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Ciclo relativo al documento : O-000118/2015

Textos presentados :

O-000118/2015 (B8-1101/2015)

Debates :

PV 29/10/2015 - 6
CRE 29/10/2015 - 6

Votaciones :

Textos aprobados :


Debates
Jueves 29 de octubre de 2015 - Estrasburgo Edición revisada

6. Desarrollo de una tecnología por satélite para permitir sistemas de seguimiento de vuelos a escala mundial (debate)
Vídeo de las intervenciones
PV
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  elnök asszony. – A következő napirendi pont a Michael Cramer által a Közlekedési és Idegenforgalmi Bizottság nevében a Bizottsághoz intézett, a légi járatok globális nyomon követését lehetővé tevő rendszerek műholdas technológiájának fejlesztéséről szóló szóbeli választ igénylő kérdésről folytatott vita (O-000118/2015 - B8-1101/2015) (2015/2857(RSP)).

 
  
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  Michael Cramer, Verfasser. Frau Präsidentin, Frau Kommissarin, meine sehr geehrten Damen und Herren! Im Namen des Verkehrsausschusses möchte ich die Frage zur mündlichen Beantwortung zu satellitengestützten Ortungssystemen für den Flugverkehr kurz vorstellen: Zahlreiche Tragödien im Flugverkehr haben die Schwächen des heutigen Systems gezeigt und die Notwendigkeit für genaue und ständige Ortung von Flugzeugen deutlich gemacht. Wir erinnern uns an die tragische Geschichte des Fluges Malaysian Airlines 370 und auch an die Air France 447 und an viele andere.

Nur 30 % des weltweiten Luftraums werden von heutigen Ortungssystemen erfasst. Das behindert die Rettung und auch die Bergung. Es gibt also Handlungsbedarf. Und eine der vielversprechendsten Optionen ist die Ortung mit Satelliten, das heißt, die automatic dependence surveillance broadcast. Diese Technologie ermöglicht bessere Kontrolle und besseres Management des Flugverkehrs, vor allem mehr Sicherheit, aber auch mehr Effizienz und Kontrolle und weniger Infrastrukturkosten. Also: Eine Win-Win-Win-Win-Situation. Unser Ausschuss ist überzeugt davon, dass die Regeln überdacht werden müssen, um Menschenleben zu retten. Auch die Internationale Organisation für die zivile Luftfahrt ICAO teilt unser Anliegen. Der Ausschuss und ICAO bitten also beide die Internationale Union für Telekommunikation ITU, auf der Weltkonferenz in diesem November in Genf ein entsprechendes Frequenzspektrum zuzuweisen.

Wir haben klare Fragen unseres Ausschusses: Was denkt die Kommission über satellitengestützte Ortungssysteme? Und was hält die Kommission von der Forderung, bei der Weltkonferenz im November die nötigen Frequenzbänder zuzuweisen, um solche Systeme zu ermöglichen? Wir sind gespannt auf Ihre Antwort, Frau Kommissarin.

 
  
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  Violeta Bulc, Member of the Commission. Madam President, honourable Members, allow me to address you for the fourth time today with an equally important topic. The Commission considers that satellite-based technology for global flight tracking is a positive development. In the aftermath of the June 2009 accident involving Air France flight 447, Europe launched extensive work on options both for tracking aircraft and for localising an airplane in distress. The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines flight 370 in March 2014 has contributed to fast-tracking of the regulatory process at EU level.

A committee opinion delivered on 9 July 2015 endorsed the Commission’s proposal to amend Commission Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 regarding requirements for flight records, underwater locating devices and aircraft tracking systems. Both in terms of legislation and research our work is performance—based. This means that it does not favour any specific commercial or technical solution as long as the technology used by operators is fit for the desired purpose. Our rules will both provide the necessary flexibility and accommodate a number of technical options – existing ones as well as future ones such as Galileo Search and Rescue and/or satellite-based ADS, type B. Such rules, supported by the Member States, would be based on the following three principles:

First, the requirements must be technologically neutral and performance based. They will be defined to ensure that large public transport aircraft automatically transmit sufficient trajectory information regularly and accurately enough for search and rescue and investigation purposes.

Second, provided that the relevant equipment can be operated safely, the requirement should specify that it should have a backup power supply and it should not be possible to disable the flight tracking functions. This apparently occurred during the Malaysia Airlines flight.

Third, the requirements must allow air carriers and aircraft manufacturers to opt for the most cost-efficient solutions.

The text of the Commission proposal has already been submitted to the European Parliament and Council for scrutiny. On that basis, comprehensive legislation should be adopted and published before the end of the year. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) is also updating international rules accordingly. Furthermore, we are working actively to provide passengers with Internet connections, both terrestrial and satellite solutions. Such systems can support advanced data communication between air and ground. This will eventually make it possible for flights to be fully monitored in real time from the ground. To return to the subject of space—based ATSB technology, although this remains an interesting option, the Commission would like to underline that it is one of several possible solutions. The Commission has set out various options in a technical working paper provided to ICAO. Concerning the Commission’s position at the World Radio Communication Conference, the European Union as such does not have voting rights in the ITU. On Monday, 26 October the Council adopted conclusions for the World Radio Communication Conference, but this topic is not addressed. We therefore welcome the European Parliament resolution and we will work together with Member States at the World Radio Communication Conference to ensure that it is coherently supported during the negotiations.

To sum up, the Commission supported the protection of ADS type B at the World Radio Communication Conference and consequently in the ITU radio regulation. We also know that during the preparations for the World Radio Communications Conference Member States signalled their support for allocation for satellite reception of automatic dependent surveillance broadcast ATSB emissions from aircraft limited to messages transmitted in accordance with ICAO standards. That will conclude my report.

 
  
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  Marian-Jean Marinescu, în numele grupului PPE. Doamnă președinte, cu părere de rău, trebuie să menționez și eu cele două evenimente triste, două accidente aviatice, unul în Atlantic, celălalt în Pacific. Unul dintre avioane a fost localizat după ani de căutări, celălalt nu a fost găsit nici până acum. Motivul este inexistența unui sistem care să asigure o urmărire globală și permanentă a zborurilor, poziționarea aparatelor de zbor este posibilă doar în 30 % din spațiul aerian. Oceanele și o parte din Africa nu sunt acoperite datorită lipsei posibilităților tehnice, respectiv lipsei echipamentelor terestre.

Se utilizează un sistem neperformant și scump care înregistrează o poziție relativ exactă a aparatelor de zbor la intervale mari de timp și determină o utilizare ineficientă a spațiului aerian. Avem la îndemână o soluție tehnică care poate asigura o acoperire globală, ADS-B-ul, un sistem care este utilizat deja pe baza echipamentelor terestre și poate fi utilizat în viitor pe baza sistemelor de sateliți. Modificările pe aparatele de zbor sunt minime. Este nevoie de alocarea unei în benzi de frecvență care se face de către Organizația Internațională a Telecomunicațiilor în cadrul Conferinței mondiale pentru radiocomunicații. Conferința va avea loc în noiembrie 2015. Următoarea este peste patru ani. Este evident că această alocare trebuie să se facă anul acesta pentru a nu pierde încă patru ani. Utilizarea noului sistem aduce un plus important de securitate în transportul aerian, un instrument extrem de eficient pentru acțiunile de salvare, precum și o optimizare a zborurilor în general și, în special, a celor trans-oceanice. AESA și OACI susțin această soluție și s-au exprimat în acest sens. Salutăm poziția Comisiei și rugăm să facă diligențele necesare pe lângă statele membre pentru a susține această poziție în cadrul Conferinței internaționale.

 
  
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  Lucy Anderson, on behalf of the S&D Group. Madam President, regulatory bodies, industry and citizens are agreed that aircraft tracking by satellite must be improved urgently. The successful and growing European satellite industry is ready to play its part.

Lack of sufficient allocation of radio spectrum is only one of the barriers in this area, but it is a very significant one. This is not just about search and rescue operations, but it is also about increasing the ability to help aircraft avoid poor weather and to help them take less environmentally-damaging and shorter routes. The International Air Transport Association has effectively already supported reviewing and extending spectrum allocations. This is something we should do. Travellers and families need this extra reassurance and confidence in airline systems. I welcome this oral question and I would urge colleagues in plenary to support the resolution.

 
  
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  Jacqueline Foster, on behalf of the ECR Group. Madam President, I welcome the question that has been tabled by our colleague, Michael Cramer. I think it has come at a very appropriate time.

Ironically, I raised this issue of radio spectrum for the aviation sector more than 13 years ago. That was when I was on the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE). The reason at that time was the growth of mobile phones and it was actually before Galileo, so we have certainly moved on apace. That is exactly what technology has done. Therefore, we must be in a position where we can benefit from these advanced sophisticated systems for tracking flights.

Air accident investigators worldwide are trusted by the public to investigate air accidents and incidents absolutely fully. It is therefore our responsibility to provide them with the tools to do the job. So we welcome the debate on this topic, rapporteur, and we are certainly supporting you in the ECR Group.

 
  
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  Pavel Telička, on behalf of the ALDE Group. Madam President, it goes without saying that we support the question and, indeed, we were involved in co-drafting it. What the Commissioner has said today shows that the Commission is making every effort, and that is definitely appreciated by my group.

Secondly, Commissioner, you have reassured us that the aviation package that will be submitted at the beginning of December will definitely provide the necessary proposal. Looking at your three key elements: in relation to back-up supply, there can be no doubt; on technological neutrality, I would say, yes, and obviously we will be looking too at the impact assessment; but the key issue is absolute interoperability.

You also spoke about cost-efficient solutions: for me this means not the cheapest but rather the most proportionate and appropriate to deliver.

Finally, a remark on the question of regularity: we should be aiming at the shortest possible frequencies in this respect. In relation to the spectrum, I think I can fall into line with other colleagues.

 
  
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  Ismail Ertug, im Namen der S&D-Fraktion. Frau Präsidentin, Frau Kommissarin! Selbstverständlich unterstütze auch ich den Vorschlag vom Kollegen Cramer.

Nun möchte ich meine Redezeit dieses Mal der General and Business Aviation widmen. Ich bin der Meinung, dass wir letztendlich dieses System auch auf die Kleinflugzeuge ausweiten müssen. Die französische Luftfahrtbehörde beispielsweise hat in ihrer Studie hervorgehoben, dass jedes Jahr durchschnittlich 15 Unfälle passieren. In 50 % der Fälle gibt es letztendlich dabei Todesopfer. Ich glaube, hier besteht schon ein Potenzial für weitergehende schwerwiegende Unfälle, die wir natürlich verhindern und vermeiden müssen.

Daher plädiere ich dafür, dass wir dieses ADSB-System flächendeckend einführen. Im Übrigen, im Jahre 2008 hat das Europäische Parlament bereits einen Initiativbericht An Agenda for Sustainable Future in General and Business Aviation gefordert. Bis heute ist nichts dabei herausgekommen, bzw. von der Kommission kam nichts in dieser Richtung. Deswegen noch einmal die dringende Aufforderung, bitte hier von Seiten der Europäischen Kommission auch tätig zu werden.

 
  
 

„Catch the eye”

 
  
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  Cláudia Monteiro de Aguiar (PPE). Senhora Presidente, Caros Colegas, Senhora Comissária, a segurança na aviação está diretamente ligada aos sistemas de navegação aérea, que permitem identificar e detetar o momento em que os aviões se encontram também em dificuldades. Atualmente, estes sistemas de seguimento dos voos apenas cobrem cerca de 30 % do espaço aéreo mundial, obviamente deixando áreas desprovidas de vigilância, como é o caso dos oceanos e também de florestas.

Segundo a ICAO, o sistema ADS-B por satélite irá reduzir as vulnerabilidades dos atuais sistemas de navegação e, simultaneamente, aumentar a eficiência e a capacidade de gestão do tráfego aéreo. A minha pergunta à Comissão é se já avaliou os possíveis problemas de segurança do próprio sistema ADS-B e se já tem um calendário definido para analisar a aplicação deste sistema ADS-B no espaço aéreo europeu.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). Κυρία Πρόεδρε, οι αεροπορικές τραγωδίες στην Ευρώπη φέρνουν στη μνήμη μας άσχημες αναμνήσεις και την απώλεια εκατοντάδων συνανθρώπων μας. Οι αιτίες των αεροπορικών δυστυχημάτων μένουν σχεδόν πάντα ανεξιχνίαστες και χωρίς κανείς να γνωρίζει τα αίτια των αεροπορικών αυτών δυστυχημάτων. Σήμερα, που βρισκόμαστε στην εποχή της ψηφιακής εποχής και των τεχνολογιών, είναι απαράδεκτο μόνο το 30% των αεροπορικών εταιρειών να παρέχουν συστήματα εντοπισμού πτήσης.

Η τεχνολογία αυτή θα βοηθήσει τις κυβερνήσεις, τους παρόχους υπηρεσιών αεροναυτιλίας και τις αεροπορικές εταιρείες να αυξήσουν την αποτελεσματικότητα της διαχείρισης της εναέριας κυκλοφορίας, ενώ παράλληλα θα αυξηθεί σημαντικά η ασφάλεια των αερομεταφορών. Η Επιτροπή θα πρέπει να θεσπίσει άμεσα μέτρα, για να χρησιμοποιείται παγκόσμια το υπό συζήτηση σύστημα, φροντίζοντας παράλληλα να μην παραβιάζονται τα ανθρώπινα δικαιώματα και να υπάρχει σεβασμός στα κυριαρχικά δικαιώματα των κρατών.

 
  
 

„Catch the eye vége”

 
  
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  Violeta Bulc, Member of the Commission. Madam President, the Commission wishes to thank the European Parliament and the honourable Member Mr Cramer for this question, which reflects the specific worries and expectations of a great number of European citizens.

We fully support steps in the direction of global flight tracking, such as the ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast) system, and we look forward to further steps being taken on the basis of the legislative work I outlined in my introductory remarks. I hope that this clarifies the efforts being made by the Commission for the definition of commonly acceptable safe and cost-efficient solutions for global flight tracking.

We look forward to close collaboration with Parliament and the Council for the timely adoption of the proposed specific legislation.

 
  
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  elnök asszony. – Egy állásfoglalásra irányuló indítványt juttattak el hozzám a vita lezárásaként.

A vitát lezárom.

A szavazásra 2015. október 29-én kerül sor.

(Az ülést 11.25-kor a szavazások órájáig felfüggesztik, és 11.35-kor folytatják.)

Írásbeli nyilatkozatok (162. cikk)

 
  
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  Franck Proust (PPE), par écrit. J'aimerais soulever deux questions. La première: comment envisagez-vous la sécurité des échanges? Nous devons nous assurer que toutes les interactions et les données échangées entre les pilotes, les aéronefs et le contrôle aérien soient protégées: les piratages et autres tentatives de sabotage sont de plus en plus fréquentes, pourtant nous n'en parlons quasiment jamais. La menace existe.

Ensuite: l'utilisation de cette nouvelle technologie engendrera très certainement une nouvelle demande en matière industrielle. Aussi, l'Europe peut-elle capitaliser sur son savoir-faire pour favoriser ces technologies dans ce nouveau marché? Je le crois, mais il faut néanmoins une impulsion politique. Des grands projets naissent les grandes idées, surtout dans le domaine spatial et aéronautique.

 
  
  

VORSITZ: MARTIN SCHULZ
Präsident

 
Aviso jurídico