Stresses the importance of public information on urban public transport offers, also taking into account tourists’ language needs and the benefits of sustainable tourism policy; encourages local authorities to provide real-time information on the internet and on sufficiently numerous displays in cities; invites authorities and transport operators to improve the availability of free digital services on public transport and stations;

23.  Highlights the social benefits of rail-bound public transport in terms of accessibility of urban areas, urban regeneration, social inclusion and improvement of the image of cities;

24.  Acknowledges the quality and diversity of the jobs offered by public transport operators and the related benefits for the economy; calls on the Commission to monitor and assess the contribution of public transport to green jobs and green growth strategies at national and European level;

25.  Calls on the Member States to take effective action to ensure security on public transport, whilst respecting local-level powers;

26.  Recalls that non-motorised individual mobility, such as walking and cycling, offers the best potential for CO2 neutrality;

27.  Encourages the Member States to review their strategies in order to improve non-motorised transport with a view to meeting the convergent interests of improving mobility and the urban environment; encourages the Member States to promote, where appropriate, the use of bicycles, including by setting ambitious targets for cycling rates by 2030 and to improve conditions for walking and cycling;

28.  Encourages the Commission and the Member States to raise awareness of cycling and alternative transport modes, to contribute to a modal shift towards sustainable transport modes and to continue supporting the European Mobility Week Campaign; invites cities to organise bicycle-sharing systems in connection with public transport; welcomes initiatives at national, regional and local level to promote and organise 'EU Car-Free Sunday' and 'EU Bicycle Day' events with a view to improving air quality in cities;

29.  Encourages private companies, administrations and the EU institutions to further improve mobility management services for their members, staff and visitors; calls on the Commission and the Member States to promote policies aimed at encouraging companies to reduce journeys from and to workplaces, inter alia by permitting and promoting teleworking and encouraging the use of ICT technologies and teleconferencing; considers that mobility measures, such as those coordinated by the European Platform on Mobility Management (EPOMM), have a great potential for solving urban congestion and providing accessibility for all;

30.   Encourages the Member States and local authorities to define environmental performance requirements in public procurement procedures, particularly when purchasing vehicles for public transport or vehicles used by public authorities;

Saving energy and protecting the climate

31.  Considers that energy efficiency and the use of low-carbon and renewable energy sources are key to achieving sustainable urban mobility, while at the same time improving environmental conditions, and that technology neutrality should be respected when adopting measures to meet EU targets for CO2 emissions and energy saving;

32.  Encourages the Member States to support the goals of the Transport White Paper of halving the number of 'conventionally fuelled' cars in urban transport by 2030 and of phasing them out in cities by 2050; invites cities to promote and support shifts towards alternative means of transport and less-polluting vehicles, taking into account their real carbon footprint with the view to achieving the EU targets of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 60 % by 2050; welcomes incentives for travellers to combine different modes of transport;

33.  Draws attention to the importance of the use of electric vehicles and vehicles powered by alternative fuels (second- and third-generation biofuels, hydrogen based on renewables, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) for the reduction of emissions in cities; recalls the provisions laid down in Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels and encourages the Member States, in close cooperation with regional and local authorities and the industry concerned, to swiftly develop such infrastructure, particularly along the trans-European transport network (TEN-T); invites the public and the private sector to promote the installation of recharging facilities in collective parking areas;

34.   Asks the Commission and national and local authorities to promote, where possible, inland navigation as an integrated mobility solution for soft mobility in cities;

35.   Underlines the importance of a bottom-up approach; therefore supports strongly, for example, the Covenant of Mayors, with over 6 000 signatories, on reducing GHG emissions, and welcomes the appeal made by Commissioner Canete on 13 October 2015 in Brussels to get a more ambitious Convention under way; supports the Commission in playing a positive role as active catalyst for such initiatives;

36.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to put ambitious measures on 'Sustainable Urban Mobility' high on the agenda of the COP 21 to be held in Paris in December 2015; encourages the Commission to give active support to the Action Agenda initiatives on integrated sustainable urban mobility;

Making innovation the core of research policy aimed at smart mobility approaches

37.  Recalls that Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) make mobility safer, more efficient, environmentally friendly and fluid, and therefore calls on the Commission and the Member States to intensify efforts on ITS, including innovation and implementation in the fields of provision of real-time travel information, highly automated vehicles, smart infrastructure and intelligent traffic signal systems; recalls the importance of ITS in providing accurate, real-time traffic and travel data, and therefore invites the Commission to bring urban mobility into the focus of the Digital Agenda; encourages stakeholders to cooperate closely in the development of interoperable and integrated mobility services such as multimodal public transport, shared mobility and intermodal integrated ticketing facilities; asks the Commission to prioritise the development of innovative applications and new technologies enabling road users to take a more proactive role as developers and data producers in the transport system, in order to contribute to platforms for mobility services, in accordance with EU rules and data protection;

38.  Encourages all parties to fully utilise the possibilities of data and digitalisation and to use deregulation to promote new business models;

39.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to support research programmes on new technologies, new business models, and new integrated sustainable urban mobility practices and urban logistics; supports the Horizon 2020 priorities regarding societal challenges for smart, green and integrated transport and urban mobility, as well as the development of 'Mobility-as-a-Service' (Maas) initiatives across Europe; believes that Horizon 2020 must boost research and innovation in the areas of quality of life, sustainable jobs, demographics, active mobility changes, environment and climate action; is of the opinion that the Commission should take account of these priorities, secure sufficient EU funds for future R&D activities in urban rail systems and improve the performance of sustainable transport solutions;

Making urban mobility more sustainable, safe and secure

40.  Notes that thorough safety preconditions as well as advanced traffic and speed management lead to a drastic reduction in road fatalities and serious injuries in cities; points out that a security force with the task of managing and controlling traffic and performing consistent checks on traffic safety offences, such as speeding, driving under the influence of alcohol, drugs and medicines and using mobile phones and other communication and information devices contribute to reducing road accidents in cities;

41.  Invites the Member States and local authorities to rethink speed management by 2020, taking into account local conditions, in order to ensure safety, inter alia in housing areas and around schools and educational and social facilities, and to consider the development and design of safer road infrastructure; calls on the Member States and local authorities to use all modern solutions, including advanced intelligent traffic management, to provide safety for all road users, including pedestrians; encourages European cities to exchange best practices regarding safety management;

Innovating in the area of sustainable freight transport

42.  Believes that the development of innovative, sustainable, environmentally friendly urban logistics strategies, involving private and public actors, is of the utmost importance for solving congestion and environmental problems in cities; is of the opinion that logistics should be based on sustainable modes of transport; calls for a better optimisation of the supply chain in urban areas, based on new, cost-effective types of operation, technology and business model; points to the importance of SUMPs that encompass co-modality logistics strategies, and underlines that, where appropriate, rail, clean inland navigation and seaports need to be integrated into logistics strategies and sustainable urban mobility plans; calls on the competent authorities to reduce, where possible, heavy vehicle traffic in city centres;

43.  Points out that high-density areas and other areas such as shopping and retail centres are facing increased road traffic and congestion problems, and points to the importance of effective and comprehensive planning policies to link up these areas to efficient public transport and smart home delivery services;

44.  Invites the Commission to develop policies to encourage the freight industry to green its fleet and to encourage local authorities to provide support and/or incentives to operators to make urban freight transport more sustainable; recalls that rail and other more sustainable transport modes, together with well-planned interchange and logistics, can play an important role by bringing goods to the urban periphery;

Minimising external costs and making better-quality investments

45.  Stresses that cost-benefit assessments of investments should be directed to maximising external societal benefits and minimising external costs arising from, for example, climate change, accidents, health, noise, air pollution and spatial use;

46.  Stresses that urban mobility should contribute to, and be fully integrated into, EU resource efficiency objectives, in particular those linked to the circular economy;

47.   Recalls that urban road and parking pricing based on the non-discrimination, interoperability and polluter-pays principles can be part of an integrated urban mobility policy;

48.  Recalls the 'use of revenues’ principle with regard to road charging, and calls, where appropriate, for a proportion of revenue from the use of road infrastructure (road charging and/or Eurovignette) to be dedicated to improving sustainable urban mobility;

49.   Believes that urban mobility should be reflected in the Connecting Europe Facility/Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) measures, wherever appropriate and in line with TEN-T legislation, including support for urban nodes and the integration of mobility plans for cities in cross-border areas, as this both stimulates economic and social development and supports better accessibility; believes that efficient interconnection between various modes of transport and between transport networks, including peri-urban and interregional networks, would improve citizens' mobility; supports the development of integrated ticketing systems, which could potentially improve accessibility to public transport;

50.  Calls on the Commission, the Member States and local authorities to make use of the new possibility of financing urban projects within the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) in urban nodes; recalls the possibility for the CEF to finance synergy projects with an extra-cofinancing rate of transport projects with energy and telecommunications, which has enormous potential for urban projects; invites the Commission to consider appropriate EU funding for sustainable mobility projects when reviewing the budgets of the European Regional Development Fund and the Cohesion Fund; asks the relevant authorities to ensure there is a strong relationship between smart and sustainable urban mobility policy and urban mobility projects financed by EU funds, and to set clear utilisation targets and indicators in order to avoid under-utilisation of the projects and undermining of their economic and social benefits; recognises the need for new forms of sustainable funding for public transport which enable environmental sustainability, digitalisation and accessibility, stimulate the economy of urban areas and create new jobs;

51.  Points to the recently adopted European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI) and the particular attention and focus given in this instrument to horizontal priorities and to smart and sustainable urban projects; calls on the Commission and the Member States to support sustainable urban mobility projects, to ensure the necessary synergies between the various funding sources and programmes, and to develop links between urban mobility, the new Digital Agenda and the Energy Union;

52.    Stresses the importance of capacity-building within local authorities and in periurban areas for drawing up and implementing integrated development strategies to facilitate cooperation between different territories, and consequently to foster interdependence and complementarity;

53.    Considers that investment in sustainable public transport is not only a response to urban mobility problems, but also includes ‘elements of urban renewal’ that impact the general economic system of the city and facilitate the creation of a green urban environment, as well as access to centres of mixed activities (commercial, residential, leisure, culture, education); stresses that the proper coordination of mobility and urban planning is crucial in order to maximise the impact of investments;

54.    Calls for the initiatives promoting youth employment and other ESI funds to be used to promote employment in areas that stimulate the development of sustainable urban mobility; stresses that the implementation of urban mobility projects has a positive impact on all regions and their populations, by promoting the filling of existing and innovative job openings in relevant fields, including professions where there is a workforce shortage;

55.  Urges the Commission to set up easily accessible overviews of EU co-funded urban mobility programmes; demands, furthermore, that user-friendly information be provided on the EU co-funding opportunities for urban transport projects; asks the Commission to ensure, when managing EU-funded urban mobility projects, that: (a) management tools are put in place to monitor the quality of the service and the level of user satisfaction once projects are operational, (b) urban mobility projects are included in a sound mobility policy, and (c) the abovementioned points are also addressed by the Member States' authorities; asks the Commission to supply a qualitative and quantitative analysis of cohesion policy support for sustainable urban mobility when undertaking its mid-term review of the implementation of ESIF;

Integrating networks of efficient mobility systems and fostering cooperation

56.    Calls on the Member States to promote multi-level governance to foster cooperation between regional, national and European authorities in the development of policies, including in the design, implementation and monitoring of urban policies that have a clear impact on urban areas;

57.  Refers to the Commission’s Citizens’ Network initiative as a good basis for promoting and supporting intermodal sustainable mobility chains based on walking / cycling / public-collective backbone transport alongside car-sharing / car-pooling / taxis;

58.  Calls on the Commission to promote and encourage best practice exchanges and guidance in order to tackle urban mobility challenges and facilitate the transfer of skills and technologies in the field of sustainable mobility, in particular for the benefit of public and private stakeholders who develop sustainable mobility solutions and of the cooperative, mutual and non-profit sector; invites the Commission to establish a Sustainable Mobility Network of best-practice examples of spatial planning and space use; calls further on the Member States to encourage cities to participate in the Smart Cities and Communities European Innovation Partnership; invites the Commission and the Member States to launch public-awareness campaigns to promote mobility that is efficient, sustainable and less dependent on the use private, conventionally fuelled cars;

59.  Supports the work of the Urban Mobility Observatory (Eltis) and believes that communication around this initiative, including its portal, should be enhanced;

60.    Welcomes the Commission’s efforts to coordinate and consolidate EU initiatives in the field of urban mobility, such as CIVITAS 2020 for research and innovation, the Urban Mobility Observatory for the exchange of best practice and experience, and the Platform on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans; calls on the Commission to reinforce its efforts to reduce fragmentation and the lack of coordination between the relevant EU initiatives and programmes and to take into account the success of programmes such as URBAN and URBACT; calls on the Commission to encourage the authorities in the Member States to create networks of excellence in the field of urban mobility, to continue the efforts of the CIVITAS 2020 initiative and to encourage more EU citizens to sign up to this project;

61.   Is convinced that additional efforts should be made to network and coordinate EU pilot projects, e.g. by Civitas, Polis and Eltis, and to integrate cities with their practical experience and know-how when discussing the implementation of future mobility policies; to that end, urges the Commission to set up easily accessible overviews of EU co-funded urban mobility programmes; demands furthermore that it be made clear – in a user-friendly manner – how to obtain EU co-funding for urban mobility projects; stresses the need to finance not only infrastructure, but also IT services, monitoring processes and inter-regional projects, and to establish strategic partnerships between industry and European cities with a view to developing the urban systems of tomorrow;

62.    Advocates a strong link between mobility plans and urban sustainability and other initiatives such as Smart Cities and the Covenant of Mayors, which are oriented towards a more sustainable and self-sufficient city; considers that the voluntary commitment established in the Covenant of Mayors can serve as a springboard for addressing all parties concerned in the creation of mobility and sustainability plans that can be advertised in a cost-efficient manner; welcomes the initiative entitled ‘CiTIEs: Cities of Tomorrow: Investing in Europe’, and calls on the Commission to use the existing platforms to develop communication tools aimed at bringing together stakeholders in the field of sustainable urban development;

63.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1)

OJ C 168 E, 14.6.2013, p. 72.

(2)

OJ C 390 E, 18.12.2012, p. 10.

(3)

OJ L 152, 11.6.2008, p. 1.

(4)

OJ L 171, 29.6.2007, p.1.

(5)

OJ L 188, 19.7.2009, p.1.

(6)

Texts adopted, P8_TA(2015)0375,

(7)

Texts adopted, P7_TA(2013)0314.

(8)

OJ C 290, 14.11.1988, p. 51.

(9)

Texts adopted, P7_TA(2013)0547,

(10)

OJ L 134, 30.4.2004, p. 1.

(11)

OJ L 307, 28.10.2014, p. 1.

(12)

United Nations Resolution 66/288 ‘The future we want’, paragraph 135.


EXPLANATORY STATEMENT

Mobility is not an end in itself, but should be a right for all citizens. Before long, 80% of Europeans will live in towns and cities; consequently, mobility should help make access to school, work, culture, leisure and health easier for everyone, including people with reduced mobility. Nevertheless, urban mobility is often experienced as a constraint arising from overreliance on private cars powered by traditional fuels. The shift to more sustainable modes of transport is indeed proceeding very slowly: our mobility is still essentially based on cars, which account for 43% of the kilometres travelled in the world and three quarters of trips in Europe. Car dependency and its corollary – road traffic congestion, which costs European towns and cities an estimated total of EUR 80 billion – makes citizens into prisoners of a mobility that they have not chosen but are subjected to. This dependency sometimes verges on the absurd, bearing in mind that 50% of trips in urban areas are no further than 5 km. This report therefore aims to redirect urban mobility towards sustainable modes of transport with the goal of facing up to the challenges of our century: protecting the climate, health and the environment, as well as everyone’s well-being and security.

The climate demands urgent action! At a time when the fight against global warming is a worldwide challenge, the fact that our journeys are organised around cars is preventing the European Union from playing its full part. Whilst some sectors such as agriculture and industry have reduced their greenhouse gas emissions, the transport sector’s emissions have increased by 30% since 1990. Urban transport alone is responsible for a quarter of greenhouse gas emissions, most of which come from road traffic. It is crucial to reverse this trend if the European Union is to achieve its emissions targets by 2030.

Health demands urgent action! The excessively large proportion of diesel cars on the roads in Europe poses a threat for the quality of life, health and the environment. Air quality in urban centres directly endangers the health of people living and travelling there every day, but also the health of the population as a whole: while large cities in the European Union experience one pollution peak after another, around 400 000 premature deaths every year are caused by fine particulates, largely emitted by the diesel engines that account for more than 55% of all vehicles on European roads. It should also be stressed that the large-scale consumption of fossil fuels in transport poses a considerable burden on the energy bill and energy independence of European Union Member States. There is no time to wait: according to the UN, pollution will be the main cause of mortality in the world by 2050.

Road users’ lives demand urgent action! By continuing to revolve around cars, the current model of urban mobility is also posing a threat to road users’ lives: 38% of road deaths occur in urban areas. Efforts to improve road safety must be continued, and diversifying modes of urban transport offers an essential solution with a view to reducing these worrying figures significantly.

Finally, social cohesion demands urgent action! In the context of the crisis that has hit the European Union, too many citizens are devoting a significant share of their time and income to transport, and some citizens have no possibility of access. In the case of the former, this is most frequently caused by excessive distances between residential areas and places of work, as well as shops, healthcare facilities and schools. In the case of the latter, the problem is caused by fares that are unaffordable for some sections of the population, such as elderly people, people with disabilities and vulnerable people.

A different type of mobility is not only possible but essential in our congested urban and peri-urban areas. The aim is to rethink the way in which we move around in towns and cities, looking at both passenger and goods transport. If we are to achieve this aim, it is vital from now on to look at all forms of transport through the prism of sustainable development. This will entail a constant search for balance between the social, environmental and economic impact of transport and between meeting the needs of current generations and those of generations to come. It was from this perspective that the United Nations, at the 1992 Rio Conference, defined sustainable mobility as a transport policy that aims to reconcile accessibility, economic progress and environmental targets within a sustainable framework.

To achieve this aim, the European Union must set ambitious targets to ensure that the Member States and regional and local authorities work together to make this new model of sustainable urban development a reality.

On the eve of hosting the Climate Summit (COP21), the European Union, the Member States and local authorities must place energy efficiency at the heart of urban mobility policies. To this end, the rapporteur proposes that the Commission should start work as soon as possible on drawing up a ‘transport and climate’ legislative package, involving all stakeholders, particularly towns and cities, in order to set binding greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for transport. She would urge the Commission to start work immediately with a view to encouraging the Member States and local authorities to ban diesel in urban areas in 2020, to achieve a gradual reduction in the use of petrol-driven cars in urban areas by 2030, and to eliminate them altogether by 2050. These three essential first steps must be followed by a mass shift to non-fossil energy in the context of urban mobility. This is vital if the European Union is to meet its commitments and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

To achieve this objective, electric mobility plans should give priority to clean modes of transport: trams, cable cars, bicycles and car-sharing. Member States need to take active steps to bring about a modal shift from road to inland waterway and rail as a matter of urgency, attaching particular importance to inter-modality, bringing together walking, cycling and public transport. To this end, the rapporteur proposes a target of doubling cycling rates in urban areas by 2025, and doubling the public transport network and use of public transport by 2030. She also proposes organising a European bicycle day to raise awareness of this issue among the general public, and a car-free Sunday twice a year to extend the successful experiments already held in several European cities, where carbon neutrality in transport has proved its worth.

To date, not all Member States and local authorities have adopted sustainable urban mobility plans. The rapporteur calls on the Commission to remedy this by making urban mobility funding conditional on the adoption of sustainable urban mobility plans (SUMPs) by the local authorities. She calls on the Member States to ensure that sustainable urban mobility plans are drawn up and implemented in their urban areas, and that these plans are integrated into a wider sustainable urban or territorial development strategy. Through the Member States, she would urge the authorities once again to place citizens at the heart of their mobility policies and make it possible for citizens to be consulted before, during and after the process of drawing these policies up. Sustainable urban mobility plans will have a leverage effect in achieving the Union’s targets for greenhouse gas emissions, noise pollution, air pollution and accident reduction.

We need to give in-depth consideration to journey speed in order to make mobility in towns and cities more sustainable. The rapporteur therefore calls on Member States and local authorities to introduce a new speed limit of 30 km/h by 2020: this will be the most effective way of limiting the number of people who are killed and injured on the roads, and making cars more compatible with soft modes of transport such as cycling and walking.

Sustainable urban mobility also needs to include goods transport, which is currently a cause of congestion and environmental problems in the heart of our towns and cities. The rapporteur appeals for a European plan to be launched to reform freight transport and identify a sustainable approach to the last few kilometres up to delivery. The large-scale expansion of green urban logistics is vital in this connection, combined with increased use of cargo bikes, small cargo boats, electric vans, goods trams and buses.

Sustainable urban mobility requires high-quality investment that will serve the general interest. This means that it can help achieve the EU’s resource efficiency objectives, in particular those linked to the circular economy with its job-creating potential. Many European countries currently have to cope with dilapidated and costly infrastructure. To remedy this situation, the rapporteur proposes that 50 % of Eurovignette revenue be dedicated to improving urban mobility and that 75 % of urban tolls be used for developing and maintaining urban transport infrastructure. She also calls on the Commission to set aside 20 % of EU funds such as the ERDF, CEF and cohesion funds for sustainable urban mobility projects. Finally, she is relying on the Commission’s support for research and innovation projects linked to urban transport, through its research framework programmes and the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI).

It must be possible for urban mobility today and tomorrow to be largely based on eco-mobility and cooperative networks. New approaches to urban transport are being developed, such as car sharing, and it is vital to include them in the intermodal mobility chain alongside cycling, walking and public transport. Doubling the number of users of these modes of transport would offer multiple benefits, not least the creation of green jobs.


OPINION of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (18.6.2015)

for the Committee on Transport and Tourism

on sustainable urban mobility

(2014/2242(INI))

Rapporteur: Eleonora Evi

SUGGESTIONS

The Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety calls on the Committee on Transport and Tourism, as the committee responsible, to incorporate the following suggestions into its motion for a resolution:

A.  whereas urban mobility still relies overwhelmingly on the use of conventionally powered cars, and whereas transport in the EU is consequently dependent on oil and oil products for more than 96 % of its energy needs, or about one third of total energy consumption;

B.  whereas this dependence on fossil fuels is the cause of some 23 % of total CO2 emissions in urban areas, and whereas the target is to reduce such emissions by 80 % by 2050;

C.  whereas environmentally, socially and economically sustainable urbanisation could be one of the key drivers of smart, sustainable and inclusive economic growth;

D.  whereas some 73 % of Europe’s population lives in towns and cities, a figure that is expected to reach 82 % by 2050;

E.  whereas, according to the European Environment Agency, in 2011 more than 125 million European citizens were exposed to noise pollution above the safety limit of 55 dB, with road traffic being the main cause;

F.  whereas between 15 % and 40 % of the European population is exposed to levels of fine particulates (PM 2.5 and PM 10), tropospheric ozone and NO2 which are above EU quality standards, and whereas that percentage increases to 90 % when World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines are taken into account;

G.  whereas, according to the European Environment Agency, in 2011 air pollution from fine particulates (PM 2.5) and tropospheric ozone caused some 430 000 and 16 000 premature deaths respectively, yielding a total figure 10 times higher than the number of deaths in car crashes in the same year;

H.  whereas at least another 9 000 premature deaths per year can be attributed to heart disease caused by traffic noise;

I.  whereas in 2010 alone the EU’s health-related costs due to atmospheric pollution were between EUR 330 billion and EUR 940 billion, amounting to between 3 % and 9 % of EU GDP;

J.  whereas applying WHO guidelines on human exposure to PM 2.5 would increase citizens’ average life expectancy by roughly 22 months, and would generate annual savings of some EUR 31 billion;

K.  whereas good, easy public collective transport is the best deterrent against private transport and one of the best ways to alleviate traffic jams;

L.  whereas the use of alternative propellants and means of transport necessitates the development of the necessary infrastructure, together with efforts to change people’s mobility‑related behaviour;

M.  whereas sustainable urban transport is one aspect of broader territorial planning policies, and whereas green urban areas can help to partially offset the impact of road traffic pollution;

N.  whereas the construction of new road infrastructure has a considerable impact on the landscape and the environment, and is likely to further stimulate the use of private vehicles as a consequence of increased road capacity;

O.  whereas high-quality transport services are fundamental for people living in urban areas in order to meet their mobility needs in respect of their working lives and their training, tourism and leisure activities; whereas sustainable urban transport can help to reduce energy consumption, atmospheric and noise pollution, the number of accidents, traffic congestion, land use and soil sealing;

P.  whereas according to Special Eurobarometer 406, published in 2013, some 50 % of EU citizens use their private cars every day, while only 16 % use public transport and only 12 % use bicycles;

Q.  whereas, according to the same report, EU citizens regard lower public transport fares (59 %), better public transport services (56 %) and better facilities for cyclists (33 %) as effective measures for improving urban mobility;

R.  whereas, for geographical and historical reasons, European cities may have widely differing infrastructure-related requirements;

S.  whereas urban mobility and urban transport management are the responsibility of local and regional authorities, which design and implement these public policies within their areas, in conjunction with the national framework in force and the EU urban agenda;

T.  whereas it is worrying that the Commission is talking in terms of transport concepts to be devised at European level, which would then have to be adapted according to the circumstances in Member States; whereas, rather than adopting a top-down approach along those lines and without disregarding the need for common rules and standards, it would be preferable to follow a bottom-up approach involving parallel experimentation on the ground, thereby encouraging innovation; whereas, accordingly, it strongly supports the setting-up of platforms for exchanges of experience among local stakeholders with a view to enabling success stories to be publicised more widely;

1.  Calls on the Member States to reduce transport needs by encouraging, inter alia, teleworking, ICT technologies and teleconferencing, and by improving business mobility; calls on the Commission, furthermore, to continue to develop the legislation in force under Directive 2010/40/EU on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), which could contribute to enhancing transport efficiency, reducing CO2 emissions, improving air quality and reducing noise nuisance, and calls on the Member States to encourage the development of smart technologies, including ITS, and info-mobility systems, and to boost sustainable urban mobility planning and management (including in the logistics sector), commuting plans and multimodal and intermodal patterns, bearing in mind that public transport becomes much more attractive when the ‘last mile’ is easy to cover; encourages the Member States to ensure the active participation of all stakeholders, including the public, in the abovementioned planning activities;

2.  Welcomes the Commission’s support for the development of guidelines on the production and implementation of sustainable urban mobility plans enabling the proposed action to be embedded into an urban and territorial strategy and seeking to promote balanced development and better integration of the various modes of urban mobility; supports the Commission in establishing a European Platform on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans with a view to improving the coordination of EU support for, and cooperation with, local and regional authorities in the exchange of good practices and the design and implementation of sustainable urban mobility plans;

3.  Calls on the Member States to promote public transport with a view to doubling its use by 2030, inter alia by applying IT solutions such as the remote purchasing of electronic tickets, and to support car sharing, carpooling, transport-on-demand services and the promotion of electric propulsion systems for local public transport; invites the Member States to develop, whenever appropriate, funicular railway and cable car systems in mountainous and hilly towns in order to mitigate urban traffic;

4.  Calls on the Member States to establish areas accessible only to public transport, bicycles, pedestrians, zero-emission vehicles, and vehicles used for car sharing and carpooling;

5.  Calls on the Member States to develop widespread electric vehicle charging facilities through innovative systems such as those that use public lighting infrastructure, and to promote the installation of recharging facilities in private parking areas, for example in shopping centres, and recalls the provisions laid down in Directive 2014/94/EU for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, for example in respect of natural gas;

6.  Urges the Commission and the Member States to create the necessary conditions for cross‑border travel planning, reservation and payment systems encompassing different forms of transport, bearing in mind that the need to use a variety of information platforms and payment systems poses a major obstacle to the acceptance of, and demand for, intermodal transport systems;

7.  Calls on the Member States to protect the most vulnerable road users by improving the safety of pedestrians, removing architectural barriers, establishing safe pedestrian-only routes and supporting ‘walking buses’ and safe routes between home and school; further calls on the Member States to improve bike mobility by providing dedicated and safe cycling paths and bike parking areas, and by promoting and implementing bike sharing services; calls on the Commission and the Member States, in order to further stimulate bike mobility, to put forward amendments to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic in order to modernise traffic rules in urban areas so as to ensure that cyclists are given the best protection possible;

8.  Calls on the Commission, furthermore, to submit a legislative proposal to develop the single market in innovative solutions for urban mobility;

9.  Calls on the Commission, the Member States and local and regional authorities to fully incorporate sustainability criteria when granting public procurement contracts for transport and logistics;

10.  Urges the Member States to use part of their revenues from excise duties or road tax on private vehicles to reduce fares for urban public transport with the aim of making it free of charge to residents, and to rethink public transport fare systems and give preference to flat-rate systems;

11.  Calls on the Member States to consider eliminating direct and indirect subsidies for vehicles running on traditional fossil fuels; calls on the Member States to consider introducing tax incentives for electric vehicles, such as reduced VAT or exemption from road tax, and to support economic incentives for businesses which grant fringe benefits to promote sustainable mobility among employees, for tour operators which offer their customers sustainable urban transport solutions, and for SMEs which produce goods or services aimed at sustainable urban mobility;

12.  Calls on the Member States, when launching car scrapping schemes, to consider supporting, in descending order, the use of public collective transport systems, electric vehicles, hydrogen-powered vehicles, including those using methane reforming, natural gas vehicles, hybrid vehicles and LPG vehicles;

13.  Calls on the Commission to make assessments, within the Member States’ individual plans, regarding the siting of stations used to measure and monitor atmospheric pollution in the main urban agglomerations with air quality problems, bearing in mind that poor siting of such stations very often renders the data inaccurate and could therefore create a public health risk;

14.  Believes that the Juncker plan could play a key role in financing sustainable urban transport and infrastructure projects, and calls on the Commission and the Member States to increase their financial support for sustainable urban mobility projects, to ensure the necessary synergies between the various funding sources and programmes, and to develop links between urban mobility, the new Digital Agenda and the Energy Union; invites the Member States to ensure efficient public transport implementation, in particular through electrified transport systems, and to link urban and peri-urban areas and to respond effectively and sustainably to commuting needs before investing in the construction of new roads and highways;

15.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to promote exchanges of best practices in order to facilitate the transfer of skills and technologies in the field of sustainable mobility, especially with a view to helping developing regions; further calls on the Commission and the Member States to support research programmes on new technologies, new business models and new integrated sustainable urban mobility practices and urban logistics, and to launch public awareness campaigns to promote mobility that is efficient, sustainable and less dependent on the use of private, conventionally fuelled cars.

RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE

Date adopted

17.6.2015

 

 

 

Result of final vote

+:

–:

0:

53

8

0

Members present for the final vote

Marco Affronte, Pilar Ayuso, Zoltán Balczó, Lynn Boylan, Nessa Childers, Alberto Cirio, Birgit Collin-Langen, Mireille D’Ornano, Miriam Dalli, Seb Dance, Angélique Delahaye, Stefan Eck, Bas Eickhout, Eleonora Evi, José Inácio Faria, Karl-Heinz Florenz, Iratxe García Pérez, Elisabetta Gardini, Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, Jens Gieseke, Julie Girling, Sylvie Goddyn, Matthias Groote, Françoise Grossetête, Andrzej Grzyb, Anneli Jäätteenmäki, Jean-François Jalkh, Benedek Jávor, Karin Kadenbach, Kateřina Konečná, Giovanni La Via, Peter Liese, Norbert Lins, Susanne Melior, Miroslav Mikolášik, Massimo Paolucci, Gilles Pargneaux, Piernicola Pedicini, Pavel Poc, Marcus Pretzell, Frédérique Ries, Annie Schreijer-Pierik, Davor Škrlec, Renate Sommer, Dubravka Šuica, Tibor Szanyi, Jadwiga Wiśniewska, Damiano Zoffoli

Substitutes present for the final vote

Nikos Androulakis, Renata Briano, Nicola Caputo, James Nicholson, Marijana Petir, Sirpa Pietikäinen, Gabriele Preuß, Bart Staes, Tom Vandenkendelaere

Substitutes under Rule 200(2) present for the final vote

Damian Drăghici, Fredrick Federley, Anthea McIntyre, Jens Nilsson


OPINION of the Committee on Regional Development (22.6.2015)

for the Committee on Transport and Tourism

on Sustainable Urban Mobility

(2014/2242(INI))

Rapporteur: Ramón Luis Valcárcel

SUGGESTIONS

The Committee on Regional Development calls on the Committee on Transport and Tourism, as the committee responsible, to incorporate the following suggestions into its motion for a resolution:

1.  Notes that over 70 % of the EU population lives in cities, which generate approximately 85 % of the EU’s GDP, and that sustainable urban mobility is an increasingly important factor in cohesion policy, given that it is a key element and driver of employment and smart, sustainable and inclusive growth; considers that the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF), and in particular the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), should contribute, through the operational programmes, to the financing of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) for cities and regions and in the EU, by supporting clean, accessible and innovative forms of urban transport that will promote multimodality and mobility in a broader territorial context, including transborder mobility; recalls, in this regard, that the transport sector, both stationary and moving traffic, has a heavy impact on the urban environment and the quality of life of citizens, and considers that an efficient transport system can be fostered with a public-private partnership in which there will be a repartition of costs and possibilities to develop an innovative and efficient public procurement system with the aim of producing considerable savings and a sharing of expertise and knowledge between authorities; notes the importance of respecting the partnership principle during the programming and implementation of the operational programmes in order to ensure full involvement of social partners, professional organisations, research centres and enterprises;

2.  Asks the Commission to take stock of progress and to supply a qualitative and quantitative analysis of cohesion policy support for sustainable urban mobility when undertaking its mid-term review of the implementation of the ESIF;

3.  Urges the Commission, the Member States and regional and local authorities to assess and audit the Urban Mobility Plans in line with the objectives and goals of the Transport 2050 strategy;

4.  Underlines that, taking into account the need to reduce the negative impact on the environment caused by oil dependency in the EU transport system (overwhelmingly on oil and its by-products), the ESI funds should be systematically used for the development and implementation of comprehensive and integrated SUMPs for complementarily and mutually reinforcing urban mobility measures in the wider spatial planning context without generating additional transport needs for excessive use of cars and by putting emphasis on an integrated transport system based on cooperation between individual types of transport;

5.  Notes that promoting sustainable transport and improved network infrastructure, encouraging adaptation to climate change, and risk prevention and management are among the thematic objectives of the cohesion policy 2014-2020;

6.  Points in particular to the many harmful effects of the current transport model on fundamental elements of the natural environment, including air, water, and soil, and on the various ecosystems;

7.  Considers that it is therefore essential to ensure the development and promotion of SUMPs and urban sustainability in all European cities, functional urban areas and regions, including an analysis of needs and objectives for mobility infrastructure, while addressing those modes and means of transport which are complementary in the context of territorial and global spatial development, promoting clean, sustainable, safe, effective and energy-efficient transport, favouring the interconnectedness of urban and periurban areas, and promoting greater self-sufficiency, competitiveness, economic growth, improved road safety and better conditions of employment; also points out that urban transport policy, including the establishment of transport alternatives to reduce demand for travelling by individual means of transport, falls within the remit of cities and local authorities too;

8.  Underlines the potential sustainable urban mobility has in increasing the attractiveness of European cities and regions both for investors and inhabitants by improving accessibility and road safety and reducing traffic and pollution; believes in the positive role it could have in ensuring a better work-life balance, given the reduced commuting time; calls therefore on regional and local authorities to foster innovative solutions for sustainable urban mobility;

9.  Calls on the Member States to promote multi-level governance to foster cooperation between regional, national and European authorities in the development of policies, including in the design, implementation and monitoring of urban policies that have a clear impact on urban areas;

10.  Considers that investments in sustainable public transport are not only a response to urban mobility problems, but also include ‘elements of urban renewal’ impacting the general economic system of the city and facilitating the creation of a green urban environment, as well as access to centres of mixed activities (commercial, residential, leisure, culture, education). Underlines that the proper coordination of mobility and urban planning is crucial in order to maximise the impact of investments;

11.  Points out that cycle transport plays an important role in contemporary planning for sustainable urban mobility and that it is part of the solution for preventing traffic congestion; stresses that segregated cycle/pedestrian paths should be included as a matter of course when building or restoring roads;

12.  Acknowledges the quality and diversity of the jobs offered by public transport operators and the related benefits for the economy; calls on the Commission to monitor and assess the contribution of public transport to green jobs and green growth strategies at national and European level;

13.  Calls for the initiatives promoting youth employment and other ESI funds to be used to promote employment in areas that stimulate the development of sustainable urban mobility; stresses that the implementation of urban mobility projects has a positive impact on all regions and their populations, by promoting the filling of existing and innovative jobs in relevant fields, including professions where there is a workforce shortage;

14.  Strongly believes that the Commission’s Platform on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans should provide strong support for cities and regions for the design and implementation of the SUMPs; stresses the importance of considering all cities, regardless of size, for investment in urban mobility and of the key role that European cities and regions have to play in boosting and promoting sustainable urban mobility; calls for the involvement of representatives of local and regional authorities of different sizes and representatives of diverse stakeholders (e.g. cyclists’ associations) in the European Platform and the Member States’ Expert Group on Urban Mobility and Transport;

15.  Considers that it would be appropriate to promote the sharing of urban mobility best practices in order to speed up the spread of the most innovative solutions and the achievement of the EU’s objectives in this sphere;

16.  Calls on the authorities to promote the development of terminal charging systems for electric and hybrid vehicles suitable for all roads and to promote the use of alternative means of transport, an integrated mobility solution, the establishment of zones accessible only to certain types of transport and vehicles and the sustainable use of clean and electric vehicles, bicycles, trolleybuses, buses, trams, bioethanol and clean fuels so as to combat global warming, with the aim of increasing the long-term quality of life that comes with the development of intelligent and intermodal transport systems ensuring mobile information and a territorial continuum between urban centres and their periurban areas;

17.  Calls on the authorities to promote ways to reduce the demand for transport by enhancing the use of teleworking and ICT tools and to be aware of the figures of the Eurobarometer survey that show that EU citizens are concerned about the negative impact of increased traffic in cities, considering traffic congestion (76 %), air quality (81 %) and accident rates (73 %) to be the most serious problems; calls on the Commission to monitor the new forms of mobility related to transport (e.g. self-drive vehicles), to carry out, in cooperation with the Member States, an analysis of all available measures helping to minimise the number of injuries and deaths, in particular of pedestrians and cyclists, and to promote the use of bicycles in cities, along with investment in cycling lanes and measures to raise awareness among road users regarding safety for cyclists; points out that cycling plays an important role in contemporary planning of sustainable urban mobility and that it is part of the solution for preventing congestion; stresses that segregated cycle/pedestrian paths should be included as a matter of course when building or restoring roads; reiterates in this respect that the increased use of bicycles in cities enhances traffic flow, improves public health and reduces the carbon footprint; stresses that an increased use of bicycles in cities could contribute to the Europe 2020 objectives; asks the Member States to continue building ring roads in order to minimise the number of vehicles going unnecessarily through cities, and calls on the Commission to find ways to support these projects financially; stresses that more efforts need to be undertaken in order to reduce the number of cars in the city; calls on local authorities to promote policies to encourage green transport by providing facilities, reducing taxes and establishing green certificates;

18.  Underlines the importance of transborder connection of cities in the process of urban planning, as it stimulates regional development; stresses that cities separated by a border but forming an integrated functional area should be supported in linking their tram and bus networks;

19.  Calls on the Commission to develop standards to ensure general harmonisation and coherence in the regulation of parking and vehicle access to urban areas, the categorisation of vehicles, the different classes of emissions, road signs, disability-friendly transport systems and technical standards in intelligent transport systems, and to boost the impetus for pedestrian zones and the protection of historical areas and generally improve the environment and public mobility; points out that the keystone of the SUMPs is quality of life, a corollary of which is the emphasis on freeing cities from traffic congestion and planning parking facilities to ensure freedom of movement for pedestrians and the attractiveness of city centres; asks the Commission to support coordinated and integrated strategic public transport solutions to relieve transport networks, urban highways and access roads to workplaces in order to improve people’s quality of life and to encourage a better work-life balance, while increasing productivity; also calls on the authorities to increase the use of intelligent technologies that can help solve problems related to urban mobility, such as on-board satellite sensors in vehicles and smart ticketing;

20.  Welcomes the Commission’s efforts to coordinate and consolidate EU initiatives in the field of urban mobility, such as CIVITAS 2020 for research and innovation, the Urban Mobility Observatory for the exchange of best practice and experience, and the Platform on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans; calls on the Commission to reinforce its efforts to reduce fragmentation and the lack of coordination between the relevant EU initiatives and programmes and to take into account the success of programmes such as URBAN and URBACT; calls on the Commission to encourage the authorities in Member States to create networks of excellence in the field of urban mobility, to continue the efforts of the CIVITAS 2020 initiative and to encourage more EU citizens to sign up to this project;

21.  Calls on the Commission to draw up urban mobility guidelines, recommendations and indicators to encourage dialogue and the exchange of good social mobility practices between the different parties involved and to coordinate the urban policy strategies to be followed;

22.  Advocates a strong link between mobility plans and urban sustainability and other initiatives such as Smart Cities and the Covenant of Mayors which are oriented towards a more sustainable and self-sufficient city; considers that the voluntary commitment established in the Covenant of Mayors can serve as a springboard for addressing all parties concerned in the creation of mobility and sustainability plans that can be advertised in a cost-efficient manner; welcomes the initiative entitled ‘CiTIEs: Cities of Tomorrow: Investing in Europe’, and calls on the Commission to use the existing platforms to develop communication tools aimed at bringing together stakeholders in the field of sustainable urban development;

23.  Considers that the European Fund for Strategic Investment (EFSI) can play a key role in financing sustainable urban transport projects; believes, therefore, that it is essential to establish strong strategic planning and coherence between urban mobility projects to be supported by the EFSI and the objectives and priorities related to urban mobility already developed by national, regional, local and European authorities; calls, therefore, on the Commission to include public authorities as potential beneficiaries of funding through European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF);

24.  Stresses the importance of capacity-building within local authorities and in periurban areas for drawing up and implementing integrated development strategies to facilitate cooperation between different territories, and consequently to foster interdependence and complementarity;

25.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to ensure complimentary and synergies between the EFSI, the ESI funds and the EU-subsidised programmes and initiatives, as well as national public investments and private financial instruments, so as to obtain the maximum added value of the investments effected;

26.  Calls on the Member States to develop or reassess their own strategies for developing public transport and non-motorised transport so as to ensure high-quality urban mobility, protection of the environment and quality of life.

RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE

Date adopted

17.6.2015

 

 

 

Result of final vote

+:

–:

0:

29

3

1

Members present for the final vote

Pascal Arimont, José Blanco López, Franc Bogovič, Steeve Briois, Rosa D’Amato, Bill Etheridge, Michela Giuffrida, Ivan Jakovčić, Constanze Krehl, Martina Michels, Iskra Mihaylova, Andrey Novakov, Stanislav Polčák, Julia Reid, Terry Reintke, Monika Smolková, Maria Spyraki, Olaf Stuger, Ramón Luis Valcárcel Siso, Ángela Vallina, Monika Vana, Matthijs van Miltenburg, Lambert van Nistelrooij, Kerstin Westphal

Substitutes present for the final vote

Petras Auštrevičius, Daniel Buda, Salvatore Cicu, Ivana Maletić, Jan Olbrycht

Substitutes under Rule 200(2) present for the final vote

Edward Czesak, Jens Nilsson, Georgi Pirinski, Daniele Viotti


RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE

Date adopted

10.11.2015

 

 

 

Result of final vote

+:

–:

0:

37

5

5

Members present for the final vote

Daniela Aiuto, Marie-Christine Arnautu, Georges Bach, Izaskun Bilbao Barandica, Deirdre Clune, Michael Cramer, Andor Deli, Karima Delli, Isabella De Monte, Ismail Ertug, Jacqueline Foster, Bruno Gollnisch, Tania González Peñas, Dieter-Lebrecht Koch, Merja Kyllönen, Bogusław Liberadzki, Peter Lundgren, Marian-Jean Marinescu, Cláudia Monteiro de Aguiar, Renaud Muselier, Jens Nilsson, Markus Pieper, Salvatore Domenico Pogliese, Tomasz Piotr Poręba, Gabriele Preuß, Christine Revault D’Allonnes Bonnefoy, Dominique Riquet, Massimiliano Salini, Claudia Schmidt, Jill Seymour, Claudia Tapardel, Keith Taylor, Pavel Telička, István Ujhelyi, Wim van de Camp, Elissavet Vozemberg-Vrionidi, Janusz Zemke, Kosma Złotowski, Elżbieta Katarzyna Łukacijewska

Substitutes present for the final vote

Rosa Estaràs Ferragut, Massimo Paolucci, Evžen Tošenovský, Matthijs van Miltenburg

Substitutes under Rule 200(2) present for the final vote

Clara Eugenia Aguilera García, Paul Brannen, Jiří Maštálka, Flavio Zanonato

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