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RC-B8-0846/2015

Rasprave :

PV 10/09/2015 - 5.2
CRE 10/09/2015 - 5.2

Glasovanja :

PV 10/09/2015 - 8.2

Doneseni tekstovi :

P8_TA(2015)0315

Rasprave
Četvrtak, 10. rujna 2015. - Strasbourg Revidirano izdanje

5.2. Angola
Videozapis govora
PV
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  Presidente. – L'ordine del giorno reca la discussione su sette proposte di risoluzione sull'Angola.

 
  
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  Mark Demesmaeker, Auteur. Op 16 april kleurde de berg Sumi in Angola rood van het bloed. Bij de arrestatie van een populaire sekteleider zouden honderden doden zijn gevallen. De getuigenissen zijn schokkend. De volstrekte afwezigheid van dit drama in de westerse media doet vermoeden dat het regime van president Dos Santos de gebeurtenissen wil doen vergeten. Dat is ook niet verbazingwekkend, want de vervolging van mensenrechtenactivisten in Angola is onrustwekkend. Kritiek op de president staat gelijk aan sabotage en terrorisme. Het bezit van een computer is verdacht, het lezen van boeken is verdacht.

Ik roep Angola op om de grondwettelijke rechten van de gevangen activisten te respecteren, de veroordeling van schrijver Rafael Marques te annuleren en een onafhankelijk onderzoek toe te laten naar het bloedbad op de berg Sumi. En, commissaris, de EU moet ook naar zichzelf kijken. Het lijkt alsof we hier worden geconfronteerd met de limieten van de EU-aanpak in de regio. Of is het normaal dat een president die al 35 jaar aan de macht is de oppositie de mond snoert en een terreurbewind voert?

 
  
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  Judith Sargentini, Auteur. Ik denk dat ik een groot deel van de woorden van mijnheer Demesmaeker kan kopiëren. Of meneer Dos Santos nu 35 of 36 jaar aan de macht is, we hebben hier te maken met een totaal gecorrumpeerd land dat zijn geld verdient aan olie, waar wij eigenlijk de laatste paar jaren hebben weggekeken juist vanwege die olie. Nu zijn de prijzen gezakt, is het budget van het land gehalveerd en wordt de ellende groter.

Inderdaad, het regime voelt zich bedreigd door mensen die een boek lezen. Het regime wordt steeds grimmiger. Het nieuws is dat Rafael Marques gisteren probeerde het land te verlaten, is opgepakt op het vliegveld van Luanda, vrijgelaten is, maar niet vrij is om het land te verlaten. Mijn vraag aan de Europese Commissie is: kunnen we toezien op het welzijn van Rafael Marques in Luanda?

En tot slot: wij moeten helpen bij het organiseren van een onafhankelijk onderzoek naar het bloedbad in Huambo in april.

 
  
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  Davor Ivo Stier, author. Mr President, after decades of conflict and instability, Angola continues to face the major challenges of weak governance, human rights abuses and widespread corruption. We are worried by the deteriorating situation when it comes to respect for human rights: persecution of political opponents and journalists is becoming a rule in this country full of contrast, a country which is on the one hand incredibly rich in oil and diamonds, and on the other hand has one of the highest rates of child mortality in the world.

It is the corrupt elites who are depriving the people of Angola of their basic human rights – access to healthcare, food and education – by stealing public money intended for basic social services.

We are seriously concerned about the possible mismanagement of EU development funds by the local authorities, and in this regard we are asking the Commission to review the national indicative programme under the 11th EDF and to ensure that good governance, respect for human rights and the fight against corruption are the main financing priorities for this fabulously rich country, which suffers also from a fabulously corrupt elite.

 
  
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  Javier Nart , Autor. Señor Presidente, la Resolución tiene para mí un apartado esencial, que es el apartado 15, en el que reclama a los Estados miembros una extremada vigilancia en la cuestión del lavado de dinero.

Podemos hablar de la brutal anécdota de los asesinatos, de las muertes y de la represión, pero la categoría es la corrupción. Y la corrupción se vehicula a través de países en la Unión Europea que actúan como lavadoras del dinero putrefacto de la putrefacta oligarquía corrupta angoleña que gravita sobre la población.

Este es el punto esencial. La condena es correcta. Toda la Resolución me parece que debe ser apoyada, pero, sobre todo, el apartado 15 es decisivo.

 
  
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  Ignazio Corrao, Autore. Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, quando parliamo dell'Angola, colleghi, parliamo di un paese molto strano, di un paese dove più del 60% della popolazione vive sotto la soglia di povertà, dove ci sono tra le peggiori bidonville del mondo, ma che al contempo ha una capitale come Ruanda, che si ripropone come centro di scambi dell'Africa, ed è anche il secondo produttore di petrolio del continente africano, è un paese in grande crescita.

L'hanno già menzionato i colleghi, il punto focale di questa risoluzione gira intorno all'altissimo livello di corruzione, credo che l'Angola sia nella top ten mondiale per la corruzione, ha un governo che è in carica da 36 anni e che custodisce gelosamente tutti gli affari di Stato; infatti chi si avvicina, chi vuole mettere il becco su questi affari soprattutto petroliferi e diamantiferi, finisce per bruciarsi e quindi si verificano queste violazioni di diritti umani di cui stiamo parlando. È chiaro che dobbiamo avere un atteggiamento molto più attento e molto più forte e far sì che le nostre imprese, che vanno a riciclare soldi in quel paese, vengano controllate bene.

 
  
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  Marisa Matias, Autora. Senhor Presidente, a repressão, as detenções arbitrárias, os ataques à liberdade de expressão, a violação da liberdade de associação - num país que consagra na sua Constituição o direito à manifestação pacífica, o direito de associação, bem como a liberdade de expressão -, a corrupção, os negócios poucos claros, o esgotamento e a apropriação indevida de recursos naturais pela elite no poder - num país que assumiu compromissos de lutar contra o sistema de branqueamento de capitais e a corrupção -, a forma como tem tratado os ativistas e, nomeadamente, Rafael Marques, o autor de diamantes de sangue, que ainda ontem viu emitido um mandato de captura internacional, bem, tudo isto faz do regime angolano um regime autoritário. Mas já é mais do que isso! No momento em que há mortes e há registo dessas mortes já falamos de um regime totalitário.

Neste sentido, os acordos entre a União Europeia e Angola têm que ser respeitados. O compromisso do governo angolano no âmbito do Acordo de Cotonu tem que ser respeitado. Democracia e direitos humanos são para respeitar e levar a sério, aqui e em qualquer parte do mundo, e também não podemos aceitar os seus cúmplices.

 
  
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  Pier Antonio Panzeri, Autore. Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, l'Angola è stata nel passato al centro di polemiche riguardanti l'attività di estrazione di diamanti. Nel 1998 le Nazioni Unite stabilirono delle sanzioni nei confronti di quei paesi che avessero acquistato diamanti grezzi non corredati da un certificato d'origine che attestasse la corretta procedura di estrazione, a salvaguardia della sicurezza dei minatori. Rafael Marques de Morais è stato condannato per aver denunciato questa realtà, già tristemente conosciuta, cioè per un reato di opinione, in manifesta violazione del diritto alla libertà di pensiero.

Il governo dell'Angola sta ricorrendo alle corti di giustizia per imbavagliare gli attivisti dei diritti umani nel paese. Nel caso de Morais, gli osservatori internazionali che hanno assistito al processo svoltosi a porte chiuse hanno denunciato serie violazioni del principio dell'equo processo. Quindi, è importante che l'Unione europea pretenda un monitoraggio sull'attività di estrazione dei diamanti affinché questa avvenga nella massima trasparenza e nel rispetto delle norme di sicurezza e nel contempo tuteli gli attivisti che nell'esercizio della loro libertà di espressione denunciano violazioni gravi dei diritti umani.

 
  
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  Bogdan Brunon Wenta, w imieniu grupy PPE. Panie Przewodniczący! Panie Komisarzu! Angola to kraj o znaczącym bogactwie naturalnym i dużym potencjale, ale po trzech dekadach złych rządów prezydenta dos Santosa jest to miejsce, gdzie prawa człowieka są łamane, ludzie zastraszani, a korupcja i bezkarność władzy są na porządku dziennym. Po zwycięstwie w wyborach parlamentarnych Ludowego Ruchu Wyzwolenia Angoli w 2012 r. jeszcze bardziej nasiliły się represje wobec dziennikarzy, aktywistów społecznych, o czym świadczą kolejne procesy i aresztowania Arão Buli Tempy, José Marcosa Mavungi czy Rafaela Marquesa. Trzeba podkreślić, że zarówno prawdziwość oskarżeń, jak i prawo do sprawiedliwego procesu w tym państwie to fikcja. Władza brutalnie tłumi pokojowe protesty antyrządowe, dokonuje aresztowań, stosuje tortury w więzieniach. Należy stanowczo potępić te nadużycia ze strony rządu dos Santosa i wezwać władze do przestrzegania porozumienia z Kotonu, a także ratyfikacji wdrożenia czterech podpisanych przez Angolę we wrześniu 2013 r. traktatów dotyczących praw człowieka, w tym konwencji w sprawie zakazu tortur.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes (S&D), em nome do Grupo S&D. Desde 2002 que este Parlamento não se pronunciava sobre os direitos humanos em Angola. Esta resolução reconhece a crescente deterioração dos direitos humanos e da democracia neste país, com ênfase para quatro preocupantes desenvolvimentos neste último ano: a perseguição judicial do jornalista Rafael Marques, a detenção e iminente condenação do ativista Marques Mavungo em Cabinda, o massacre de um elevado, mas indeterminado, número de pessoas no Huambo, em abril, e a detenção de 15+1 jovens ativistas, em junho, que se mantém, com repressão brutal sobre as suas famílias impedidas sequer de se manifestar.

Pedimos a libertação imediata e incondicional de todos os defensores dos direitos humanos, incluindo Marques Mavungo e os 15+1 ativistas, e que sejam retiradas todas as acusações contra eles. Apoiamos o Alto Comissário dos Direitos Humanos das Nações Unidas pedindo uma investigação internacional independente sobre o massacre no Monte Sumi. Apelamos ao respeito pela liberdade de expressão, manifestação e imprensa, que vêm sendo grosseira e sistematicamente violados em Angola.

Estive em julho passado em Angola e pude observar como a crise económica, por causa da descida do preço do petróleo e da corrupção desenfreada, aumenta as tensões sociais, os protestos e como o povo angolano está cada vez mais indignado perante a pilhagem dos recursos do Estado pela elite em torno do Presidente, que continua imparável.

É, por isso, necessário que a União Europeia não continue a fechar os olhos às gritantes práticas corruptas em Angola. É preciso que os reguladores europeus monitorizem o cumprimento dos deveres de diligência e de análise de risco quanto a investimentos de grande dimensão da cleptocracia angolana em países europeus, designadamente o meu, Portugal.

 
  
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  Jiří Pospíšil (PPE). Pane předsedající, já se připojuji ke kolegům, kteří zde jasně odsoudili současný totalitní režim v Angole. Vzpomínám si jako poslanec za Českou republiku, jak koncem sedmdesátých let a v osmdesátých letech jezdil prezident Santos do komunistického Československa a objímal se s tehdejšími komunistickými představiteli totalitní moci v Československu.

Naštěstí komunismus ve střední a východní Evropě už není, ale jak už bylo řečeno, absurdní situace v Angole zůstává. Prezident Santos je dále u moci. Jeho režim je horší a horší a jak je typické, potlačuje ochránce lidských práv, potlačuje novináře, kteří poukazují na korupci, na zločiny, na vraždění a týrání nevinných lidí.

A také zde byla zmiňována kniha „Krvavé diamanty“, kde je právě popsáno, jak se diamanty těží a jak jsou potlačováni domorodci a lidé, kteří se tam na těchto aktivitách spolupodílejí.

Je třeba tento režim odsoudit a vyzvat Evropskou komisi a všechny orgány Evropské unie a členské státy, aby s Angolou přestaly spolupracovat a aby při všech jednáních dávaly najevo, že odsuzujeme angolský režim.

 
  
 

Interventi su richiesta

 
  
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  Stanislav Polčák (PPE). Pane předsedající, já rovněž chci odsoudit samozřejmě režim, který je nepochybně nedemokratický, zkorumpovaný a který je angolský. Nicméně bych chtěl úvahu, kterou bych zde chtěl přednést, vést i trochu jiným směrem.

Tyto debaty, které jsou urgentními debatami o porušování lidských práv, by myslím měly rovněž vyústit v navržení určitého mechanismu tak, aby Evropská unie mohla vykonávat rozhodnutí, rozsudky mezinárodních tribunálů, pokud jejich rozhodnutí jsou těmi dotyčnými státy uznávány. Jinými slovy, aby Evropská unie mohla lépe a účinněji vymáhat lidská práva tam, kde jsou porušována, pokud už nějaká mezinárodní autorita došla k závěru o tom, že dochází skutečně k porušování.

Týká se to i předchozího případu pana Kohvera. Prostě jestliže jsou mezinárodní rozhodnutí štrasburského soudního tribunálu, tak by mohla Evropská komise, respektive Evropská unie a unijní orgány navrhnout řešení pro jejich vymáhání. Myslím si, že k tomu bychom měli motivovat i členské státy.

 
  
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  Doru-Claudian Frunzulică (S&D). Mr President, I am deeply concerned about the broader deterioration in the environment for freedom of expression in Angola, including the increased use of criminal defamation lawsuits against journalists and routine police abuse. The excessive use of force by the police is absolutely unacceptable, as is the use of violence and arbitrary arrests to stop peaceful anti—government protests and other gatherings. From beating women to unleashing dogs on protesters, it seems that in Angola the corrupt ruling elite hates its own people.

The Angolan authorities must immediately put an end to these cases of arbitrary arrest, illegal detention and torture by the police and security forces, and impartial investigations must be carried out of all allegations of human rights violations by police and security forces so that the perpetrators are brought to justice.

 
  
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  Charles Tannock (ECR). Mr President, Angola has never been a Western-style democracy, being effectively a one-party MPLA-dominated state, but things have improved with the new Constitution of 2010 and there has been relative political stability after the ceasefire with UNITA in 2002.

But more recently, President Santos’ government has become more intolerant of press freedom by arresting human rights defenders and journalists such as Marcos Mavungo. There are serious allegations of torture and a climate of police repression. Corruption is unfortunately endemic in that country with its vast oil and mineral wealth, with the wealth concentrated in the hands of a very small urban political elite.

Angola has many EU – mainly Portuguese – citizens working there and is a signatory to the Cotonou Agreement which commits it to a high standard of fundamental civil and political rights, and it does need now more transparency in its extractive industries. There is an ongoing military campaign in Cabinda, which is seeking self-determination as a territory, but this must not be an excuse for the crackdown now by the authorities which we are currently witnessing in that vast country.

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (EFDD). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il caso dell'Angola è un caso tipico, purtroppo, dell'Africa: da un lato, abbiamo povertà, siccità, incendi, distruzione del suolo, carenza di diversificazione agricola, alcolismo e una grandissima necessità di progetti di sviluppo, dall'altro un tasso di corruzione che veramente tocca picchi elevatissimi. Peraltro, bisogna dire che da questo punto di vista al governo, al posto di intraprendere iniziative volte a ridurla, si trova di fatto molto focalizzato nello schiacciare completamente i difensori dei diritti umani e coloro che in qualche modo cercano di spingere per un Angola diversa e per un futuro diverso.

Da parte nostra c'è forse una troppa leggerezza nei confronti di regimi di questo tipo. Vi ricordo che anche l'Angola è tra i firmatari appunto dell'accordo di Cotonou – come anche altri colleghi hanno ribadito – forse dovremmo ricordarci anche noi che se non battiamo il tasso della condizionalità risultiamo poco credibili quando facciamo dei begli enunciati in quest'Aula e quindi ci si aspetta dalla Commissione dei provvedimenti concreti anche nei confronti del governo dell'Angola.

 
  
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  Seán Kelly (PPE). A Uachtaráin, aontaím leis na cainteoirí atá ag cáineadh cad atá ag tarlú le hAngóla, go háirithe le déanaí. Is trua seo. Mar a dúradh, is tír shaibhir í Angóla; ar a laghad tá acmhainní saibhre aici ach tá an saibhreas seo ag dul go dtí an mionlach, agus 60% de na daoine ag maireachtaint i mbochtanas.

Dá bhrí sin, caithfimid gach brú is féidir linn a chur ar údaráis Angóla saoirse a thabhairt do na daoine, i.e. saoirse an phreasa, saoirse reiligiúin agus saoirse cruinnithe a bheith acu, agus deireadh a chur go háirithe le foréigean de gach saghas agus le pionós corpartha i gcoinne a ndaoine féin.

Dá bhrí sin, aontaím leis an tuarascáil seo agus tá súil agam gur féidir linn rud éigin a dhéanamh chun feabhas a chur ar an tír seo ar mhaithe leis na saoránaigh féin.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). Κύριε Πρόεδρε, παρά την επίσημη λήξη του εμφυλίου πολέμου το 2002, η κατάσταση σε αρκετές περιοχές της Αγκόλας παραμένει έκρυθμη ενώ μεγάλο μέρος του πληθυσμού ζει μέσα στη φτώχεια. Παρά το γεγονός ότι η χώρα έχει μια ταχεία αναπτυσσόμενη οικονομία, βασισμένη στην εκμετάλλευση των αποθεμάτων σε πετρέλαιο, σε διαμάντια, σε ορυκτά, το μεγαλύτερο μέρος του πλούτου είναι συγκεντρωμένο στα χέρια ενός δυσανάλογα μικρού κομματιού της κοινωνίας. Επιπλέον, η κυβέρνηση της Αγκόλας έχει κατηγορηθεί επανειλημμένα για διαφθορά, για εξάντληση και κατάχρηση των κρατικών πόρων και για παραβίαση του κράτους δικαίου. Αυτή η διαφθορά του καθεστώτος έχει προκαλέσει μεγάλη κοινωνική δυσαρέσκεια που εκφράστηκε το 2011 με μεγάλες συγκεντρώσεις διαμαρτυρίας, τις οποίες κατέστειλε βίαια η αστυνομία. Απέναντι στην καταπάτηση των ανθρωπίνων δικαιωμάτων στην Αγκόλα, στις συλλήψεις δημοσιογράφων και πολιτικών και κοινωνικών ακτιβιστών η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση πρέπει να καλέσει την Αγκόλα να τηρήσει τη Συμφωνία του Κοτονού και να τηρήσει και να προστατεύσει τα ανθρώπινα δικαιώματα. Διαφορετικά, πρέπει να στείλουμε το μήνυμα ότι η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση θα προχωρήσει στη λήψη μέτρων.

 
  
 

(Fine degli interventi su richiesta)

 
  
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  Dimitris Avramopoulos, Member of the Commission. Mr President, the European Union is following the human rights situation in Angola closely, and we are working hard with the government to raise our concerns about the deterioration which is taking place.

The right to freedom of association, assembly and expression are guaranteed by Angola’s national and international laws and human rights obligations. However, we have seen from recent events in Cabinda and Luanda that, on several occasions, individuals have been prevented from peaceful assembly and peacefully demonstrating in Angola. In some cases, the authorities have refused to allow demonstrations to take place, used excessive and unnecessary force or arrested and detained demonstrators.

During the first European Union-Angola ministerial meeting, in October 2014, we also highlighted that a free, pluralistic media was an essential component of a multi-party democracy. We have already made various démarches in dialogue with Angola to decriminalise defamation, since the defamation laws can be a threat to investigative journalism.

It is in exactly this context that the European Union delegation in Luanda has been following closely the case against journalist Rafael Marques, as well as the case against the Cabinda human rights activist José Marcos Mavungo, by monitoring trials and being in contact with their lawyers.

During the most recent Article 8 political dialogue with Angolan Minister of Foreign Affairs Chikoti, on 11 August 2015, a long and frank discussion took place. The European Union delegation, together with the Member States represented in Luanda, expressed concern at recent developments. These include the detention of 15 young activists, the recurrent denial of freedom of assembly, the case of the Cabinda human rights defender Mr Mavungo and the lack of transparency surrounding events in Monte Sumi, where an unknown number of members of the religious cult Kalupeteka were killed in a confrontation with the police in April.

On a positive note, the government has accepted to implement the majority of the Universal Periodic Review recommendations and has made good progress on women’s rights, in particular with the enactment of the law on the participation of women in political life. We also welcome the recent accession by Angola to the Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the protocol to prevent trafficking in persons.

The European Union will continue to call on Angola’s government to fully respect the effective exercise of the rights of freedom of peaceful assembly and of freedom of expression and the right to a fair trial, in line with Angola’s constitution and international conventions and the regional human rights instruments that Angola is a party to. The human rights situation will also be discussed at the forthcoming EU-Angola ministerial meeting, scheduled to take place before the end of the year in Luanda.

 
  
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  Presidente. – La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà termine della discussione.

 
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