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Menetlus : 2014/2243(INI)
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Dokumendi valik : A8-0261/2015

Esitatud tekstid :

A8-0261/2015

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PV 29/10/2015 - 4
CRE 29/10/2015 - 4

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P8_TA(2015)0390

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Neljapäev, 29. oktoober 2015 - Strasbourg Uuendatud versioon

4. Kaugjuhitavate õhusõiduki süsteemide (RPA-süsteemide) ohutu kasutamine tsiviillennunduses (arutelu)
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  La Présidente. – L'ordre du jour appelle le débat sur le rapport de Jacqueline Foster, au nom de la commission des transports et du tourisme, sur l'utilisation sûre des systèmes d'aéronefs télépilotés (RPAS), plus connus sous le nom de véhicules aériens sans pilote (UAV), dans le domaine de l'aviation civile (2014/2243(INI)) (A8-0261/2015).

 
  
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  Jacqueline Foster, rapporteur. Madam President, small radio-controlled model aircraft have been flown by enthusiasts for many decades. The first recorded use of them in the UK was in 1935 when the British Royal Navy used the DH82 Queen Bee for target practice. During the past 15 years we have seen rapid growth in the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS), more commonly known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones. Technology developed primarily for military purposes is now being applied for commercial use, pushing technological and legislative boundaries.

In recognition of the rapid development of this market, RPAS are rightly being incorporated into existing aviation programmes such as Sesar and Horizon 2020. In addition, the potential for growth in this industry, from the manufacturer to the end user, is immense for large and small businesses alike. Therefore, it is imperative that we maintain world-class standards for manufacturing. Europe leads the world in drone development, with two and a half thousand drone operators. In the UK alone we have more than 600 RPAS operations providing services from photography to land surveillance.

RPASs have become an increasingly popular alternative to manned aircraft for aerial surveillance activities, among other things. They are used to monitor railway lines, power plants and farmers’ crops, as well as at rock concerts and in football stadiums. They are being used increasingly in humanitarian circumstances, in dealing with forest fires and earthquakes, for example, and in search and rescue operations. At the same time, ‘baby drones’ designed for leisure and hobby use have become increasingly popular.

All the stakeholders have recognised the potential of this market and we are all keen to stress that any policy framework must enable growth in it in order to compete globally. My role as rapporteur has been to find the right direction and framework to take this industry to the next stage, and I believe that this report, as it now stands, has answered the key questions.

Earlier this year I brought together representatives from industry, Member States, civil aviation authorities, air traffic services, the European Safety Agency and the Commission. It was widely recognised by participants that any framework must be proportionate and risk-based to enable the sector to grow while, at the same time, avoiding any unnecessary burdens. In addition, any legislation must reflect global cooperation in order to stimulate R&D.

I also had constructive meetings in Washington in March with representatives from the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the US Transport Department. This all culminated in a high-level meeting under the Latvian Presidency in Riga, which produced the Riga Declaration.

That key message stated that the European aviation community would commit itself to allowing businesses to provide RPAS services everywhere in Europe from 2016. To do this, I believe that we need to establish European and global rules which will address the following areas: air worthiness, certification, commercial and recreational use, drone identity, appropriate pilot training, liability and insurance, operations, protection and privacy, geo-fencing and no-fly zones.

The Joint Authorities for Rulemaking on Unmanned Systems (JARUS) is a committee comprising non-EU and EU Member States and national aviation authorities. It sits under the umbrella of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). Its purpose is to develop technical safety and operational requirements for the certification and safe integration of large and small RPAS into airspace and at aerodromes. The Chair of JARUS is a representative from European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). In my view, JARUS is ideally placed to draft global safety regulations for the use of these systems quickly and effectively.

We need to ensure that any future EU rules will be compatible with international arrangements through a process of mutual recognition.

To conclude, I would like to thank the shadow rapporteurs on the Committee on Transport and Tourism for their very constructive input and cooperation, as well as our colleagues on the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, and in particular Patrick Cassidy from the ECR Group, who has been an invaluable help to me. I believe that we have acknowledged the opportunities that this nascent market can create for both investment and job creation, whilst at the same time safeguarding public interest. I would therefore ask Parliament for its support in order to send a strong political message that we are ready for this new exciting step forward for the aviation sector.

(Applause)

 
  
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  Violeta Bulc, Member of the Commission. Madam President and distinguished Members of Parliament, drones are a technology which has already changed the way we do things and which creates opportunities for new services and new applications.

Unmanned aircraft are able today to perform missions that are not conceivable or economically not feasible with manned aircraft, ranging from safety inspections – as already pointed out – and monitoring activities to precision farming operations or assessment of natural disasters. The range of drone applications for civilian use is developing fast, underlining the significant economic potential of this sector to contribute to growth and jobs in Europe.

Everybody acknowledges the enormous potential of drone technologies, yet citizens are also raising concerns about drone operations: hence the challenge for us to come up with rules that strike the right balance between promoting this promising technology and adequately protecting our citizens.

It is our conviction that only common European rules would provide a solid basis for promoting investment in, and facilitating the development of, drone technologies while duly protecting all our citizens. That is why the Commission greatly welcomes the support for this approach in the Foster report. I would really like to thank the rapporteur, Ms Foster, for her great work and her efforts in bringing together the views of different political groups in her very comprehensive report. The Commission agrees with the report’s call for a clear, harmonised and proportionate EU regulatory framework, removing the current 150 kilogramme threshold separating EU and national competence. We need to go for common rules for all drones, regardless of weight. But please understand me, this does not mean that every drone operation requires heavy-handed regulation. The Commission agrees with the report that we need to evolve towards an operation-centric approach to safety rules that are proportionate to the risk associated with a particular operation. These ideas are already being developed by the European Aviation Safety Agency and the Joint Authorities for Rulemaking on Unmanned Systems (JARUS), where experts from the European Member States play an active role together with experts from the US, China, Japan, Brazil, Canada, and many more. The Commission also supports the idea that safety rules could be supplemented by internal market or international commerce rules, using leaflets, for example, to make each drone user aware of possible risks.

The Commission is aware of the need to let drones operate further away from the ground station, in other words further than the pilot can see. If drones are allowed to operate over a longer distance in one mission, the cost of the operation will decrease drastically, and wider-range operations will encourage innovative businesses. And yes, we should find sufficient R&D funding to finance the missing technologies. While we support the development of drones, public acceptance of drone operations is key, and we therefore agree that adequate enforcement of safety and other existing legislation, for instance on privacy or data protection, is crucial. However, there are a number of other aspects related to drones, such as security, environmental protection and liability, and these also need to be addressed.

Let me conclude: the Commission greatly appreciates this report on drones, which will significantly contribute to steering safety rules in the desired direction and to the Commissionʼs ongoing work to lay down an enabling framework for drones. The topic has been thoroughly addressed in the aviation package, and I hope that we will be able to proceed swiftly in the near future.

 
  
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  Soraya Post, föredragande av yttrande från utskottet för medborgerliga fri- och rättigheter samt rättsliga och inrikes frågor. – Fru talman! Drönare blir ju mer och mer viktiga i vårt samhälle både kommersiellt och för att utföra viktiga samhällstjänster. Ett centralt användningsområde för drönare är övervakning av människor, ofta utan deras vetskap.

Nuförtiden kan alla köpa en drönare med en kamera eller annan utrustning. EU-lagstiftning till skydd för privatlivet och för personuppgifter måste respekteras på en civil marknad för drönare. Detta är inte förhandlingsbart och kan inte ställas mot kommersiella intressen.

Kommissionen måste noga utreda vilka risker en marknad för civila drönare medför och informera allmänheten om detta. Kommissionen måste också ta fram ett förslag till ett regelverk som alla kan vara trygga med. Vi måste också titta på hur underrättelsetjänster använder drönare och hur vi kan försäkra oss att våra grundläggande rättigheter inte kränks.

 
  
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  Renaud Muselier, au nom du groupe PPE. – Madame la Présidente, je tiens à remercier, bien sûr, Mme Foster pour le rapport qui a été fait et présenté, ainsi que les autres groupes politiques pour le bon travail qu'ils ont effectué.

À l'heure actuelle, il n'existe globalement aucune législation ni mondiale, ni européenne, ni chez nos grands concurrents internationaux, qu'il s'agisse des États-Unis ou de la Chine. Plusieurs États membres ont un début de législation et nous sommes d'ailleurs, nous les Européens, leaders mondiaux des drones, avec plus de la moitié des entreprises mondiales dans ce secteur. Je me permets de rappeler que ce marché représentera au minimum 80 milliards de chiffre d'affaires et 100 000 emplois en 2025. Si nous voulons donc rester leaders, nous avons l'opportunité d'écrire les règles de vol qui, ensuite, s'imposeront au niveau mondial. Ces règles dicteront les normes technologiques applicables aux drones et l'enjeu n'est ni plus ni moins d'imposer au monde notre vision: nous pouvons prendre comme exemple la norme GSM pour les téléphones portables.

Ce n'est pas tout d'être les premiers à avoir des règles, encore faut-il qu'elles soient bonnes, et les règles européennes doivent donner un maximum de liberté d'innovation aux entreprises tout en garantissant une protection absolue de la population.

À ce jour, deux millions de drones ont été vendus et aucun décès n'est à déplorer. Il est manifeste que ce rapport apporte des réponses très claires, notamment à la Commission: la protection des données est indispensable, la vie privée doit absolument être protégée. Mais nous devons laisser se développer le drone; en effet, bloquer les drones, ce serait comme si on avait interdit les téléobjectifs sur les appareils photo. Nous avons donc aujourd'hui une innovation claire, une proposition simple, donc nous anticipons et nous ne décevrons pas avec ce rapport.

 
  
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  Janusz Zemke, w imieniu grupy S&D. Otóż ja chciałem bardzo mocno podkreślić tezę, iż każdego dnia na naszym niebie pojawia się coraz więcej bezpilotowców cywilnych. To nas cieszy, ale to także pokazuje, że mamy do czynienia z rozwojem techniki i że drony to będzie zjawisko trwałe i rozwijające się. Problem polega jednak na tym, że postępom w technice nie towarzyszą adekwatne rozwiązania prawne. Państwa członkowskie Unii Europejskiej w bardzo zróżnicowany sposób regulują wykorzystanie dronów. Zdaniem mojej grupy S&D jest to właśnie obszar, w który muszą się aktywnie włączyć instytucje Unii Europejskiej – jest to bowiem materia obiektywnie właściwa do regulowania unijnego. Cywilnego wykorzystania bezpilotowców nie ograniczają przecież granice żadnych państw.

Są tutaj do rozwiązania dwa problemy o charakterze podstawowym. Problem pierwszy polega na tym, że bezpilotowce muszą się poruszać bezpiecznie w ruchu lotniczym, a problem długi – i o nim już tu dzisiaj była mowa – to zapewnienie ochrony sfery prywatności. Myślę, że sprawozdanie pani Foster bardzo trafnie zwraca uwagę na te dwa aspekty – moim zdaniem jest to bardzo wartościowy i ciekawy dokument. Ponieważ te dwie sfery, czyli kwestie dotyczące zapewnienia bezpieczeństwa, ale także istotne sprawy dotyczące ochrony prywatności, są tutaj jasno ujęte, moja grupa będzie dalej bardzo czynnie brała udział w pracach nad tym dokumentem.

 
  
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  Evžen Tošenovský, za skupinu ECR. Paní předsedající, paní komisařko, drony představují další fenomén, kde technika předběhla legislativu, a vidíme potřebu koordinovaného přístupu na evropské úrovni. V oblastech kritické infrastruktury by měl být provoz dronů bez pochyby omezen. Aktuální je též otázka ochrany soukromí v celém spektru. Jsem rád, že kolegyně Fosterová jako zpravodajka připravila vyvážený příspěvek Evropského parlamentu do debaty, jak se ke dronům postavit. Je mi jasné, že tato zpráva nechce předjímat detaily, jak budou budoucí evropská pravidla vypadat. Myslím si, že je to velmi příznačný přístup a velmi oceňuji přístup paní Fosterové k této věci. Na druhou stranu bych nechtěl, aby došlo ke zbytečnému administrativnímu omezení dronů využívaných pro individuální zábavu nebo pro samotný vývoj aplikací do budoucna.

 
  
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  Matthijs van Miltenburg, namens de ALDE-Fractie. Ik wil op de allereerste plaats de rapporteur, mevrouw Foster, bedanken voor haar verrichte werk. In deze context zou ik zeggen: “well done” wordt “well drone”.

De veilige integratie van drones in het Europese luchtruim moet worden gewaarborgd. Daarom is Europese regelgeving hard nodig. Hoe sneller, hoe beter. Recente ongevallen met drones illustreren dat maar al te goed. Een heel belangrijk aandachtspunt daarbij is de aansprakelijkheid. Op wie moet de schade verhaald worden als een drone uit de lucht komt vallen? Om aansprakelijkheid te kunnen garanderen moeten we ervoor zorgen dat er een duidelijke link met de eigenaar of de bestuurder van de drone is en dat die te allen tijde kan worden getraceerd wanneer zo'n drone schade veroorzaakt.

Verplichte registratie en de installatie van een verplichte identificatiechip zou daarvoor een oplossing kunnen zijn. Dat is ook de richting die ik heb aangegeven in een amendement van mij dat is overgenomen in het verslag. Evident is dus dat er Europese regelgeving nodig is en daar moeten we echt op doorpakken. Gelukkig komt er begin december een luchtvaartpakket met een voorstel daaromtrent. Het lijkt mij belangrijk dat de Raad onder het Nederlandse voorzitterschap samen met het Europees Parlement een stap in de goede richting zet zodat de drone-industrie daadwerkelijk een hoge vlucht kan nemen.

 
  
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  Davor Škrlec, u ime kluba Verts/ALE. Gospođo predsjednice, poštovana povjerenice Bulc, kolegice i kolege, prvo zahvaljujem izvjestiteljici Foster na izvrsnoj suradnji pri izradi ovog izvješća.

Zadaća Europske unije je u što kraćem roku razviti zakonodavni okvir koji će se odnositi isključivo na civilnu upotrebu bespilotnih letjelica. Zakonodavni okvir mora zajamčiti investicije i razvoj konkurentnog europskog sektora bespilotnih letjelica za civilu uporabu te jasno razlikovati profesionalnu upotrebu bespilotnih letjelica na daljinsko upravljanje od njihove rekreativne upotrebe.

Potencijal za gospodarski rast ovog sektora je golem. Potiče razvoj inovativnih tehnologija koje imaju veliki potencijal za stvaranje radnih mjesta, posebno zelenih radnih mjesta, kako u velikim trgovačkim društvima, tako i u tisućama malih i srednjih poduzeća.

Kvalitetno obrazovanje je nužno u ovom sektoru te ističem potrebu za organiziranjem i promicanjem centara za stjecanje kvalifikacija i osposobljavanje pilota i operatera bespilotnih letjelica. Europskim zakonodavnim okvirom moramo omogućiti inovacije i razvoj sektora u najboljim mogućim uvjetima, uz učinkovitu zaštitu imovine i osoba, kao i osobnih podataka i privatnosti građana.

Na kraju ne smijemo zaboraviti ograničene resurse kojima raspolažemo i zaštitu okoliša. Ovaj novi sektor je idealna prilika da odmah na početku počnemo primjenjivati načela kružne ekonomije, a za propulziju bespilotnih letjelica koristimo pogonsko gorivo koje neće narušavati kvalitetu zraka i povećavati emisije stakleničkih plinova.

 
  
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  Peter Lundgren, för EFDD-gruppen. Fru talman! Drönare är en växande verksamhet med en mycket stor potential. Det är i alla fall min åsikt att det behövs klara regler för denna marknad för att möjliggöra fortsatta satsningar i tekniken. Människor är ju ofta skeptiska till nymodigheter. Tänk bara på flygets barndom – de flesta avfärdade då de män som utvecklade flygplan, som galna människor. I dag tror jag att väldigt få av oss skulle kunna tänka oss en värld utan flygets möjligheter att förflytta oss snabbt mellan olika världsdelar. En resa till USA förr i tiden, i alla fall från mitt hemland Sverige, rörde sig om ett par veckor. Tekniken utvecklas således och går framåt hela tiden. Många gånger är väl då, som sagt, problemet att vi har svårt att ta den till oss innan vi ser de praktiska möjligheterna med den.

Industrin kan alltså bli väldigt stor på denna marknad. Den är stor och kan bli ännu större, men det förutsätter också att det finns väldigt klara spelregler på marknaden, eftersom det inte finns något företag som vågar investera mycket pengar i en nymodighet utan att veta vilka spelregler som gäller.

Integriteten är ju, som sagt, en väldigt känslig fråga. Vem vill ha en drönare över huvudet när man sitter i trädgården och dricker kaffe? Det är alltså en aspekt som lagstiftarna behöver titta över, så att man skyddar integriteten. Jag ser dock stora samhällsmöjligheter i tekniken.

 
  
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  Marie-Christine Arnautu, au nom du groupe ENF. Madame la Présidente, je salue, Madame Foster, votre texte. Je trouve très positif qu'il ne vise en aucun cas à réglementer les drones militaires. Du fait de leur enjeu stratégique, il était nécessaire d'être très clair sur ce point.

Je partage votre souci de donner aux petites et moyennes entreprises un cadre suffisamment souple pour qu'elles restent compétitives face à la concurrence étrangère, notamment celle venant des États-Unis.

J'approuve l'idée de susciter un débat entre les parties prenantes afin de définir une réglementation équilibrée qui permette de protéger la vie privée et de garantir la sécurité des personnes tout en promouvant l'essor de nouvelles technologies.

En outre, comme je l'ai affirmé lors des travaux en commission, il est essentiel que les États membres et les autorités nationales compétentes gardent une marge de manœuvre importante pour autoriser ou interdire l'usage des drones au-dessus des zones sensibles. De ce point de vue, je souscris pleinement au paragraphe 44 du rapport, qui demande le renforcement des échanges de vues entre les États membres, les autorités réglementaires nationales, l'Union européenne, le secteur de l'aviation civile et les PME. Je voterai donc en faveur de votre texte.

 
  
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  Marian-Jean Marinescu (PPE). În urmă cu 25 de ani, internetul era de domeniul SF-ului. Acum este indispensabil pentru dezvoltarea economiei și, în același timp, are alte numeroase efecte în societate, inclusiv negative. De aici și nevoia de a fi reglementat.

RPAS constituie un exemplu similar. În urmă cu 25 de ani, o dronă era o armă rară și scumpă. În urmă cu câțiva ani, erau încercări timide în civil. De atunci, a avut loc un boom tehnologic și astăzi dronele sunt un obiect banal. Domeniile în care le găsim sunt foarte diverse, contribuie la dezvoltarea economiei, dar, în același timp, determină și probleme, unele destul de serioase, dacă ne gândim la privacy sau la securitatea zborurilor. Este nevoie de ele, dar trebuie să ne și protejăm de ele.

Acest fenomen nu poate fi stopat și va deveni foarte curând un fenomen de masă. Este evident că este necesară reglementarea. Raportul discutat astăzi, cred eu că este foarte bun și tratează toate aspectele acestui fenomen, sugerează baze bune pentru viitoarele reglementări. Comisia trebuie să abordeze aceste reglementări într-un mod special datorită caracteristicilor speciale ale acestui obiect; vorbim despre un aparat de zbor. Deci regulile trebuie să trateze construcția, certificarea aparatului și a personalului, aspectele de securitate, aspectele legate de domeniile economice unde se utilizează, separarea: civil, militar, economic sau plăcere, un regulament complex care nu trebuie elaborat superficial, dar nici nu trebuie să întârzie foarte mult.

 
  
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  Claudia Tapardel (S&D). Utilizarea sistemelor aeriene fără pilot este, fără îndoială, un pas important către piața aeronautică a viitorului. În ultimii ani, această tehnologie s-a dezvoltat foarte mult în scopuri militare, însă are un potențial extraordinar pentru a fi utilizată și în scopuri civile, adică în viața de zi cu zi.

Sectoare ca transportul și agricultura, precum și acțiunile de salvare umană, pot beneficia de pe urma acestor aparate de zbor versatile, limitând riscul adus de operarea umană și mărind eficiența prin accesul în zone unde este greu de ajuns. Această piață emergentă aduce cu sine și nevoia de reglementare, pentru a asigura securitatea, siguranța și respectul intimității, precum și protecția datelor cetățenilor europeni.

Este evident că avem nevoie de o strategie la nivel european pentru sistemele aeriene fără pilot operate la distanță, care să fie în concordanță cu standardele ICAO. Deși sunt convinsă că performanțele hardware și software ale aparatelor vor evolua în viitorul apropiat, trebuie să agreăm câteva standarde minime în ceea ce privește condițiile de certificare a piloților și de identificare și operare a aparatului de zbor. Vă mulțumesc.

 
  
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  Anneleen Van Bossuyt (ECR). Vandaag zal ik vóór het verslag van mijn collega Jacky Foster stemmen. Ze heeft een goed evenwicht gevonden om enerzijds een ontluikende industrie een duw in de rug te geven en anderzijds de veiligheid van de burger te verzekeren. Dit Parlement trapt al te vaak in de val van overregulering. Privacy-fetisjisten zien overal gevaar en dreigen met een overvloed aan regels de groei van de industrie in de kiem te smoren. Maar de drone-industrie heeft net realistische en stimulerende maatregelen nodig. Met dit verslag heeft collega Foster een goed evenwicht gevonden tussen het respect voor de privacy, de veiligheid van de toestellen en voor de omgeving, en ten slotte ook de groeikansen voor een beloftevolle industrie. Het is nu aan de Europese Commissie om deze lijn aan te houden bij het wetgevende werk.

 
  
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  Dominique Riquet (ALDE). Madame la Présidente, Madame la Commissaire, mes chers collègues, s'ils ont été longtemps circonscrits au domaine militaire, les drones sont maintenant partout présents, de l'agriculture au cinéma en passant par la logistique et la sécurité.

Je souligne la qualité du rapport de Mme Foster, qui a su à la fois distinguer le potentiel et le caractère spécifique de ces drones et circonscrire énormément de problèmes qu'ils posent pour ce qui est de leur intégration dans la société civile.

Face à une telle évolution, nous disons oui, bien sûr, à une réglementation harmonisée à l'échelle de l'Union. Toute autre approche empêcherait l'émergence d'un marché européen, et ce serait sans doute autant de débouchés en moins pour une industrie en plein essor. En revanche, nous devons rester extrêmement vigilants sur un certain nombre d'aspects, qui ont été soulignés par le rapport: protection de la vie privée, approche fondée sur le risque, distinction de l'usage récréatif et professionnel.

Nous devons aussi assurer la promotion de la prédominance européenne en la matière, en dotant l'Agence européenne pour la sécurité aérienne des moyens de défendre notre industrie vis-à-vis du reste du monde. Bref, c'est une approche raisonnable et ambitieuse qu'il nous faut, et c'est ce que nous offre le rapport de Mme Foster.

 
  
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  Jill Seymour (EFDD). Madam President, I am speaking against this report. In paragraph 21 it calls for clear harmonised and proportionate European and global regulatory framework, which looks like to me that the rapporteur is trying to push more powers to the EU. There is a call for the Commission to remove the 150 kilogramme limit in paragraph 22 and replace it with the EU regulatory framework that would allow national competent authorities to oversee the activities. What right does the EU have to decide what a national competent authority actually is? Then in paragraph 48 there is a call for a regular reporting mechanism at EU level that would address our past incidents.

(The President instructed the speaker to slow down)

I would like to know the definition of ‘incident’ as it is a very broad term. I am in agreement with the UK Government that any heavy-handed regulation could only stifle potential growth in this new emerging area of technology. The general public who fly model aircraft are going to be penalised by the lack of clarity demonstrated this report. I urge all Members to vote against this.

 
  
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  Christine Revault D'Allonnes Bonnefoy (S&D). Madame la Présidente, je tiens, moi aussi, à saluer le travail de Mme Foster, rapporteure, et le très bon travail collectif avec les rapporteurs fictifs.

En adoptant ce rapport, le Parlement européen prend les devants pour poser les jalons d'un futur cadre européen réglementaire en matière de drones. C'est un enjeu majeur pour l'avenir de notre aviation civile et la compétitivité de nos entreprises sur un marché à fort potentiel. L'Union européenne ne pouvait plus ignorer cette réalité, j'espère que la Commission entendra les recommandations des députés européens.

Dans cette perspective, les enjeux de sécurité sont primordiaux et nécessitent une attention toute particulière, notamment en matière d'utilisation, de contrôle et de suivi des drones et des utilisateurs ou encore d'interdiction de survoler certaines zones sensibles. Ce rapport met aussi en avant les enjeux liés à la protection des données, qui devront être pris en considération par la Commission.

Il faudra également, dans le futur cadre européen, prendre en compte les différences entre usage récréatif et usage commercial des drones, qui sont par nature différents. Avec le vote d'aujourd'hui, nous envoyons un message de soutien au secteur aérien pour le développement d'un marché européen des drones, ainsi qu'un message politique à la Commission pour proposer un cadre ambitieux.

 
  
 

Interventions à la demande

 
  
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  Cláudia Monteiro de Aguiar (PPE). Senhora Presidente, a utilização generalizada dos drones no campo da aviação civil tem originado o aparecimento de novas empresas, particularmente pequenas e médias empresas. Este é, de facto, um setor onde a União pode e deve assumir-se como líder, mas, para isso, como aqui discutimos, é necessário encontrarmos uma regulamentação proporcional e clara. Não devemos bloquear o potencial deste setor emergente. Contudo devemos, sim, respeitar a privacidade, a proteção de dados e a segurança dos cidadãos. Estamos a falar, obviamente, de temos complexos onde precisamos de legislar e para quê? Para que estas empresas tecnológicas, nesta área, possam apostar na inovação, na criação e, sobretudo, na prestação de serviços. Perante o vazio legal que existe em alguns Estados-Membros, existem barreiras a superar a nível da contratação deste tipo de serviços. Urge criar um quadro legal europeu, sem sobrelegislar e sem criar encargos desnecessários às pequenas e médias empresas. Votarei a favor deste relatório.

 
  
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  Doru-Claudian Frunzulică (S&D). Madam President, clearly it is about time to have a harmonised and proportionate EU regulatory framework on the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) and to set out clear guidelines to the Commission for outlining the upcoming aviation package expected by the end of 2015.

In order to reach this objective we must follow a risk-based approach, in line with the Riga Declaration, ensuring safety. At the same time, we must guarantee adequate protection of citizens, which means respecting the fundamental rights of privacy and data protection. We have to ensure that investments and innovation in the industry are stimulated, and we must make efforts to create sustainable and innovative jobs.

I support the compromises included in the report, such as the Commission’s removal of the 150kg threshold, and the provision on ‘detect and avoid technology’ for RPAS.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). Κύρια Πρόεδρε, τα μη επανδρωμένα αεροσκάφη στην εποχή της τεχνολογίας θα μπορούν να φανούν πολύ χρήσιμα σε σχέση με την έρευνα και τη διάσωση, την προστασία του περιβάλλοντος, την αγροτική και βιομηχανική παραγωγή, τη δημοσιογραφία, τις εμπορικές δραστηριότητες και τις δραστηριότητες αναψυχής. Θα πρέπει όμως η Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή να θεσπίσει άμεσα μέτρα, έτσι ώστε τα τηλεχειριζόμενα αεροσκάφη να χρησιμοποιούνται αποκλειστικά για σκοπούς εξυπηρέτησης των ίδιων των ανθρώπων.

Παράλληλα, η Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή θα πρέπει να θεσπίσει μέτρα, καθώς τα μη επανδρωμένα αεροσκάφη είναι εξ ορισμού μια μορφή τεχνολογίας διπλής χρήσης και απαιτείται έτσι η επιβολή περιοριστικών και αυστηρών κανόνων, προκειμένου να υπάρχει προστασία της ιδιωτικής ζωής και των προσωπικών δεδομένων. Παράλληλα, τα συστήματα αυτά μπορούν, είτε σκόπιμα είτε όχι, να χρησιμοποιηθούν για να βλάψουν ανθρώπους και υποδομές. Εφιστώ λοιπόν την προσοχή της Επιτροπής στα τηλεχειριζόμενα αεροσκάφη και ζητώ να υπάρξει συγκεκριμένη νομοθετική παρέμβαση.

 
  
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  Izaskun Bilbao Barandica (ALDE). Señora Presidenta, comisaria, quiero felicitar a la señora Foster por un trabajo que necesitamos para acelerar la regulación que necesitan fabricantes y operadores de drones a nivel europeo. Tenemos la oportunidad de colocar la industria civil del sector en una posición de liderazgo mundial. Conseguirlo depende de que fabricantes, operadores, usuarios y ciudadanía dispongan de un marco estable para invertir con seguridad y garantías jurídicas y técnicas para operadores, usuarios y ciudadanía.

Identificar adecuadamente los drones, sus cualidades y las de sus operadores, coordinarlos con la aviación tripulada, delimitar los usos profesionales y recreativos y reglar la formación de los operarios, y evitar posibles abusos contra derechos fundamentales —comunicaciones, intimidad y propia imagen— son algunas de las cuestiones que regular de manera urgente, y depende de ello convertir un riesgo —el que representan todas las tecnologías de doble uso— en una oportunidad y fomentar una industria con enorme potencial y una cantera de empleos de calidad.

 
  
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  Patricija Šulin (PPE). Brezpilotna zračna plovila so v rokah odgovornih izvrstno orodje; pri nevarnih opravilih, denimo, nadomestijo ljudi. Toda v rokah neodgovornih oziroma neusposobljenih so grožnja stvarem, živalim, varnosti in zasebnosti ljudi, zato je treba to področje dobro in hitro urediti, tudi sprejeti najvišje standarde na področju proizvodnje. Pri tem sta varnost in zasebnost izjemnega pomena, na kar poročilo tudi opozarja.

Nedavni avtomobilski škandal Volkswagen pa je pokazal, kako pomemben je nadzor nad uresničevanjem zakonodaje. Poziv Komisiji in državam članicam, da zagotovijo zadostna sredstva za izvrševanje, je zato na mestu.

Trg dronov je že zelo velik, področje njihove uporabe, kot vsi ugotavljamo, pa je še zelo neurejeno. Potrebujemo torej enotno evropsko strategijo, predvsem na področju varnosti, zasebnosti, odgovornosti, kvalifikacij in varovanja okolja.

 
  
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  Lucy Anderson (S&D). Madam President, I welcome this debate on drones, and the thoughtful and consultative way in which our report under consideration today was produced. I utterly reject the unhelpful and ill-informed knee-jerk comments of the UKIP colleague opposite.

There is a growing consensus among the public and experts that an extended legal framework on drones, for reasons of safety and orderly economic development, is necessary. It is clear that drone technology can be extremely useful – for example, in undertaking repairs and safety inspections in the construction and transport sectors that would be very risky for staff to conduct. However, drones are potentially dangerous aircraft, and there has been a growing incidence of serious accidents and near misses involving their use in Europe and worldwide. It is therefore disappointing that the Commission appears reluctant to regulate properly the leisure use of drones. Speaking for myself, while drones can obviously create high quality jobs, I would be reluctant to see them replacing valued customer-service roles in the delivery and retail sectors.

 
  
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  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE). Gospođo predsjednice, dozvolite mi gospođo povjerenice i gospođo izvjestiteljice da jasno podržim ovaj izvještaj zato što tržište dronova zaista ima fantastične mogućnosti razvoja, pogotovo one koje će poslužiti u kvalitetnijem življenju, u kvalitetnijoj komercijalnoj upotrebi dronova, ne samo više u vojnoj uporabi.

Međutim, ono na što želim upozoriti su dvije stvari jer je definitivno jasno da postoji mogućnost zloupotrebe bespilotnih letjelica, naročito kada one postanu dio, da tako kažem, svakodnevnog življenja i u svakodnevnoj uporabi u milijunima komada koji će letjeti za nas. Prvi problem je identifikacija dronova. Znači čiji su ti dronovi, vlasništvo dronova jer je moguća naravno zloupotreba dronova. I drugo, ono što posebno želim naglasiti, je prekogranična uporaba dronova jer imamo mogućnost da jedan dron dođe do granice, snima sve ono što se dešava u drugoj državi i tu dolazimo već u probleme sigurnosti.

 
  
 

(Fin des interventions à la demande)

 
  
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  Violeta Bulc, Member of the Commission. Madam President, honourable Members, thank you for this very fruitful debate. The drone industry has huge potential for the EU: for growth, for fresh jobs and for development at all levels of innovation. The EU is still the leading area of the world for business drones and I want it to stay that way. All our efforts will be directed towards synchronising an EU single market in order to enable economies of scale to be made, and to be competitive.

The market is evolving fast and we are ready to act swiftly and holistically. We are already fully engaged at EU level and globally. As I have mentioned, the aviation package will address various aspects of the report, as well as the activities of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the Joint Authorities for Rulemaking on Unmanned Systems (JARUS).

The technologists’ and industrialists’ enthusiasm for the process is also well balanced with addressing citizensʼ concerns regarding safety, security, noise and privacy issues, as well as issues in relation to the manipulators of drones. However, we need to act in a proportionate manner to allow the evolution of the market and the manifestation of its full potential.

Thank you again to Ms Foster, and all the MEPs involved, for this report. I am looking forward to our future cooperation on this topic.

 
  
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  Jacqueline Foster, rapporteur. Madam President, I would like to thank the Commissioner and my colleagues for those very constructive and helpful comments. I would just like to clarify a couple of points on privacy. As we said, we work very closely with the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE), and what we need to stress in our Member States is that there are already strong laws in place and we must make sure that our law enforcement is absolutely up to scratch. So that is the starting point.

In terms of these little baby drones – one of my colleagues mentioned it – we are not looking at regulating a tiny little thing that a child would play with. The whole point of this report is about that section in the middle, which is commercial use and the slightly bigger ones, which could actually cause damage. This is what this is about. It is also not about the top—end ones, which are already covered by aviation regulation. So this is why we are looking at a case—by—case type class approach.

In terms of the protection of facilities – whether it to be nuclear plants, airports, etc. – this is where technology comes in. This is where I mentioned geofencing. We have been talking very often with these technological bods to find ways to see how we can deal with this.

My good colleague, Ms Arnautu, is quite right: this is not about military use. This is just about civil use. The points that she has raised are very important.

My final point goes to our colleague, Ms Seymour, who very sadly lacks any real understanding of the aviation sector and does not understand that aviation per se already comes under national (UK), European and global rules. That is what the sector does in any event, and drones will be no different. But never mind, I will perhaps explain that to her privately.

On that closing point, I would just like to say that I am very much looking forward to what the Commission will produce. I think that together we can come up with a very good regulation. My final point to the Commissioner would be that I want to make sure that the manufacturers, the end-users and all the bodies that I have mentioned and spoken to are included in this debate and will be included as the legislation rolls on.

I look forward to all Members, hopefully, supporting this report in the vote at 11.30.

 
  
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  La Présidente. – Le débat est clos.

Le vote aura lieu jeudi, le 29 octobre, à 12 heures.

Déclarations écrites (article 162)

 
  
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  Carlos Coelho (PPE), por escrito. Os Drones já não são algo tirado de um filme de ficção científica. Antes constituem uma tecnologia cada vez mais desenvolvida, que se reflete numa indústria emergente em que a União deve ambicionar ser líder. Mas estes veículos aéreos não tripulados são também uma nova realidade, que coloca novos desafios à proteção dos direitos fundamentais, à segurança, às forças de polícia e à ordem pública.

Vejo, por isso, com agrado que o relatório hoje em debate reflete precisamente esta abordagem — por um lado, recomendando um conjunto de medidas que permitam ter um mercado europeu único, assim como tomar a dianteira na criação de standards mundiais, e, por outro lado, reconhecendo os novos desafios e seguindo as recomendações aprovadas pela Comissão LIBE, como a necessidade de rastreabilidade, de um quadro jurídico adequado ao efeito potenciador de novas tecnologias, como câmaras e sensores térmicos, ou do estímulo ao investimento em tecnologias de privacidade e segurança. Tudo isto assente no pressuposto de que quaisquer medidas deverão envolver todas as partes interessadas e ser proporcionais, ou seja, tendo em conta o risco associado e a dimensão das empresas. É tempo de pôr as mãos à obra, porque a tecnologia não espera!

 
  
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  Elżbieta Katarzyna Łukacijewska (PPE), na piśmie. Ostatnie 15 lat to czas gwałtownego wzrostu wykorzystywania zdalnie kierowanych bezzałogowych systemów powietrznych (RPAS), które potocznie nazywamy dronami. Stają się one coraz bardziej popularne także i w Polsce. Niewątpliwie urządzenia te przyczyniają się do powodzenia operacji prowadzonych przez wojsko, do których zostały pierwotnie skonstruowane. Dużym pozytywem jest wykorzystywanie ich w szczególności do kontroli bezpieczeństwa i monitorowania infrastruktury, oceny katastrof naturalnych, wymagającej precyzji działalności rolniczej czy produkcji medialnej. Najbardziej niepokojącą kwestią jest jednak używanie dronów przez osoby prywatne w celach komercyjnych oraz brak ustawodawstwa wspólnotowego w tej dziedzinie. Uważam, że należy opracować jasne, zharmonizowane i proporcjonalne regulacje, nieobciążające przedsiębiorstw, które inwestują i wprowadzają innowacje w sektorze RPAS. Z drugiej strony muszą zapewniać one odpowiednią ochronę obywatelom i tworzyć zrównoważone i innowacyjne miejsca pracy. Należy wziąć pod uwagę nielegalne i niebezpieczne wykorzystywanie dronów, np. przekształcanie ich z urządzeń cywilnych w broń lub zakłócanie przez nie systemów nawigacji lub komunikacji, szczególnie na lotniskach. Trzeba wyważyć skutki planowanej regulacji. Pragnę jeszcze raz podkreślić, że musi ona chronić życie nas wszystkich, dlatego też prawo europejskie powinno objąć swym zakresem korzystanie z dronów; jednak nie może zbytnio ograniczać nowo powstałego rynku, gdyż uczyni go mało atrakcyjnym dla inwestorów i klientów.

 
  
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  Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski (PPE), na piśmie. Aktualnie na świecie jest zarejestrowanych około 5 tysięcy operatorów dronów. Połowa z nich ma swoje siedziby w Europie. Ilość posiadanych obiektów jest już trudna do zweryfikowania. Łatwo można sobie zatem wyobrazić skalę rozmaitych występujących dzisiaj zagrożeń związanych z użytkowaniem dronów. Pilność regulacji jest zatem nadzwyczajna. Certyfikacja obiektów o ciężarze powyżej 150 kg jest absolutnie niewystarczająca, głównie ze względu na technologiczne możliwości powstawania obiektów bardzo dużych, a jednak lżejszych. Wyraźnie chcę także podkreślić znaczenie i możliwości wykorzystania tworzonego i wdrażanego systemu GNSS oraz konieczność skupienia uwagi nie tylko na użytkowniku, ale także na samych obiektach. Ich obligatoryjne oznakowanie powinno zostać dość szybko wprowadzone, także po to, aby ograniczyć zagrożenia związane z przewozem obiektów przez granice UE.

 
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