Index 
 Anterior 
 Seguinte 
 Texto integral 
Debates
Quarta-feira, 7 de Outubro de 2015 - Estrasburgo Edição revista

6. Ataques aéreos mortais dos Estados Unidos contra um hospital dos Médicos Sem Fronteiras (MSF) em Kunduz, no Afeganistão (debate)
Vídeo das intervenções
PV
MPphoto
 

  Der Präsident. – Als erster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die Aussprache über die Erklärung der Vizepräsidentin der Kommission und Hohen Vertreterin der Union für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik zu den tödlichen US-Luftangriffen auf eine Klinik der Ärzte ohne Grenzen in Kundus (Afghanistan) (2015/2891(RSP)).

Ich teile den Mitgliedern mit, dass es bei dieser Aussprache kein Catch-the-eye-Verfahren gibt und auch keine blauen Karten angenommen werden.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Christos Stylianides, Member of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice—President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. Mr President, this tragedy is a sad reminder of the challenges Afghanistan is still facing, against a background of instability, war and conflict.

The last two weeks have seen a jihadist resurgence in the north and the east of the country, threatening the achievements reached so far in development, governance and rule of law, including the rights of women, fundamental freedoms and access to basic services. Confronted with the Taliban who wage war, we need to recommit in our support to the National Unity Government and in ensuring that Afghanistan is, and will stay, high on the international agenda.

Recent developments in and around Kunduz are worrying for all of us: the Taliban attack, the suffering it has caused to innocent civilians in the area, the very serious humanitarian situation. The overall situation remains fragile and unstable.

The attack that severely hit a Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) hospital in Kunduz on 3 October was a tragedy which I profoundly deplore – as Commissioner for Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Management but also as a doctor. Hospitals and medical personnel are explicitly protected under international humanitarian law: they can never be the object of attack. The latest reported death toll indicates that 12 MSF staff are confirmed dead, as well as 10 patients, including three children.

Our thoughts are with all the families of the victims, the medical staff and the humanitarian aid workers. Our thoughts are with all those who, in Afghanistan and in the too many conflict areas around the world, dedicate their time, skills and indeed their life to assisting victims of war, saving their lives and improving their living conditions.

MSF has been operating the hospital in Kunduz under extremely trying conditions – and not only there. I have witnessed myself on numerous visits to crisis areas their dedication in their life-saving work in the most acute emergencies. MSF are there when almost everybody else has pulled out. As EU Ebola Coordinator, I particularly want to commend their outstanding work in relation to the Ebola crisis in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. Without the amazing courage and dedication of MSF, the world would still be struggling to get Ebola under control.

But let me get back to Afghanistan. Afghan children, women and men are suffering the devastating humanitarian consequences of over three decades of war and conflict. Our tribute, not only to MSF but also to other humanitarian organisations for their life-saving work in Afghanistan and elsewhere, will never be strong enough. This Parliament knows very well what it means to pay tribute to humanitarian workers and human rights defenders. We all owe them a lot. And, as in other conflict situations, humanitarian workers have paid with their lives to assist the most vulnerable. But while we commend the courageous and dedicated staff of these organisations, we have to be firm and clear in affirming the absolute need to protect their lives and their work, and the lives and dignity of those they assist.

This tragedy demonstrates the disproportionate risk for civilians when violent conflict reaches urban areas. All parties must do everything in their power to distinguish between military and civilian targets, including medical facilities. All parties must respect and protect medical and humanitarian personnel and facilities.

President Ashraf Ghani said that the Afghan forces and NATO’s Support Mission are obliged to ensure the safety of civilians and exercise precision in military operations. He stressed that Afghan and foreign forces alike must put in serious efforts not to target public places during military operations. At the same time, Afghanistan’s Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) has called for a probe into reports of possible war crimes committed in this past week by the Taliban in Kunduz city. The organisation has appealed to security and judicial organisations to identify the perpetrators and see to it that justice is carried out.

MSF and the UN have called for a thorough investigation into the attack. President Ghani and US Secretary of Defence Ashton Carter have stressed that a full and transparent investigation will be conducted. We welcome the Afghan and US commitment to that effect, and expect that it will bring clear results very soon.

But, this tragedy is a sad reminder of the fact that Afghanistan still needs to find its way out of decades of conflicts. It needs a comprehensive answer to the many difficult challenges it is facing: this should comprise continued efforts to engage the main actors, and it has to build on a revised Afghan security strategy. But the focus must also be on local governance and on connecting the local population to the Government.

The Afghan Government has presented a string of actions it will take. Effective implementation is required, and we are ready to accompany the Afghan authorities and people in this difficult process.

In terms of immediate action we must now quickly evaluate the need for additional humanitarian support. In the same vein, we call on the Afghan Government to facilitate better humanitarian access to Kunduz and to the internally displaced. We need improved humanitarian air services, and we have to look into the possibility of opening a humanitarian corridor in Kunduz province.

We also need all regional stakeholders to come together and join efforts to create a lasting peace. This is at the centre of our diplomatic work, as we pointed out in discussions with all the relevant international players last week in New York, at the High Level Conference on the fringe of the UN General Assembly.

The European Union will continue to work with the National Unity Government during this difficult period. We will stand at its side and, first and foremost, at the side of all Afghan people.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Arnaud Danjean, au nom du groupe PPE. Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, le groupe PPE tient avant toute chose à exprimer ses condoléances aux familles des 22 victimes de l'hôpital de Kunduz et à condamner ces bombardements sur lesquels toute la lumière doit être faite et les sanctions appropriées prononcées.

Cette erreur, aujourd'hui reconnue par le commandement américain, après des jours d'insupportables hésitations et louvoiements, est d'autant plus funeste qu'elle a détruit la seule structure médicale performante de la région de Kunduz, et ce en dépit des communications sans ambiguïté du personnel de MSF sur les coordonnées et sur la nature de leurs activités.

Mais derrière cet événement tragique, il y a une réalité stratégique très préoccupante en Afghanistan.

Les offensives talibanes sur Kunduz mais aussi dans la province de Faryab, près du Turkménistan, et dans trois autres provinces du nord afghan révèlent une transition encore plus difficile que lorsqu'elle avait été envisagée au moment du retrait des forces occidentales.

Le fait que ces attaques surviennent dans une région, le nord afghan, jusqu'alors relativement épargnée par les mouvements insurrectionnels atteste que la menace talibane reste forte, bien au-delà de ses fiefs traditionnels. Elle montre aussi que les forces de sécurité afghanes, en dépit de programmes de formations lourds, massifs et extrêmement coûteux, ont des capacités encore trop aléatoires pour faire face seules à ce type d'offensive. Sans l'appui aérien américain, Kunduz et d'autres localités du nord afghan seraient sans doute encore occupées par les talibans aujourd'hui.

Il faut prendre conscience aussi que, parallèlement aux talibans, d'autres groupes insurgés montent en puissance. L'État islamique est désormais présent en Afghanistan et il recrute massivement parmi des filières djihadistes, particulièrement celles issues d'Asie centrale. Le ralliement, cet été, du mouvement islamique ouzbek, ainsi que les mouvements observés de part et d'autre de la frontière afghano- pakistanaise, où plusieurs milliers de djihadistes d'Asie centrale ont été repérés doivent nous alerter sur la fragilité du processus en cours.

Cela démontre également qu'une implication internationale accrue est nécessaire. Il ne s'agit évidemment pas de considérer des déploiements militaires massifs qui ont montré leurs limites, mais une coopération accrue doit être recherchée avec les pays voisins en particulier, y compris avec la Chine et la Russie, dont la contagion actuelle ne peut laisser indifférent.

Notre attention est légitimement concentrée sur d'autres crises plus proches qui affectent directement notre sécurité, mais nous conservons une responsabilité particulière en Afghanistan, où beaucoup des problèmes rencontrés aujourd'hui, trouvent historiquement leurs racines et où il existe de façon indiscutable depuis 2001 une base légale et légitime, sous l'égide de l'ONU, pour nous permettre d'intervenir.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Afzal Khan, on behalf of the S&D Group. Mr President, on behalf of my Group I extend our deepest condolences to the families and friends of all those who have tragically lost their lives in the attack in Kunduz. Our thoughts are with their families. We pay tribute to the Doctors Without Borders staff who bravely and selflessly worked as fighting raged in Kunduz over the past week. We also applaud all other heroic doctors and other medical staff around the world who risk their lives every day trying to save others.

The hospital was clearly marked and the exact location of the hospital was communicated to all parties to the conflict. More than 22 civilians were killed in the attack – 12 medical staff and 10 patients, three of them children – and 37 more were injured. We, as a Group, strongly condemn this attack. Under the rules of international humanitarian law, a hospital is a hospital, and the people inside are patients and medical staff. To target a medical facility in this way is a violation of that law, whatever the circumstances.

Given the seriousness of the harm and the gravity of the alleged legal violations, it is critical that there is a prompt and full independent investigation to ensure maximum transparency and accountability, and those responsible must be brought to justice. Constantly we see certain measures adopted to counter terrorism violating international laws. We learned earlier this month of David Cameron’s decision to carry out a British drone attack, killing citizens extrajudicially outside the UK.

The US routinely violates the airspace of Pakistan and carries out drone attacks resulting in the death of civilians. The objectives are to save human lives and dignity in the face of a terrorist threat. Combating terrorism cannot be used as an excuse for the violation of international laws.

There always needs to be a strong response from the EU, and respect for human rights and the rule of law must prevail.

We also condemn the Taliban for the violence that they have carried out. The Taliban successes in and around Kunduz are the consequences of corrupt and abusive governance. The Afghan Government needs to be united and needs to focus on legitimate grievances and community consensus building. A political transition which features a genuine inclusive effort is needed, otherwise the security situation is likely to worsen further.

The EU and the international community should assist in this through diplomacy and negotiations. Regional cooperation, with the objective of promoting long-term peace, stability and security in the wider region, is essential. The cooperation with Pakistan is especially important: we welcome their assistance in the new conciliation process and encourage continuing progress on the path of improved relations and cooperation between Kabul and Islamabad. Afghanistan must not be forgotten in more pressing crisis. We welcome the help that has been announced this morning for the civilians in the Kunduz area.

Although thousands of kilometres away, we in Europe have been experiencing the effect of the increased instability in Afghanistan. Many Afghans, too, are giving up on their country. Afghans have been devastated by over three decades of conflict. They urgently deserve peace.

The US states that this attack was a mistake, but they have now offered four different accounts, hence the need for an independent inquiry. The attack has implications not only in Afghanistan but also for medical NGOs across the world. We have a responsibility to ensure that this type of tragedy does not happen again.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Mark Demesmaeker, namens de ECR-Fractie. Ik sluit mij grotendeels aan bij de woorden van de voorgaande spreker. Namens de ECR-Fractie wil ook ik mijn medeleven betuigen aan de familie en de vrienden van de slachtoffers en aan de overlevenden van dit vreselijke bombardement. We zijn allemaal geschokt en roepen op tot een diepgaand en onafhankelijk onderzoek. Hoe is het in godsnaam kunnen gebeuren dat hulpverleners en patiënten het slachtoffer zijn geworden van een luchtaanval op een NGO-ziekenhuis?

Het kan niet anders of er zijn ernstige inschattingsfouten gemaakt door Amerikaanse en Afghaanse militairen en zelfs dan nog. De Amerikanen opereren al veertien jaar in Afghanistan. Het bombardement afdoen als collateral damage is een goedkoop en onaanvaardbaar excuus. Daarnaast geeft Artsen zonder Grenzen aan dat het al het mogelijke heeft gedaan om de eigen veiligheid te garanderen. Zelfs indien er talibanstrijders in het ziekenhuis waren - wat Artsen zonder Grenzen met klem ontkent - dan moesten hulpverleners eerst gewaarschuwd worden.

Maar het probleem reikt veel verder. Door structureel wanbeheer bij de Afghaanse overheid zijn de taliban vandaag opnieuw aan een opmars bezig. Een jaar na de bejubelde eenheidsregering is er nog altijd geen minister van Defensie en bekvechten de president en de premier over overheidspostjes. Ondertussen strijdt het Afghaanse leger met ongepast materieel en een onbekwame leiding tegen de Taliban. Omdat ze niet beschikken over een luchtmacht die het verschil kan maken, werd de hulp ingeroepen van de Amerikanen. Zij voerden, tegen hun mandaat in, bombardementen uit. Hoe kan het dat 7 000 man Afghaanse troepen tegen een tien keer kleinere macht de controle over een stad moeten opgeven? Er zijn gevaarlijke parallellen te trekken met Irak, waar het leger op een gelijkaardige manier de controle over Mosoel kwijtraakte.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Petras Auštrevičius, on behalf of the ALDE Group. Mr President, speaking on behalf of ALDE, I should begin by expressing our deepest condolences to the families of the victims in Kunduz. Clearly, by choosing a hospital as a target, a fatal mistake was made. However, the reasons for this tragedy still remain unclear. I therefore welcome the decision by NATO and the Afghan authorities to launch immediately a thorough and impartial investigation of this tragic event.

What happened in Kunduz is a terrible accident, but we cannot view it as an isolated accident. By conquering Kunduz, the Taliban has made the biggest military advance in 14 years. The Taliban’s personnel strength has increased dramatically: by more than six times in the last seven or eight years. The conscripts are mostly from Arab countries and post-Soviet Central Asia, as far as one can read from the reports.

All this is very alarming. The Taliban must be defeated to give Afghanistan a new start. The consequences of our inaction might be unthinkable. I strongly believe that we cannot disregard the overall and unprecedented support which has already been invested in Afghanistan’s security and development. It should be clear from the outset that we cannot repeat the mistakes of Iraq and Syria, where our actions were inadequate. Currently, our efforts in Afghanistan seem far too weak.

It is fundamental to retain the progress made in Afghanistan based on our coordinated strategy, both military and developmental, among the international, regional and local players. Our effective action and determination create the future for Afghanistan. Meanwhile, inaction and confusion bring back the past, which I am convinced the people of Afghanistan are not looking for.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Kateřina Konečná, za skupinu GUE/NGL. Pane předsedající, vážené dámy a vážení pánové, v prvé řadě mi dovolte poděkovat za to, že jste podpořili naši iniciativu tuto problematiku na plenárním zasedání projednat. Teď totiž není čas na černobílé vidění světa. Umřeli nevinní lidé. Umřeli lidé, kteří zasvětili svůj život péči o druhé a plnili svoji misi v jedné z nejnebezpečnějších zemí na světě. Namísto uznání a podpory se jim však dostalo více než hodinového bombardování, které srovnalo se zemí jediné zdravotní zařízení v oblasti. Navíc ukončilo život zcela bezbranných osob a těch, kteří o ně pečovali. Útok na zdravotní zařízení, personál či pacienty se nedá označit jinak než za zcela zrůdný zločin. Uznává to i mezinárodní právo, které však bylo v sobotu ráno brutálním způsobem pošlapáno. Namísto omluv nyní slyšíme spíše výmluvy a cynismus střídají lži.

Je třeba zaručit, že potom, co pozůstalým vyslovíme svou nejhlubší soustrast, budeme jakožto mezinárodní společenství trvat na důsledném a zcela nezávislém vyšetřování. To by mělo rozklíčovat, co se přesně stalo a ukázat na skutečné viníky, a nikoliv na obětní beránky. Jedině tak dáme jasně najevo, že mezinárodní právo platí pro všechny stejně. Není možné měřit dvojím metrem, a zvláště když jde o tak barbarské činy odporující humanitárnímu právu.

Přijmout pouze omluvu je nepředstavitelné a nic na tom nemění fakt, že pachatelem je stát, který se snaží tvářit jako ochránce demokracie a civilizace. Pokud přijmeme, že nevinní pacienti mohou uhořet ve svých postelích a nikdo za to nepřevezme odpovědnost a nikdo za to nebude potrestán, pak jsme nemuseli vytvářet mezinárodní právo.

Děkuji za pozornost a dovolte mi vyjádřit všem pozůstalým a celé organizaci upřímnou soustrast. A vás, pane předsedo, vyzvat k tomu, abychom za lidi, kteří umřeli, drželi i zde, v Evropském parlamentu, minutu ticha.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Jean Lambert, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. Mr President, as the Commissioner has said, many of us have encountered MSF working in challenging conditions in many parts of the world and we respect their integrity, their independence and their policy of making no distinctions based on patients’ ethnicity, religious beliefs, or political affiliation. We know this can create problems for some regimes, but it also means that MSF and other medical charities can often gain the trust of local populations.

Like others here, my Group also condemns this bombing and also wishes to extend our deepest condolences to those who have lost their loved ones, their friends or their colleagues. People should feel safe in a place of healing, and it is certainly a much needed facility. As we have been told, the coordinates were given, but for whatever reason they were not respected. I think questions are raised yet again about what is really meant by precision bombing, and what the value of such bombing is.

We are told that this may constitute a war crime. It is certainly a grave violation of international humanitarian law, and so, as others have done, we support the call by MSF for an independent investigation: however uncomfortable that may be, accountability is essential. And, as was said, all war crimes should be investigated.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Ignazio Corrao, a nome del gruppo EFDD. Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi,

a sentire il tenore di molti degli interventi che mi hanno preceduto, sembra che il problema di cui stiamo discutendo sia l'avanzata dei talebani, invece io credo che ci dovremmo soffermare a pensare sul significato delle parole peacekeeping o guerre di pace, missioni di pace, perché basta fare una semplice ricerca su Google e scrivere "errore NATO" o "fuoco amico NATO" per trovare decine, centinaia se non migliaia di errori, di attacchi sbagliati e di civili morti.

Quindi dovremmo cominciare a chiamarli probabilmente con il nome giusto ossia crimini di guerra. Allora fermiamoci a pensare un attimo a cosa possiamo fare riguardo a questo attacco a Kunduz, dove sono morti dei civili, dove sono morti degli operatori che stavano lì a cercare di salvare vite umane. Chiediamo un'investigazione indipendente, completa, trasparente ma che deve dare dei risultati perché questi morti, che sono stati attaccati dagli Stati Uniti d'America, non ritorneranno in vita, quindi è giusto che chi ha sbagliato paghi, ed è questo che dobbiamo pretendere, qui stamattina.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Mario Borghezio, a nome del gruppo ENF. Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi,

la risposta data dalla Commissione è evasiva, sembrava un discorso tratto dalle elucubrazioni dei giuristi gesuiti del Seicento.

Non si riesce a capire che cosa pensi l'Europa su questa vicenda: è un errore, è un crimine di guerra. Qualche cosa questa Europa che ci parla sempre dei suoi valori dovrebbe dirla. È pur vero che a settant'anni di distanza non sappiamo ancora se è stato un crimine il bombardamento al fosforo dei civili di Dresda, o magari la bomba sganciata sui bambini della scuola Gorla di Milano, ma qualche cosa, tornando all'attualità, l'Europa dovrebbe pure avere il coraggio di dire. Come insegnava Manzoni, il coraggio se uno non ce l'ha non se lo può dare, caro rappresentante dell'Unione europea, e Lei mi sembra proprio il Don Abbondio della situazione.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Christos Stylianides, Member of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice—President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. Mr President, honourable Members, dear colleagues, thank you for this exchange and this wide consensus on the demand for a specific investigation. We expect specific results from that investigation. I would like to repeat that the European Union will continue to work with the National Unity Government during this difficult period. This is very important. We will stand at its side and we will do all we can to protect the gains made since the fall of the Taliban regime. I think this is most significant and it is a precondition for any progressive work on the ground in Afghanistan.

Of course, all of us in this Parliament and in all the European institutions expect the results of the investigation as soon as possible. Thank you again for this discussion.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Der Präsident. – Die Aussprache ist damit geschlossen.

Schriftliche Erklärungen (Artikel 162 GO)

 
  
MPphoto
 
 

  Lola Sánchez Caldentey (GUE/NGL), por escrito. Las organizaciones de la sociedad civil desempeñan una tarea muy importante en la ayuda humanitaria. Puede decirse, incluso, que tratan de enmendar los desaguisados de los gobiernos. Son políticas concretas de los gobiernos, también de los de la Unión Europea, las que han conducido a la situación actual en Afganistán. El fundamentalismo y la violencia son consecuencia de la desigualdad y de la pobreza provocadas por nuestras políticas. Seamos coherentes en nuestra acción exterior, seamos justos y solidarios y dejemos de empobrecer, apliquemos el Derecho internacional y dejémonos de bombardeos.

 
  
MPphoto
 
 

  Jarosław Wałęsa (PPE), in writing. In relation to the recent events in Kunduz, Afghanistan, in which 22 people were killed and more than 30 suffered severe injuries, I would like to express my deepest condolences. The information about that tragedy has shocked me, especially as it was performed by the alleged ‘warriors of human rights’. The hospital bombing was called ‘collateral damage’, and that is what worries me the most – that the developed West is not able to foresee the consequences of its actions and that, as a result, innocent people suffer and die.

We are meant to protect human lives, therefore the protection of human rights and humanitarian law is essential. Unfortunately, instead of progress, I see regression in that regard. We need to take action to prevent such accidents from happening in the future, because this kind of situation is unacceptable. Once again, let me express my grief, and pay tribute to those who were killed and injured.

 
Advertência jurídica