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Δευτέρα 27 Απριλίου 2015 - Στρασβούργο Αναθεωρημένη έκδοση

17. Δεύτερη επέτειος από την κατάρρευση του κτηρίου Rana Plaza και οι εξελίξεις σχετικά με την τρέχουσα κατάσταση του Συμφώνου Βιωσιμότητας του Μπαγκλαντές (συζήτηση)
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  elnök asszony. – A következő napirendi pont a Bizottság nyilatkozata a Rana Plaza összeomlásának második évfordulójáról és a bangladesi fenntarthatósági megállapodás előrehaladásáról.

 
  
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  Cecilia Malmström, Member of the Commission. Madam President, last Friday, 24 April, we were commemorating the fact that it was two years since the terrible accident at Rana Plaza in Bangladesh. As we know, 1 100 lives were claimed and over a thousand people were injured. It was a tragedy for everybody who lost their lives, for the families and for those who were injured, and it was a tragedy that could have been prevented.

Although the garment industry in Bangladesh has been very successful over many years, this disaster drew attention to the shaky foundations on which it has been built. It also highlighted the world’s shared responsibility for taking action to redress the situation, given the links between the garment workers in Bangladesh and consumers all around the world. And let us not forget that EU citizens are the largest consumers as regards clothes made in Bangladesh.

Through the Bangladesh Sustainability Compact, the EU, the US, the government of Bangladesh and the International Labour Organisation, referred to as the ‘compact partners’, have pledged their engagement to improve labour rights and working conditions in the Bangladesh garment and knitwear industry. Since the launch of the Compact in July 2013, health and safety conditions at the workplace have been improving in the Bangladesh garment sector. However, a lot of progress is still needed. These were the conclusions of the Compact follow-up meeting between all partners held in October 2014 and of the technical status report that we published last Friday.

Since October 2014, the Commission has noted and welcomed the continued progress made by the government of Bangladesh to increase capacity and resources for safety inspections on buildings and factories, a responsibility they must fully assume in the long term.

But there are outstanding issues and let me highlight them. The first of these is the adoption as a matter of highest priority by the Government of Bangladesh of the implementing regulations of the Labour Law. That was decided more than two years ago and it is imperative for the overall improvement of the situation, not least for the newly appointed inspectors in order for them to have clear rules to be able to work effectively. We hear that work is progressing, but I would urge the Government of Bangladesh to ensure that there are no further delays in adopting the rules and that all stakeholders contribute constructively to the process.

It is also important that the implementing regulations address unfair labour practices, including remedies. This will correspond to the government’s commitment to prioritise effective investigation and the prosecution of those involved in unfair labour practices, including anti-union discrimination and reprisals.

A matter of equal importance is that we expect the adoption of legislation to ensure that workers in export processing zones enjoy freedom of association and collective bargaining rights.

I would also like to emphasise the vital role businesses should play in enabling labour rights and safe working conditions in Bangladesh. We have seen an unprecedented engagement by the private sector in all aspects of the Accord and the Alliance, amounting to more than 250 retailers from 20 countries, and between them they have inspected around 2 500 factories since the launch of the Compact. Inspection findings and remedial actions are publicly available online together with the summaries of government-led factory inspections.

The Bangladesh Industry Association is also playing its role by actively raising awareness among its members of workers’ and trade union rights and the importance of a constructive social dialogue. We commend this engagement by the private sector. It must continue, including through building further on the supply-chain initiatives in line with internationally recognised guidelines and principles on corporate social responsibility.

Going beyond Bangladesh, the Commission is actively engaged at multiple levels through the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) with issues on corporate social responsibility in the garment sector.

Finally, compensation is one of the burning issues and it was not directly covered by the Compact. The Commission continues to encourage garment companies and retailers to play their full part in the Rana Plaza Donors Trust Fund, regardless of whether they produced or sourced from Rana Plaza. It is important that the experience gained by the government from working with stakeholders on compensation contributes to ensuring that ultimately a sustainable system for insurance and compensation can be established in Bangladesh in the future.

I thank this House for your strong involvement and support for the actions here and I am looking forward to the debate tonight.

 
  
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  Cristian Dan Preda, în numele grupului PPE. Doamnă președintă, în urmă cu două luni am condus, în numele Subcomisiei pentru drepturile omului din Parlamentul European, o delegație în Bangladesh, la Dhaka. Principalul scop al delegației a fost de a înțelege în ce măsură s-au îmbunătățit condițiile de lucru ale muncitorilor din sectorul confecțiilor în urma tragediei de la Rana Plaza.

Trebuie spus că, în ciuda progreselor, situația celor 4 milioane de angajați din acest sector, care asigură 80 % din totalul exporturilor Bangladeshului, e motiv de preocupare. Am putut vizita una dintre cele peste 4 000 de fabrici de confecții din Bangladesh și am realizat că Rana Plaza a fost un semnal serios de alarmă în ceea ce privește siguranța clădirii și a angajaților, o atenție sporită fiind acordată acestei chestiuni. Fabricile au început să aibă sisteme de pază contra incendiilor, instalații electrice realizate de ingineri și, mai ales, să consolideze clădirile.

E ceva mai bine decât era înainte de 24 aprilie 2013 pentru cele care funcționează legal, nu și pentru cele peste 2 000 care lucrează la negru. Acesta e un aspect foarte sensibil, la fel cum foarte sensibilă e situația politică din Bangladesh și blocajul rezultat din confruntarea, din conflictul neîmpăcat între Awami League și Bangladesh Nationalist Party, conflict care nu permite o ameliorare a drepturilor și, în particular, a drepturilor din domeniul social.

(Vorbitorul a acceptat să răspundă unei întrebări adresate în conformitate cu procedura „cartonașului albastru” (articolul 149 alineatul (8) din Regulamentul de procedură))

 
  
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  Marc Tarabella (S&D), question "carton bleu". Madame la Présidente, cher collègue, des entreprises comme C&A et JBC ont fait d'énormes progrès pour essayer d'améliorer les conditions des travailleurs. Par contre, une entreprise comme H&M n'a fait aucun progrès et n'a pas retenu les leçons de ce qui s'est passé à Dacca. Elle continue à traiter les ouvriers comme du bétail. On peut solder les vêtements, mais pas les droits des travailleurs.

Êtes-vous d'accord avec moi pour faire bouger les entreprises qui ne bougent pas et pour que nous publiions une liste noire des entreprises qui manifestent de la mauvaise volonté pour faire progresser les droits des travailleurs?

 
  
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  Cristian Dan Preda (PPE), réponse "carton bleu". Madame la Présidente, je crois que cette liste a déjà été publiée. Ce n'est pas la première fois que l'on discute des bons et des mauvais élèves.

La situation la plus grave concerne, je crois, le travail des enfants, parce que le Bangladesh est l'un des pays qui permet – comme la Bolivie, entre autres – le travail d'enfants qui n'ont, parfois, que 8 ou 9 ans.

Je comprends l'attitude très agressive des socialistes vis-à-vis des entreprises, mais il s'agit ici de droits et, personnellement, je suis préoccupé en premier lieu par les droits des enfants, qui sont bafoués.

Pour donner une réponse complète, je vous signale que nous avons visité un projet très bien soutenu par l'Union, qui vise à réintégrer les enfants qui travaillent dans le milieu scolaire.

 
  
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  Bernd Lange, im Namen der S&D-Fraktion. Frau Präsidentin, Frau Kommissarin! In der Tat sind Fortschritte gemacht worden. Aber es sind auch noch Dinge nicht in Ordnung, zum Beispiel der Entschädigungsfonds, in den immer noch nicht von allen betroffenen Firmen eingezahlt wurde – die 30 Millionen sind noch nicht erreicht. Es sind Fortschritte beim Arbeitsrecht gemacht worden – die Reform 2013. Aber dieses Arbeitsrecht gilt noch nicht für die Sonderwirtschaftszonen. Da liegt auch noch einiges im Argen.

Zum Zweiten hat die IAO festgestellt, dass der Inhalt der fundamentalen IAO-Übereinkommen 87 und 98, die Vereinigungsfreiheit eben nicht gewährleistet worden ist. Da gilt es noch einmal, sehr stark den Finger in die Wunde zu legen. Für mich ist doch die Lehre aus diesem Vorfall, dass wir als Europäer gerade die Gründung von Gewerkschaften und die Wahrnehmung von kollektiven Rechten in allen Handelsbeziehungen stärken müssen, damit die Menschen sich selbst organisieren und für ihre Sicherheit streiten können.

 
  
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  Charles Tannock, on behalf of the ECR Group. Madam President, 24 April 2015 marked the second anniversary of the collapse of the Rana Plaza factory in Bangladesh which tragically claimed 1 129 lives. This tragedy highlights the challenges faced by a strategic South Asian country with a developing economy in providing safe, gainful employment for its very large population of 170 million people.

The garment industry employs some 4 million people, many of whom are women, and accounts for its largest export sector. We can be thankful now that labour and safety issues have been improved as a result of the EU-Bangladesh Sustainability Compact – for instance 32 factories have been permanently closed in Bangladesh as a result of significant safety concerns.

Bangladesh must now ensure that the regulations required for the implementation of the 2013 Labour Act are adopted as a matter of urgency. The Export Processing Zones Law should also be amended to ensure that workers in the zones enjoy equal protection.

Bangladesh recently, to its credit, increased its minimum wage, but the international compensation fund for Rana Plaza victims is still USD 6 million short and I hope that this money can be found soon. Certainly, in my view, compulsory CSR is not a good idea.

 
  
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  Catherine Bearder, on behalf of the ALDE Group. Madam President, two years on from the Rana Plaza disaster, we should be congratulating all on the progress we have made to improve safety in the clothing industry, happy that victims have received compensation and safe in the knowledge that it will never happen again – but we are very far from this happy position.

We are still stuck with the crazy model of over-consumption, throwing away clothes once they are ʽlast seasonʼ, and they are all costing the lives of the poor and voiceless people who are making them. So it is essential to mark this second anniversary. We must continue to fight for the change Bangladeshi women so desperately need. But good progress is being made, public awareness about production methods is improving, and we now have the Sustainability Compact with the Bangladeshi Government, the EU and the ILO. But, this has not stopped other tragedies like the Tazreen factory fire. There is lots more to do to stop these wholly preventable tragedies.

Better legislation can protect. We know that – we did it in Europe in the last two centuries – so let us see that reform in Bangladesh. We need due diligence for garment companies that outsource production to third countries, with binding measures on traceability and transparency. It is not impossible and it is our responsibility to make sure that those vulnerable people get our protection because the clothes they make, make us feel good. They keep commerce moving and make huge profits for multinationals. All from the sweat of their own labour.

If the Bangladesh national laws supposed to protect and compensate the workers are not enforced, if the multinational companies are slow in implementing decent working conditions, then it has to be up to us, the regulators and the consumers, to take that action.

 
  
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  Anne-Marie Mineur, namens de GUE/NGL-Fractie. Afgelopen vrijdag is het twee jaar geleden dat de dodelijkste ramp ooit in een textielfabriek plaatsvond. Er kwamen 1 138 mensen om, ruim 2 000 mensen raakten gewond. Lang niet alle lichamen werden geborgen. De internationale samenleving was geschokt en heeft gezworen dat dit nooit meer mocht gebeuren.

Toch hebben nog lang niet alle slachtoffers en hun nabestaanden volledige compensatie gekregen. Er zijn bedrijven die wel volop gebruikmaken van deze fabrieken en de mensen die erin werken, maar die niet bereid zijn gebleken hen te compenseren, of die niet verteld hebben hoeveel ze gegeven hebben. Cleanclothes.org noemt hun namen precies. Maar wat nodig is, is dat commissaris Malmström deze bedrijven publiekelijk aanspreekt op hun verantwoordelijkheid. Naming and shaming. Deze bedrijven mogen hier niet mee wegkomen. Ze hebben ruim de tijd gehad.

Ook de naleving van een controle op het zogenaamde duurzaamheidscompact is iets waar commissaris Malmström zich hard voor moet maken. De kledingindustrie is van levensbelang voor Bangladesh en het land is na China de grootste kledingproducent ter wereld, waarbij zestig procent naar Europa gaat. Wij moeten daar onze verantwoordelijkheid nemen.

Waar ik tot slot voor wil pleiten, is dat we de vakbonden versterken. Het is nodig dat de werknemers in Bangladesh zich mogen verenigen en een vuist kunnen maken. Het is gebleken dat de werknemers hen anders onder druk zetten, naar elkaar spelen (??). Als gevolg daarvan konden de werkgevers hun personeel dwingen om te blijven werken in een gebouw dat overduidelijk levensgevaarlijk was. Iedere macht heeft een tegenmacht nodig en voor dit soort werknemers is een sterke vakbond van levensbelang. We moeten hen daarin steunen.

 
  
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  Ska Keller, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. Madam President, Rana Plaza should have been a wake-up call for everybody on this Earth and indeed some things have changed. They have been outlined by some here: new laws in Bangladesh, a compensation fund that is not yet filled – so things we still need to work on, and the labour law in Bangladesh still has its shortcomings.

So there are a lot of things which should have been done. Yes, we as the European Union need to support Bangladesh in going further. But we also have to see that we, here in the European Union, are part of the problem. It is true that we are the consumers but we cannot leave policymaking to the consumers. Here in this Parliament we make laws about our internal market and we make laws on trade. I think we have to use those trade laws, those market laws, to make sure that those goods that are produced under horrendous working conditions – where people are dying because of the job that they are trying to do in order to feed themselves and their families – do not have a future here.

So we need to have those binding rules that the Right of the House has just rejected. Maybe you can explain how, if not by binding rules, we are going to make sure that the goods that are being sold here are in line with the most decent, normal and basic human rights and the most basic working laws. I think that is something that we, as legislators, have to stand up for. We cannot excuse ourselves and leave it to the consumers. We cannot leave this to Bangladesh. It is our common responsibility.

 
  
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  Tiziana Beghin, a nome del gruppo EFDD. Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, esattamente due anni fa 1 138 persone morivano nel crollo di uno dei più grandi complessi tessili del mondo, il Rana Plaza a Dacca in Bangladesh.

Lì si producevano capi che noi indossiamo tutti i giorni, destinati ad essere venduti da grossi marchi come Benetton, Camaieu, Kappa, Mango, Walmart e molti altri. I giganti dell'abbigliamento non possono sfuggire alle loro responsabilità, non hanno scuse. Se si appalta il lavoro in Bangladesh a certe imprese e si impongono certi prezzi, non si può fingere di non sapere e indignarsi quando le tragedie accadono.

Nemmeno l'Unione europea è esente da colpe. I prodotti realizzati in Bangladesh entrano in Europa senza dazi doganali in virtù di un accordo speciale e per questo le multinazionali vanno lì a produrre, ma questi accordi devono servire allo sviluppo dei paesi poveri, non all'arricchimento delle multinazionali, e nonostante il salario minimo sia stato aumentato, in Bangladesh l'industria paga ancora i salari più bassi al mondo, imponendo le condizioni più dure.

Dal disastro di due anni fa il governo, insieme alle organizzazioni internazionali, ha fatto progressi nella protezione dei diritti dei lavoratori e ha reso più frequenti le ispezioni. Nella nostra risoluzione abbiamo voluto incoraggiare i progressi fatti, ma non possiamo ignorare che ancora oggi, a distanza di due anni dal disastro, le condizioni di chi produce abbigliamento per l'occidente in Bangladesh sono vergognose e ancora oggi la libertà sindacale è repressa con violenza. Se il Bangladesh e il mondo intero vogliono evitare un altro Rana Plaza è necessario fare di più e meglio.

(L'oratrice accetta di rispondere a una domanda "cartellino blu" (articolo 162, paragrafo 8, del regolamento))

 
  
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  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE), pitanje koje je podizanjem plave kartice postavio. Želim Vas upitati sljedeće: Pažljivo slušajući Vaš govor naveli ste niz marki koje dolaze upravo iz Vaše zemlje, iz Italije, koje su svjetski poznate i pitam Vas dijelite li moje mišljenje da bi i taj privatni sektor trebao i te kako snositi s jedne strane i posljedice na način upravo da pomogne Bangladešu, da pomogne tamo gdje ostvaruje ekstraprofite na način na koji to nije moguće i nije ni primjereno, barem kako ja to vidim?

 
  
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  Tiziana Beghin (EFDD), Risposta a una domanda "cartellino blu". La ringrazio per la sua domanda, mi consente di ribadire quello che ho già detto, che non possiamo consentire attraverso questo tipo di trattati che consentono alle multinazionali, tra cui quelle italiane e non solo, di commissionare lavoro laddove costa meno e in condizioni vergognose, grazie al fatto che poi possono importare da noi a dazio zero. La finalità di questi accordi è esattamente l'opposto: non arricchire le multinazionali bensì favorire lo sviluppo interno. Se questo non accade abbiamo sbagliato qualcosa.

 
  
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  Gilles Lebreton (NI). Madame la Présidente, il y a deux ans, le 24 avril 2013, un immeuble de huit étages, le Rana Plaza, s'effondrait dans la capitale du Bangladesh. Ce drame a fait près de 1 200 morts. Il s'agissait pour l'essentiel d'ouvriers, qui travaillaient dans des ateliers de confection vétustes pour des multinationales occidentales.

L'Union européenne est en partie responsable de ce drame, car, en faisant allégeance au modèle américain de la mondialisation ultralibérale, elle a encouragé le dumping social et accepté l'exploitation de la misère.

Quelles leçons a-t-elle tirées du Rana Plaza? Aucune. Elle s'est bornée à adopter une directive, en date du 22 octobre 2014, qui oblige les grandes entreprises à publier, à partir de 2017, des informations sur le respect des droits de l'homme. Mais il s'agit d'un leurre, car aucune sanction n'est prévue. Le lobby des multinationales a gagné. Il est à craindre qu'il y ait d'autres Rana Plaza dans un proche avenir.

 
  
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  Fernando Ruas (PPE). Senhora Presidente, Senhora Comissária, saúdo a apresentação, dois anos após a terrível tragédia, do relatório técnico que considero ser demonstrativo da crueldade da situação atual.

Isto justifica a necessidade do envolvimento contínuo da comunidade internacional tendo em vista a proteção dos direitos dos trabalhadores e da segurança dos edifícios. É a melhor forma, aliás, de honrar a memória dos que lamentavelmente perderam a vida no seu local de trabalho. Saúdo, também, o aparecimento de importantes iniciativas de organizações internacionais, diversas, que juntaram empresas, governos e sindicatos e que têm contribuído para a melhoria - claramente insuficiente ainda - das condições laborais do país.

São boas iniciativas que nos exortam a continuar. É que ainda faltam 30% das indeminizações para as vítimas e para as suas famílias. Por isso, o Governo do Bangladeche deve continuar empenhado na construção de um Estado mais forte e mais bem preparado até porque as ajudas privadas acabam em 2018.

 
  
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  Agnes Jongerius (S&D). We zijn nu twee jaar verder, maar de besmette Bengaalse kleding is nog lang niet schoon. Het is al eerder genoemd: elfhonderd mensen kwamen om bij de ramp in Rana Plaza, puur als gevolg van winstbejag en nalatigheid. En om het leed te verzachten, werd een noodfonds opgericht voor hulp aan slachtoffers en nabestaanden.

Het Italiaanse Benetton is een van die kledingbedrijven die nog steeds nalaten het volledige bedrag van de toegezegde steun te betalen. Ondanks alle maatschappelijke druk in de afgelopen periode is tien procent van de toegezegde bedragen nog steeds niet betaald. Hierover, commissaris Malmström, heb ik u vragen gesteld, maar u toont zich niet bereid om de nalatige kledingbedrijven op het matje te roepen. Bewondering uitspreken voor de bedrijven die wel een bijdrage leveren, is, wat mij betreft, niet voldoende.

Gezien de grote rol van de Europese kledingindustrie in deze ramp zou juist de EU al haar invloed moeten aanwenden om ervoor te zorgen dat de slachtoffers alsnog de steun ontvangen waar ze recht op hebben. Ook moet de druk worden opgevoerd op de regering van Bangladesh, bijvoorbeeld via bindende regels.

Internationale en Europese vakbonden wijzen op een ernstig anti-vakbondsklimaat en een hoge mate van straffeloosheid in de Bengaalse textielindustrie. Ik roep daarom alle fracties op om via de resolutie het belang van vakbonden te erkennen. Dat helpt!

 
  
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  Helmut Scholz (GUE/NGL). Frau Präsidentin, Frau Kommissarin! Eine wichtige, notwendige Debatte. Ich meine, wir müssen endlich Klartext sprechen und verbindliche Regelungen finden. Der Mindestlohn wurde in Bangladesch nun erhöht auf 62 Euro pro Monat für 60 Wochenstunden harte Arbeit. Um die Grundbedürfnisse des Lebens zu decken, braucht man dort jedoch mindestens 104 Euro. Was wird die Kommission also tun, damit europäische Unternehmen als wichtigste Auftraggeber endlich faire Löhne zur Bedingung ihrer Aufträge machen? Nur 20 Cent mehr pro T-Shirt im Einkauf würden die Lohnerhöhung finanzieren.

Kommissarin Thyssen sagte in der Presseerklärung der Kommission zu Recht: Würdige Arbeits- und Lebensbedingungen sind Voraussetzung für nachhaltiges Wirtschaftswachstum und Wohlstand entlang unserer gesamten Produktionsketten. Warum spielt diese Wahrheit noch immer kaum eine Rolle in der konkreten Handelspolitik der Union? Und ist dies nicht auch ein konkreter Bezugspunkt zur EU-Flüchtlings- und Migrationspolitik? Auch Bangladescher sind Opfer von Schlepperkriminalität.

Letztlich möchte ich auch sagen: Weiten Sie den Nachhaltigkeitspakt auf die gesamte Region aus, und machen Sie seine Elemente vor allem verbindlich.

 
  
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  Jarosław Wałęsa (PPE). Pani Przewodnicząca! Po tragedii z 2013 r. rząd Bangladeszu oraz zachodnie firmy odzieżowe podjęli wspólne działania pod kątem integralności konstrukcyjnej, bezpieczeństwa pożarowego i elektrycznego w tamtych fabrykach. Ale oprócz tych działań rząd Bangladeszu powinien przyczynić się do zadbania o rekrutację i szkolenia inspektorów, natomiast dokumentacja tych inspekcji powinna być dostępna publicznie. To niezwykle ważne, żeby przeprowadzać regularnie takie kontrole, gdyż mogą one zapobiegać podobnym tragediom. Ponadto władze tego kraju powinny czynnie wprowadzać reformy dotyczące egzekwowania prawa pracy w celu zapewnienia pracownikom bezpiecznych i godnych warunków pracy. Ważne jest również to, aby rząd Bangladeszu umożliwił organizacjom praw człowieka odgrywanie istotnej roli w wyznaczaniu mechanizmów monitorowania naruszeń praw człowieka, które mają miejsce w tym kraju.

 
  
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  Maria Arena (S&D). Madame la Présidente, nous parlons tous effectivement de cette tragédie d'il y a deux ans, où plus d'un millier de personnes ont perdu la vie. Mais aujourd'hui des milliers de personnes perdent encore la vie pour les mêmes raisons, parce que nous avons, en Europe, des systèmes de production et de consommation qui sont totalement pervers. Beaucoup de mes collègues ont mis le doigt sur cette réalité.

Nous pouvons prendre nos responsabilités, en Europe, en rendant obligatoire la traçabilité et la responsabilité des entreprises qui non seulement produisent en Europe, mais qui sont aussi donneuses d'ordre et qui importent en Europe. Tout produit vendu et consommé en Europe devrait avoir cette traçabilité obligatoire par rapport à des exigences de droit du travail, mais également de droits humains.

En mai, nous aurons la possibilité, ici, dans cette même assemblée, d'adopter un système de traçabilité pour les minerais. J'espère que tous ceux qui ont pleuré les travailleurs du Rana Plaza voteront en faveur de cette proposition, qui ira vers l'obligation de traçabilité pour les minerais.

 
  
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  Lola Sánchez Caldentey (GUE/NGL). Señora Presidenta, han pasado dos años desde la tragedia, pero la conciencia que se creó entonces no se ha trasladado a acciones políticas de calado. Las víctimas ni siquiera han cobrado indemnizaciones y no nos hemos dotado de ningún marco regulatorio que impida que esto se repita.

Me pregunto, señora Comisaria: ¿existe voluntad política para evitar estos casos de explotación que llevan a estas tragedias o los derechos humanos de los pobres no cuentan? ¿Es «business as usual»?

Necesitamos empezar a ser coherentes y honestos, dotarnos de una política comercial que promueva la dignidad humana y no fomente la explotación a través de perversos comportamientos competitivos. Necesitamos, ya, un marco regulatorio vinculante basado en los derechos humanos que garantice que los productos que se venden en el mercado europeo no estén violando la dignidad y los derechos de las personas.

Pero, sobre todo, es fundamental controlar el comportamiento de nuestras empresas, las europeas, allá donde produzcan. Sin ello, todo lo demás es pura hipocresía.

 
  
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  Thomas Mann (PPE). Frau Präsidentin! Es ist die Profitsucht von Wenigen, für die die Ärmsten der Armen einen hohen Preis bezahlt haben beim Einsturz des Rana-Plaza-Gebäudes: 1 100 Menschen starben, 2 000 wurden verletzt. Ja, es wurde vieles unternommen, Fabriken geschlossen, Arbeitnehmerrechte zumindest in Ansätzen gestärkt, Löhne erhöht – aber noch lange nicht genügend –, Sicherheitsstandards verbessert.

Der Pakt war richtig und ist wichtig. Aber den Familien wurde nicht geholfen. Zugesagte finanzielle Entschädigungen fehlen. Also muss der Druck von uns, Frau Kommissarin, auf die internationalen Produzenten, auf die Subunternehmer aufrechterhalten bleiben, damit sie sich für ein menschenwürdiges Arbeitsumfeld einsetzen. Und die Behörden in Bangladesch müssen im Eigeninteresse kontinuierliche und strenge Kontrollen durchführen.

Wenn 60 % der Textilprodukte für den europäischen Markt bestimmt sind, müssen wir versuchen, die Verbraucher einzubeziehen, genauer hinschauen, unter welchen Bedingungen Produkte entstehen, bereit sein, das finanziell wertzuschätzen. Sage keiner, der andere sei zuständig. Sagen wir uns alle: Wir sind mitverantwortlich für erlebte negative Zustände, aber hoffentlich auch für positive Entwicklungen.

(Der Redner ist damit einverstanden, eine Frage nach dem Verfahren der „blauen Karte“ gemäß Artikel 162 Absatz 8 der Geschäftsordnung zu beantworten.)

 
  
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  Doru-Claudian Frunzulică (S&D), blue-card question. Mr Mann, what do you think that the Bangladesh Government ought to do in order to avoid such tragedies in the future?

 
  
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  Thomas Mann (PPE), Antwort auf eine Frage nach dem Verfahren der „blauen Karte“. Das Wichtigste ist, dass die Behörden die Verantwortung wahrnehmen, dass die Inspektionen, die wir fordern, auch stattfinden können, dass da auch genügend Personal zur Verfügung steht. Das Land muss herauskommen aus der Situation, zu sagen, das passiert alles nur in Bangladesch. Wir wissen, es läuft auch in anderen Ländern. Wir haben das erlebt – ich gehöre der Südasien-Delegation mit an: Wir haben nur eine Chance, wenn wirklich eine Realisierung stattfinden kann und man nicht einfach sagen kann, uns sind die Hände gebunden, wir kommen nicht voran. Das ist das, was wir brauchen. Druck von außen muss stattfinden, dann werden wir Veränderungen erreichen, gerade bei den Behörden in Bangladesch.

 
  
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  Josef Weidenholzer (S&D). Frau Präsidentin! Ich hatte im Februar die Gelegenheit, mit einer Delegation nach Bangladesch zu fahren. Wir haben uns die Situation in den Fabriken angesehen und mit Accord Alliance und mit Gewerkschaften gesprochen. Es ist zweifellos so, dass man von einem Fortschritt sprechen kann. Es haben sich Dinge verbessert, vor allem im Bereich der Gebäudesicherheit, im Bereich des Feuerschutzes. Es gibt aber auch viele Mängel, die vor allem auch daher rühren, dass die Gewerkschaften noch unterentwickelt sind. Ungefähr 2% sind gewerkschaftlich organisiert. Die Gewerkschaften sind rudimentär, sie sind zersplittert. Das ist ein großer Nachteil für die Entwicklung in diesem Land.

Es gibt noch etwas, das – neben der nicht vorhandenen Meinungsfreiheit – sehr besorgniserregend ist. Das ist die Gewalt in diesem Land, die sich mehr oder minder auf einen Bürgerkrieg hin zuspitzt. Solange das nicht beseitigt ist, werden wir große Probleme haben. Als des Landes größter Handelspartner haben wir auch eine Verantwortung, darauf einzuwirken, dass dieser Bürgerkrieg nicht stattfindet.

 
  
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  Jutta Steinruck (S&D). Frau Präsidentin! Nicht selten wird die Baumwolle für ein T-Shirt durch Kinderarbeit in Usbekistan geerntet, dann in Bangladesch oder Pakistan unter unwürdigen Bedingungen weiterverarbeitet, und das T-Shirt wird mit großem Profit bei uns hier in Europa verkauft. Während der Handel 40 % an einem T-Shirt verdient, sind es die Arbeiterinnen und Arbeiter, die nur 4 % daran verdienen. Miese Entlohnung, schlechte Arbeitsbedingungen sind die Regel. Wir brauchen Transparenzanforderungen, auch für Arbeits- und Sozialstandards. Nicht nur für wirtschaftliche Tätigkeiten.

Ich erwarte von der Kommission: Unterstützen Sie, ja fordern Sie die Verbesserung der Arbeits- und Sozialstandards in diesen Ländern! Ich erwarte von der Regierung in Bangladesch: Machen Sie endlich etwas gegen die Unterdrückung von Gewerkschaften, und setzen Sie die IAO-Übereinkommen 87 und 98 um. Ich erwarte von europäischen Unternehmen: Verstecken Sie sich nicht hinter Subunternehmerketten, und beenden Sie den Wettlauf um die billigsten Standorte auf Kosten der Menschen, ja auf Kosten von Menschenleben.

 
  
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  David Martin (S&D). Madam President, for my group, there are three areas where we need action, all of which my colleagues have mentioned. Firstly, we need to ensure that adequate compensation is paid. The fact that 30% is still undersubscribed is outrageous, and we need to name and shame the companies that have not come forward with their money.

Secondly, we have to continue to work to prevent future tragedies. The Compact is a start in that direction, but frankly Bangladesh has still not done enough in terms of training factory inspectors and more needs to be done in that respect. As other colleagues have said, we need to strengthen trade unions and there should be no exemptions in terms of export zones for trade union activity.

Thirdly, and probably above all, we need to change the culture in terms of the clothing industry if this is not to happen in the future. The era of cheap labour for cheap clothes has to come to an end. That means firstly that Bangladesh itself has responsibility here because there is, let us be blunt about this, corruption between factory owners, government officials and safety inspectors at the present time, and that has to be tackled.

But the multinational companies, again as my colleagues have said, also have the responsibility to ensure due diligence from the start of the supply chain to the end of the supply chain. They cannot say: ‘it is happening out of sight, therefore it is not our responsibility’. They have to ensure that good health and safety exists in the factories; they have to ensure that workers are paid a decent compensation and consumers have to accept, as others have said, that this might in the end cost them more money.

 
  
 

„Catch the eye”

 
  
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  Marijana Petir (PPE). Gospođo predsjednice, više od 70% od uvoza tekstila i odjeće u EU dolazi iz Azije. Mnogi azijski radnici moraju raditi u uvjetima „sweat shopova” i nitko ne reagira sve dok ne dođe do velikih kobnih nesreća, kao što je to bilo u Rana Plazi u Bangladešu u 2013.godini. Dugo radno vrijeme, niske plaće i sustavno opasni uvjeti rada česta su pojava u tvornicama u Bangladešu.

Nisu sve azijske zemlje izvoznice tekstila i odjeće ratificirale temeljne akte Međunarodne organizacije rada i njihova konkretna primjena je daleko od željenog. Sindikati, kada je to i dozvoljeno, ne mogu zaštititi radnike. Bangladeš još uvijek nije ukinuo rad djece. Ta djeca ne mogu konzumirati pravo na djetinjstvo i školovanje. Njihova ljudska prava se krše. Radnici koji rade u izvoznim zonama moraju se moći organizirati u sindikate i sklapati kolektivne ugovore te imati dostojno radno vrijeme.

U suprotnom Europska unija ne bi trebala omogućiti tržište za odjevne predmete koji se ne proizvode u skladu s načelima društvenih i ekoloških standarda.

 
  
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  Ramón Jáuregui Atondo (S&D). Señora Presidenta; señora Comisaria, yo le quiero pedir tres cosas que podemos añadir a lo que han expuesto mis colegas.

La primera: creo que es muy importante que conozcamos las empresas que no quieren contribuir al Fondo de Compensación. Yo creo que esto tenemos que saberlo los consumidores por el Parlamento Europeo.

En segundo lugar, creo que es muy importante que seamos capaces de que la Comisión facilite un acuerdo sectorial de las empresas del textil sobre cómo trabajar con su cadena de suministro. Creo que tiene que haber un acuerdo sectorial de las empresas, y la Comisión puede hacer mucho para conseguir ese acuerdo.

Y, en tercer lugar, yo quiero pedirle que la Comisión Europea se sume a las Naciones Unidas para conseguir un acuerdo sobre los «principios Ruggie», los principios que permiten la extraterritorialidad con la responsabilidad de las empresas de respetar los derechos humanos.

Creo que la Comisión no puede dar la espalda a los «principios Ruggie» de las Naciones Unidas.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). Κ. Πρόεδρε, τα προβλήματα της έλλειψης ασφάλειας στους εργασιακούς χώρους του Μπαγκλαντές έγιναν γνωστά στην κοινή γνώμη μετά την τραγική κατάρρευση του κτηρίου Rana Plaza το 2013, με θύματα πάνω από 1.100 εργαζόμενους. Λίγες μέρες μετά, ξέσπασε πυρκαγιά στη βιομηχανική περιοχή στην Ντάκα, με 8 νεκρούς. Τον Μάιο του 2014, σε νέα πυρκαγιά πάλι σε εργοστάσιο ρούχων στην Ντάκα, είχαμε άλλους 13 νεκρούς.

Σήμερα στο Μπαγκλαντές επικρατεί μια εργασιακή ζούγκλα. Καμιά προστασία της ασφάλειας και της υγιεινής των εργαζομένων δεν υφίσταται εκεί όπου οι πολυεθνικές έχουν εγκαταστήσει τα εργοστάσιά τους με στόχο τη μεγαλύτερη εκμετάλλευση των εργαζομένων και την αύξηση των κερδών. Τη στιγμή που τα κέρδη των εταιρειών στο Μπαγκλαντές ξεπερνούν το 120% και η αξία της βιομηχανίας ένδυσης ξεπερνά τα 22 δισεκατομμύρια δολάρια, οι μισθοί σπανίως υπερβαίνουν τα 40 δολάρια τον μήνα.

Πρέπει λοιπόν να λάβουμε μέτρα για την προστασία των δικαιωμάτων των εργαζομένων, πρέπει να διασφαλιστεί η τήρηση των κανόνων για την ασφάλεια στους εργασιακούς χώρους και πρέπει να απαγορευτεί η εκμετάλλευση των ανηλίκων.

 
  
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  Beatriz Becerra Basterrechea (ALDE). Señora Presidenta, hoy me gustaría preguntar por qué las víctimas no han recibido su compensación. Sí, las compañías están tardando mucho —algunas más que otras— en aportar lo comprometido al Fondo de Compensación, pero hay mucho dinero que ha llegado y las víctimas no lo reciben. Y estamos hablando de un Gobierno, que es el de Bangladés, que es el que suscribe el Acuerdo de Cooperación con la Unión Europea sobre Colaboración y Desarrollo, y es el Gobierno el que tiene que hacer llegar esas compensaciones a las víctimas de esa desgracia.

Yo querría recordar que el primer artículo de este Acuerdo de Colaboración y Desarrollo entre la Unión Europea y Bangladés habla de derechos humanos, habla de respeto a los derechos humanos, habla de principios democráticos y habla también de algo que tenemos que exigir y respetar desde la Unión Europea. Por supuesto que las empresas europeas que trabajan allí tienen que respetarlo —¡faltaría más!—, y forma parte de los principios básicos de guía, pero nosotros también tenemos que hacer respetar lo que está en la base de los acuerdos que firmamos con los países en desarrollo.

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (EFDD). Signora presidente, onorevoli colleghi, Rana Plaza, 24 mesi dopo, 1 138 vite spezzate dopo, 2 000 feriti dopo.

Da anni in Bangladesh ci sono storie, storie che raccontano anni di sfruttamento appunto, anni di sfruttamento di bambini, turni di 12 ore al giorno, 7 giorni su 7, paghe ridicole, 40 dollari al mese, ben al di sotto del salario minimo per una vita dignitosa, storie di ordinaria schiavitù. Chissà a quanti cittadini europei gli abiti che indossano comincerebbero ad andare stretti se sapessero di quante lacrime e di quanto sangue sono intrisi, sull'etichetta questo non c'è e dovrebbero anche cominciare a sentire prurito, ma soprattutto alle proprie coscienze, non ai propri corpi.

Gli accordi sulla prevenzione degli incendi e sulla sicurezza sono sicuramente passi utili, ma se i fondi necessari a risarcire le vittime restano ancora mezzi vuoti, se ancora la nostra legislazione permette ai grandi gruppi dell'abbigliamento di chiudere gli occhi e di tenere chiuso il portafoglio, signori, l'Europa allora non ha fatto il suo dovere. È ora che si diano diritti sindacali pieni, che si risarcisca e che si impedisca al profitto di schiacciare il diritto. Gli abbracci e le lacrime di coccodrillo abbondano perché non costano niente e invece le imprese che hanno sbagliato devono pagare.

 
  
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  Afzal Khan (S&D). Madam President, the day before the Rana Plaza collapsed workers did not have a collective voice to refuse to enter an unsafe workplace and were confronted by factory management with the choice of doing so or losing their jobs. This was not just a Bangladeshi tragedy but an international one, with 29 international brands sourcing garments from the factories housed in the faulty building. It is disgraceful that those injured and the families of the victims still await rightful compensation, while brands continue to generate large profits. Payments must be made. Sadly, it took a man-made disaster to finally begin long overdue efforts to ensure better working conditions in the sector.

A full reform of the Bangladeshi Labour Act is therefore needed. We have a moral obligation to ensure a more comprehensive and effective multilateral approach to make basic labour standards and minimum working conditions a priority. The EU needs to use its influence for this change. We owe this to the more than 1 100 workers who lost their lives on 24 April 2013 and to future generations. I hope that the Commissioner, just as my colleague said, will be pushing for the compensation, for future tragedies to be prevented and for trade unions to be strengthened.

 
  
 

„Catch the eye” vége

 
  
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  Cecilia Malmström, Member of the Commission. Madam President, thank you for this very important debate. Indeed I think there is general agreement that there has been progress in Bangladesh in important areas and the Commission was very quick, through my predecessor, to liaise with the US, with the ILO, with individual countries and the Bangladeshi Government to try to put together this Compact to see what we can do to prevent future tragedies, of course, but also to build sustainable development when it comes to labour rights, safe working conditions and a sustainable situation for the many women who work in this industry.

So, many things have been done but as I said in my introduction, we are far from happy. There is so much more to be done. We are pushing the Bangladeshi Government and we are repeating that they must do more, they must implement the provisions that they have enacted in the field of labour law, they must make sure that guarantees are also made in the processing zones and they must make sure that people can join trade unions and that they are allowed to act freely and independently, and here there is much more to be done.

On the matter of compensation: the compensation fund was outside the pact. Around USD 24 million has been pledged to that fund so compensation has been paid out to many people, but not to all, and this must of course continue. The Commission is also providing support for the victims through rehabilitation and training for those who survived and those who have lost their jobs.

But we are encouraging companies to contribute to that fund. Many have; some are very public about that, there are lists online; some are contributing without giving their names; some are not willing to put down the figures and with others we are pushing for them to contribute. Many companies have contributed to inspection. More than 2 500 inspections have been carried out and we have jointly trained inspectors to be looking at this as well.

The Commission will continue to monitor this situation very closely. As I said, we have just issued a report on implementation of the Compact which is available for Members to read and we have also made a joint statement with the US on what needs to be done further. In that report there is, as many Members asked, a reference to minimum wages and we will continue to monitor this very closely, in cooperation with partners in the Compact but also together with the Bangladeshi Government, working with them, pushing them, to do their part in this.

We are also considering a high-level follow-up meeting in Dhaka later this autumn to take stock, on the spot, of where progress has been made and what is still to be done, and I will be happy to continue the dialogue with this House on this issue. So I hope that we can soon be in a position to report further progress while knowing that this is not a situation that will change very quickly.

We are also, as many Members mentioned, working on the issues of due diligence and responsible value chains with the ILO, with the OECD and with other partners. The Communication that the Commission is preparing for the autumn, in which we will outline our priorities for trade for the coming five years, will also play a role: sustainable value change, encouraging companies to exercise due diligence and to see what we have learned from the whole tragic Bangladeshi experience, to put that in the future strategy as well. In this, of course, I am looking forward to working with the Committee on International Trade (INTA) and others as well.

We owe it to the victims of Rana Plaza and their families not only to commemorate the tragic events but also to make sure that we really bring about long-term change. It is not easy, it will not change overnight but we can do more, we are doing more and, honourable Members, you can count on the Commission to keep on monitoring this very closely; I am also counting on you. I know that many of you have been in Bangladesh, many of you are following this very closely. So let us together do what we can to make sure that change is not temporary but really sustainable.

 
  
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  elnök asszony. – A vitát lezárom.

A szavazásra 2015. április 29-én, szerdán kerül sor.

Írásbeli nyilatkozatok (162. cikk)

 
  
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  Arne Lietz (S&D), schriftlich. Ich unterstütze die Forderung meiner Kolleginnen und Kollegen und der Kommissarin, dass alle Unternehmen endlich in den Ausgleichsfonds für die Opfer und Angehörigen einzahlen. Es ist unumgänglich, dass Unternehmen durch die europäische Gesetzgebung dazu gezwungen werden, ihre Lieferketten nachverfolgen zu können, damit die IAO-Arbeitsnormen für die Arbeitnehmerinnen und Arbeitnehmer erfüllt sind. In dieser Richtung gibt es bereits Initiativen durch Textilbündnisse in den Niederlanden, in Dänemark und auch in Deutschland. Unser Ziel im Europäischen Parlament und in der Kommission muss sein, diese Initiativen europäisch zu bündeln und zu verstärken.

 
  
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  Claude Rolin (PPE), par écrit. Où en sommes-nous deux ans après l'effondrement de l'usine textile Rana Plaza au Bangladesh qui coûta la vie à 1.134 travailleurs? Qu'en est-il des conditions de travail, de la sécurité et de la santé des travailleurs du Bangladesh? Il y a certes des progrès mais, soyons de bon compte, des efforts restent à faire. Des accords ont été signés pour renforcer les inspections dans les usines et pour améliorer les normes de sécurité. Les salaires ont été augmentés et la modification de la loi sur la formation des syndicats a également permis de consolider les capacités des syndicats à l’échelle nationale. L’Union européenne a contribué à ces avancées, notamment grâce au soutien actif de l’Organisation internationale du travail. Elle a un rôle essentiel à jouer pour éviter que des catastrophes similaires ne se reproduisent. Rappelons que 60% des exportations de vêtements du pays sont destinées à l’UE! Dans ces conditions, l'Europe doit prendre ses responsabilités en plaidant auprès des autorités bangladaises, ainsi que des grandes marques qui emploient cette main d'œuvre à faible coût, pour que soient adoptés de meilleurs systèmes de sécurité au travail. C'est une question d'éthique et d'humanité!

 
  
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  Bogdan Brunon Wenta (PPE), na piśmie. W Bangladeszu doszło do szeregu tragedii w fabrykach odzieżowych, z których najpoważniejszą było zawalenie się budynku Rana Plaza. Katastrofa ta jest jednym z najtragiczniejszych przykładów nadużycia praw człowieka w sektorze komercyjnym, a zdjęcia zabitych pracowników w ruinach zawalonej fabryki stały się przejmującym symbolem pogoni za zyskiem kosztem życia i zdrowia ludzi. Jesteśmy tu dziś, aby upamiętnić ofiary tej katastrofy oraz pokazać nasz szacunek dla ich rodzin. Pomimo pewnych reform prawa pracy pracownicy wciąż zgłaszają przypadki prześladowania i zastraszania w celu powstrzymania ich od zakładania związków zawodowych lub wstępowania do nich. Apeluję do rządu Bangladeszu, by zapewnił egzekwowanie prawa pracy, a także o przeprowadzenie dalszych reform, by dostosować prawo do standardów Międzynarodowej Organizacji Pracy. Władze Bangladeszu muszą wzmocnić swoją zdolność kontrolowania przemysłu odzieżowego oraz zwiększyć środki dostępne dla organów odpowiedzialnych za budowę i bezpieczeństwo pożarowe. Niepokojący jest fakt stosowania przemocy i dyskryminacji wobec członków związków zawodowych, dlatego chciałbym wezwać również do przeprowadzania skutecznych dochodzeń w kwestii nieuczciwych praktyk. Dwa lata po katastrofie, w której zginęło ponad 1100 osób, a 2500 zostało rannych, ocaleni i rodziny ofiar wciąż czekają na wypłatę odszkodowań. Wielu z nich pozostaje bez pracy i wymaga opieki medycznej. Dlatego firmy odzieżowe muszą wziąć odpowiedzialność za pracowników w azjatyckich fabrykach.

 
  
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  Pablo Zalba Bidegain (PPE), por escrito. Hoy recordamos una de las catástrofes más graves ocurridas en 2013. 1 127 personas perdieron la vida en el derrumbe del edificio Savar en Bangladés. Unas malas condiciones de trabajo, la falta de vigilancia y la instrumentalización del capital humano hicieron que murieran 1 127 personas. Un año antes, en 2012, en un incendio en una fábrica, también en Bangladés, perdieron la vida 112 personas. Europa quedó conmocionada por estos sucesos; sin embargo, no era la primera vez que ocurrían. Es importante que, desde aquí, sigamos denunciando estos hechos. Debemos insistir en la necesidad de tener un control más riguroso de las cadenas de producción. Nuestras empresas deben comprometerse a trabajar con proveedores que garanticen la salud y seguridad de los trabajadores. En la conmemoración del aniversario de esta tragedia, observamos que prácticamente nada ha cambiado. Bangladés debe garantizar un sistema de inspecciones de seguridad y trabajo. Pido desde aquí que se apliquen los ocho convenios de la OIT; que se le dé un impulso al Pacto de Sostenibilidad para mejorar las condiciones de trabajo, salud y seguridad de los trabajadores así como para fomentar el comportamiento responsable de las empresas de la industria textil en Bangladés.

 
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