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Kolmapäev, 25. november 2015 - Strasbourg Uuendatud versioon

16. Valimised Myanmaris (arutelu)
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  Presidente. – L'ordine del giorno reca ora in discussione la dichiarazione del Vicepresidente della Commissione/Alto rappresentante dell'Unione per gli affari esteri e la politica di sicurezza sulle elezioni in Myanmar/Birmania (2015/2974(RSP)).

 
  
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  Nicolas Schmit, President-in-Office of the Council, on behalf of the Vice—President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. Mr President, on 8 November, Myanmar held historic elections contested by 91 political parties and over 6 000 candidates. The people have voted for change, expressing a strong desire to live in a new, free and democratic Myanmar. They have given a clear mandate to Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy, with a solid majority in both houses of parliament, to take Myanmar’s democratic and economic reforms to the next level. We are pleased to say that the European Union has been at the forefront of international support for democratic transition in Myanmar, and we very much appreciate that the European Parliament has played a very important role in this respect.

On 16 November, the High Representative called Aung San Suu Kyi personally to congratulate her on her election victory. She highlighted the crucial role that our 150-person-strong election observation mission, led by EP Vice-President Alexander Graf Lambsdorff, had played in the holding of peaceful and competitive elections. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Graf Lambsdorff for his commitment and his excellent work as EU chief observer.

Myanmar’s democratisation process is, however, not yet completed. The disenfranchisement of the Rohingya and other ethnic minorities remains a matter of concern. In this election, unlike previous elections, the Rohingya could not cast their vote or stand as candidates. None of the big parties fielded Muslim candidates, apparently bowing to the strong influence of radical Buddhist monks. In some ethnic areas no election took place, on security grounds. The EU EOM preliminary statement points out that further constitutional, legal and procedural improvements remain necessary if totally fair and fully inclusive elections are to be held in the future.

Aung San Suu Kyi, the leader of the largest party in Myanmar’s new parliament, is barred by the Constitution from running for President. The military will continue to occupy 25% of parliamentary seats, and, regardless of who forms the next government, three key ministers will come from the army. In that context, all political actors will need to engage in dialogue and work towards a peaceful transition in a spirit of national unity and reconciliation.

Despite these challenges, we believe that we have witnessed landmark elections, offering a great opportunity to strengthen democracy in Myanmar. The next critical stage will be the election of the new president in mid-February 2016 and the formation of the next government by the end of March 2016. Although Aung San Suu Kyi has yet to reveal the priorities of the new government, we can expect that democracy, human rights, the rule of law and economic development will be high on the agenda.

While Myanmar can count on our support, there are still issues of concern on which we will continue to constructively engage with Myanmar. These include the discrimination against, and the statelessness of, the Rohingya minority. The EU is also worried about Buddhist radicalisation, which has resulted in legislation on the protection of race and religion that is not consistent with the country’s international human rights obligations.

EU-Myanmar relations have come a long way since 2011. With the exception of the arms embargo, sanctions were suspended in 2012 and then lifted in 2013. Everything But Arms trade preferences was also reinstated that year. An EU-Myanmar task force, with the active participation of the European Parliament, was set up in November 2013. The EU and Myanmar have stepped up cooperation in the area of human rights. Two rounds of human rights dialogue, led by the EU Special Representative for Human Rights, have taken place since 2014. Myanmar ranks high on our democracy support agenda, and we will look into appropriate follow-up with a view to implementation of the recommendations of the EOM, which will be presented early next year.

In recognition of our assistance in the peace process, the EU was invited to sign the nationwide ceasefire agreement as an international witness on 15 October 2015. With other donors we are setting up a joint peace fund to further encourage the process. Last but not least, the EU and Myanmar are currently negotiating an investment protection agreement, and the EU is also part of a labour rights initiative, together with other partners.

The EU defined its strategy and priorities in support of Myanmar’s transition process in the comprehensive framework adopted by the Foreign Affairs Council on 22 July 2013 and confirmed in the Council conclusions. The main priorities for engagement, democracy, peace, trade and development and Myanmar’s re-engagement with the international community continue to be valid. Our bilateral development cooperation programme under the 2014—2020 multiannual indicative programme for Myanmar amounts to EUR 688 million and features four focal sectors: rural development, education, rule of law and peace-building support. This is fully in line with the country’s transformative agenda. The EU is also a key provider of humanitarian assistance for vulnerable populations, in particular stateless persons and displaced populations. As Myanmar steps into the future, the scope of our engagement underlines the EU’s strong commitment to further supporting the country’s democratisation. The EU stands ready to play its part in helping to bring Myanmar’s transition process to a successful conclusion.

 
  
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  Lars Adaktusson, för PPE-gruppen. Herr talman! Tillsammans med sex andra parlamentarikerkollegor ingick jag i Europaparlamentets valobservatörsstyrka till Myanmar. Intrycken från detta uppdrag är positiva. Såväl genomförandet av själva röstningen som sammanräkningen höll hög kvalitet. Inga allvarliga oegentligheter rapporterades. Valdeltagandet uppskattades till ungefär 80 procent. Efter valet har den sittande regeringen erkänt sig besegrad. Oppositionsledaren Aung San Suu Kyi och hennes parti NLD fick närmare 80 procent av rösterna och förhandlingar pågår nu om bildandet av en ny regering.

Med detta sagt är det väsentligt att se valet i Myanmar i dess hela politiska kontext. Trots ett framgångsrikt genomförande och politiska framsteg de senaste åren kan landet ännu inte betraktas som en demokrati. Gällande konstitution innehåller delar som är djupt problematiska, som exempelvis att Myanmars militärmakt är garanterad en fjärdedel av platserna i parlamentet. Aung San Suu Kyi är enligt en annan del av konstitutionen förhindrad att inneha den viktiga presidentposten.

Vid sidan av detta är brotten mot mänskliga rättigheter ett allvarligt problem. Antalet politiska fångar ökar, liksom diskrimineringen av minoriteter. Bland de värst drabbade är Rohingyas och andra muslimska grupper, som under lång tid utsatts för allvarliga övergrepp och förföljelse.

Utmaningarna för det nya parlamentet är således stora. Åtskilligt av politiskt ledarskap och vilja till försoning kommer att krävas på Myanmars fortsatta väg mot stabilitet och fred, liksom fortsatt stöd från Europeiska unionen.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes, em nome do Grupo S&D. Senhor Presidente, enquanto líder da missão de observação do Parlamento Europeu, tive, conjuntamente com outros colegas, cuja participação muito útil agradeço, o privilégio de assistir às eleições mais abertas e competitivas que o admirável povo de Mianmar já conheceu, depois de 60 anos de conflito interétnico armado e 50 anos de ditadura militar. Mas foram eleições que se desenrolaram num contexto legal, institucional e político que não corresponde aos padrões internacionais exigidos por eleições democráticas.

A Constituição imposta pela junta militar em 2008 reserva a militares 25 % dos assentos nas câmaras da assembleia nacional, das assembleias regionais e setores da governação, a Comissão Nacional de Eleições havia dúvidas sobre se seria independente, a credenciação de candidatos e registo de eleitores prestaram-se a manipulações antes, durante e depois da votação. Para não falar nos milhões de cidadãos, designadamente de minorias étnicas, não registados e impedidos de votar.

Assinaladas as falhas, é preciso apontar para o progresso, designadamente o que resulta da aceitação da derrota pelo partido associado aos militares, sinal do seu papel decisivo na organização da transição, e também para o progresso prometido pelo partido incontestavelmente vencedor, o NLD de Aung San Suu Kyi, que prometeu empenhar-se em mudar para haver governação democrática, diálogo, reconciliação nacional e paz. Não será um processo fácil, num país onde os generais estão instalados no poder e controlam a administração e os principais recursos naturais, e o conflito interétnico e o desprezo por minorias, em especial os muçulmanos Rohingya, que, como já foi dito, foram impedidos de votar e de ser eleitos, está francamente enraizado, e muito preocupante é a exploração por forças budistas ultranacionalistas e xenófobas desta tendência.

O NLD tem, portanto, aqui uma responsabilidade tremenda para contrariar as mensagens racistas e discriminatórias que essas forças têm veiculado e mostrar que a governação democrática e a reconciliação serão verdadeiramente inclusivas e respeitadoras dos direitos humanos. Nós, União Europeia, temos um interesse estratégico em apoiar o processo de democratização, monitorizar o processo de paz, mas sobretudo apoiar a sociedade civil, incluindo os partidos políticos e incluindo o próprio NLD, porque temos que absolutamente também pedir que haja uma mudança da Constituição.

 
  
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  Charles Tannock, on behalf of the ECR Group. Mr President, the National League for Democracy (NLD) victory in Burma/Myanmar’s election this month is certainly an historic milestone, but it is the peaceful acceptance from the military and its politically-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) which must be truly celebrated. A marked difference on what happened in 1990. The democratic transition over the next few months and years will be difficult, and it is important that the European Union offers all advice and support where appropriate and necessary. But much power is still vested in the National Defence and Security Council, which is outside of the elected government’s control.

The military still retain 25% of reserve seats in the parliament, and Aung San Suu Kyi’s moral victory as leader is somewhat undermined by her bizarre legal inability to take office as President as the late wife and mother of British citizens. So keeping the roadmap to democracy on track will be a challenge. There are also concerns as to the plight of the minority Muslim Rohingya people in Myanmar, numbering around a million people. They have been denied voting rights in the latest election on the basis of being unable to prove their citizenship. Aung San Suu Kyi has said little on this issue and it appears that there is little appetite from the NLD to prioritise the fate of the Rohingyas, instead preferring to focus on state- and democracy-building in Myanmar.

In achieving these goals there is still a long way to go. But Myanmar may yet prove to be a good example of a transition to pluralist democracy, a process that must be measured in decades, and not in years. Myanmar’s transition to democracy will also be a very welcome addition and boost to the democratic credentials of ASEAN.

 
  
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  Alexander Graf Lambsdorff, im Namen der ALDE-Fraktion. Herr Präsident, Herr Ratspräsident! Danke für die freundlichen Worte. Ich nehme das als Lob für die Arbeit der gesamten Mission und werde das so weitergeben.

Mein Mandat läuft noch bis zur Übergabe des Abschlussberichts. Ich werde mich deswegen in meinen Ausführungen hier meiner Neutralität befleißigen, die mit dem Amt als Chefbeobachter zusammenhängt.

Aber eines ist klar: Das waren wirklich historische Wahlen. Jeder, der auch nur ein bisschen politisches Gespür hat, merkte das im Land, was für eine Hoffnung sich auch mit dieser Wahl verband. Insofern war es schön, dass die Europäische Union hier einen konstruktiven Beitrag leisten konnte – schon im Vorfeld, aber auch durch diese Beobachtungsmission.

Besonders erfreulich waren zwei Dinge: Das eine ist: Es hat so gut wie keinerlei wahlbezogene Gewalt gegeben – weder vorher noch hinterher war das ein Problem. Das Zweite: Viele der Probleme, mit denen man vor dem Wahlgang gerechnet hat, sind am Wahltag selber dann nicht in Erscheinung getreten. Das größte Problem, die größte Befürchtung, bezog sich auf das Wählerverzeichnis. Die Menschen wurden im Großen und Ganzen gut gefunden in den Listen, so dass es auch da keine Unruhe gegeben hat.

Dieses Ergebnis – Charles Tannock hat eben auf eine merkwürdige Verfassungssituation hingewiesen, über die wir auch in unserem Vorbericht schon geredet haben – bringt das Land jetzt in eine sehr delikate Übergangsphase, und ich würde mir wünschen, dass die Europäische Union mit all ihren Institutionen involviert bleibt, engagiert bleibt, dem Land dabei zu helfen.

Lassen Sie mich hier eines sagen: Es gibt ja oft Kritik am Knirschen im Gebälk, wenn es um die Zusammenarbeit der verschiedenen europäischen Institutionen geht. Dazu gibt es dieses Mal überhaupt keinen Anlass. Das Europäische Parlament, der Chefbeobachter, die Delegation, Judith Sargentini, die als ständige Berichterstatterin das Land auf seinem Weg zur Demokratie weiter begleiten wird, haben hervorragend zusammengearbeitet mit dem Europäischen Auswärtigen Dienst. Wir haben hervorragend zusammengearbeitet mit der Kommission, den außenpolitischen Instrumenten und insbesondere auch hervorragend zusammengearbeitet mit der Delegation unter der Leitung eines wirklich sehr guten Botschafters, über den wir dort glücklicherweise verfügen können, Roland Kobia.

Also ein gutes Beispiel für gute Zusammenarbeit der europäischen Institutionen. Lassen Sie uns hoffen, dass das Land auch eine gute Entwicklung nimmt unter dem Engagement der Europäer.

 
  
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  Judith Sargentini, namens de Verts/ALE-Fractie. Kritiek op de voorbereiding van de verkiezingen is geleverd door collega's. Inderdaad, allerlei mensen mochten hun stem niet uitbrengen. Ik deel ook de analyse van collega Tannock over de vraag of mevrouw Aung San Suu Kyi ruimte gaat bieden aan minderheden. Maar al die kritieken ten spijt, wat we gezien hebben, is een verkiezingsdag die ongelofelijk goed georganiseerd was. Ik moet vooral de jongedames die al die stembureaus bemanden, prijzen. Alsof zij elke dag verkiezingen organiseerden. We hebben na de verkiezingen gezien dat de militairen de winst van de NLD accepteerden.

Dat is goed nieuws voor het begin van een nieuwe parlementaire democratie. Maar we zijn er nog lang niet. De militairen hebben 25 jaar de tijd gehad om de grondwet zo vorm te geven dat het nog wel even een slag wordt voordat we hier over een echte democratie kunnen praten en dat is een proces waarin wij als Europees Parlement ook een rol zouden kunnen spelen. We hebben met elkaar besloten dat Myanmar één van de landen is waar we de parlementaire democratie willen gaan helpen. Het is inderdaad mijn taak om dit samen met u vorm te geven en dat wordt nog wel een hele klus.

Het is echter een parlement waar parlementariërs niet op fractie zitten, maar op alfabetische volgorde en als dat het geval is dan is dus de parlementaire democratie met een meerpartijensysteem nog wel even ver weg.

 
  
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  Goffredo Maria Bettini (S&D). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, io ho avuto l'onore di partecipare alla missione di osservatori del Parlamento, che ha seguito le elezioni in Birmania/Myanmar, missione guidata dalla bravissima collega Gomes. In Birmania ha vinto – anzi, stravinto – la democrazia con il partito di Aung San Suu Kyi, nonostante una Costituzione che ancora preassegna ai militari il 25% dei seggi e tre ministeri strategici: la Difesa, gli Interni e le Etnie.

L'atmosfera di questa vittoria l'abbiamo sentita tutti già nello svolgimento del voto: con inevitabili difficoltà, esso si è svolto tuttavia in modo ordinato, pacifico, gestito da un popolo consapevole e coraggioso, che sapeva di dover portare a buon fine un'occasione storica e irripetibile. Ma attenzione: seppure la situazione è ormai avviata su binari difficilmente reversibili, siamo ancora in piena transizione e dobbiamo essere prudenti fino alla proclamazione ufficiale dei risultati. Questo non solo perché sarà lungo il percorso – io spero non decenni – verso un governo pienamente di civili e verso il cambiamento della Costituzione, ma anche perché l'avvio del cambiamento è avvenuto per merito innanzitutto dell'eroismo della San Suu Kyi, di tanti del suo partito e di tanti democratici che hanno subito sofferenze inaudite. Ma è avvenuto anche per un impulso dall'alto dello stesso regime che comunque non vuole mollare tutto il potere.

Ora ha inizio un nuovo cammino: la Birmania va sostenuta, anche per affrontare l'emergenza della guerra tra le varie etnie. Ho visitato i campi profughi ai confini con la Thailandia e ho visto migliaia di persone senza identità, diritti e futuro, sospese come le loro capanne costruite nel fango. Il Parlamento europeo non può rimanere inerte. La Birmania deve diventare uno Stato federale che dia una casa a tutti. I birmani si aspettano molto da noi e non dobbiamo deluderli.

 
  
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  Julie Girling (ECR). Mr President, the electoral triumph of Aung San Suu Kyi is one that warrants significant celebration. With official results confirming 77% of the seats, the potential for change within Myanmar should be welcomed and encouraged.

Clearly there are significant challenges ahead. The plight of ethnic minorities needs to be urgently addressed and, although both the military and allies of the newly—defeated government have promised to respect these election results, the real test will be to accommodate these groupings within the new regime to ensure stability and a more fruitful future.

The EU has the capacity to provide an important supportive role in the changes that will inevitably occur. We should utilise this promising development to strengthen not only Myanmar’s burgeoning democracy but also our relations with the ASEAN region more broadly. The EU’s relationship with ASEAN states is growing, and any assistance the EU can provide should be reinforced. As a member of the Delegation to ASEAN, I was privileged to visit Aung San Suu Kyi in her home a couple of years ago, which remains one of the high points of my time as an MEP.

So I would like to take this moment to finally congratulate Aung San Suu Kyi on what was a momentous result for her.

 
  
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  Victor Boştinaru (S&D). Mr President, I would like to start by expressing my sympathy and my condolences for the workers who lost their lives in the jade mine on Monday.

These elections represent a milestone in the recent history of Myanmar and its democratic transition. We are, of course, happy with the result and the electoral process, which was completed smoothly. But what deserves even more emphasis is the fact that the people clearly expressed their desire and support for democracy. Our official results show that people frequently supported a symbol of the peaceful fight for democracy, namely the Nobel Peace Prize winner and Sakharov Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi.

But let us not be under any under any illusions: these elections are a good starting point, but only a starting point in what remains a long transition. As we know, the winner will not be able to elect the president. 25% of the seats are in military hands, as are some key ministerial posts. What is essential now is the result, which must be respected by all and followed by national reconciliation. I am encouraged by the fact that the President and the military acknowledge the result. But now it will be necessary to work together for reforms. Europe should stand alongside Myanmar’s fight.

 
  
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  Neena Gill (S&D). Mr President, an important milestone has been reached in Myanmar. I note the report from the EU electoral observation mission, and my congratulations go to Aung San Suu Kyi and NLD, who have won over two thirds of the seats.

However, I am concerned that major shortcomings remain – chief among them, as my colleagues have already mentioned, is the fact that Rohingya were disenfranchised and could not vote. Legislation on the basis of race and religion is clearly not consistent with transition towards national reconciliation.

Last Saturday we learnt that more than 100 people had been killed in a landslide near a jade mine. Military cronyism is said to be a key cause of poor conditions in the mining industry and to be fuelling conflicts in the Kotchen and Shan states. Conflicts like the one in East Congo have taught us that peace is not possible unless the link between military and business is broken. An important step has been taken in Myanmar with the signing of the extractive industries transparency initiative, but this will lead to change only if implementation is made a priority.

The EU needs to support the new leadership in tackling these major concerns and maintaining a positive dynamic in the ASEAN. We have seen major economies like Thailand and Malaysia backslide on human rights issues lately, so I welcome the investment protection negotiations that have been re-launched, and I would like to ask a representative of the Commission, if they were here, or the High Representative, to reflect on possibilities for further engagement that will allow us to provide incentives for change, ensuring maximum coordination between the various instruments in order to make sure that trade and investment reinforce, rather than undermine, human rights and democracy.

 
  
 

Procedura catch-the-eye.

 
  
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  Eduard Kukan (PPE). Mr President, I would also like to commend Myanmar on the conduct of elections with an historical importance. The citizens of Myanmar demonstrated their will, which was translated into election victory for the National League for Democracy (NLD). The crucial question however is: what will happen now? The process brought the country closer to democracy. However, there is still a lot to be done.

I want to believe that the NLD will be able to start the reform process in Myanmar. At the same time, national reconciliation and inclusiveness need to be high on the agenda. This will be a true challenge for Mrs Aung San Suu Kyi. We in the European Union have a lot of experience with such transition processes, therefore we should be ready to assist our partners in Myanmar on the road ahead. I want to ask the High Representative to follow the situation after the elections and be ready to propose assistance to the country.

 
  
  

PRZEWODNICTWO: RYSZARD CZARNECKI
Wiceprzewodniczący

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). Κύριε Πρόεδρε, ο λαός της Μιανμάρ στις εκλογές της 8ης Νοεμβρίου αποφάσισε να θέσει τέλος στην κυριαρχία των στρατιωτικών και της χούντας που κυριαρχούσαν στη χώρα τα τελευταία είκοσι πέντε χρόνια. Εκατομμύρια πολίτες συμμετείχαν μαζικά στις γενικές εκλογές και έδωσαν τη νίκη στην Αούνγκ Σαν Σου Κί. Τη βραβευμένη με Νόμπελ Ειρήνης πολιτικό που έχει υποστεί διώξεις από τη χούντα της Μιανμάρ.

Όμως, η νέα δημοκρατική κυβέρνηση έχει μπροστά της σημαντικές προκλήσεις. Πρώτα από όλα οι στρατιωτικοί πρέπει να πάψουν να κατέχουν το είκοσι πέντε τοις εκατό των εδρών του κοινοβουλίου. Δεύτερον, πρέπει να καταργηθεί η λογοκρισία. Ταυτόχρονα πρέπει να εξαλειφθεί η καταναγκαστική εργασία, ο ρατσισμός και η παραβίαση των ανθρωπίνων δικαιωμάτων.

Η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση οφείλει να σταθεί στο πλευρό της νέας δημοκρατικής κυβέρνησης της Μιανμάρ, η οποία κυβέρνηση, όμως, πρέπει επιπροσθέτως να διασφαλίσει και την προστασία των εθνοτικών και θρησκευτικών μειονοτήτων που ζουν στη χώρα, όπως οι Ροχίγκια, σε βάρος των οποίων συνεχίζονται οι διακρίσεις και η καταπίεση από τους βουδιστές όπως έχω καταγγείλει επανειλημμένα στην αίθουσα αυτή.

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (EFDD). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, queste elezioni in Myanmar ci raccontano di un passaggio fondamentale nella storia del Paese: finalmente è tornata la democrazia. Voglio ringraziare anche i colleghi che hanno avuto l'onore e l'onere di rappresentare il Parlamento europeo in un momento tanto storico.

Però adesso al governo del Myanmar si prospettano delle sfide difficilissime: da un lato, riuscire finalmente a ridurre completamente l'influenza dei militari che ancora, purtroppo, conservano il 25% dei seggi; dall'altro, c'è un Paese da ricostruire, un Paese che oggi spende solo l'1,8% del PIL per la sanità e solo lo 0,8% per l'istruzione.

La crescita del PIL deve portare a una crescita del benessere e dello sviluppo per tutta la popolazione e questo passa dalla lotta alla corruzione ma passa anche da una decisa azione contro la discriminazione della popolazione Rohingya, una delle minoranze più perseguitate al mondo.

Aung San Suu Kyi è solita ripetere che la paura è l'unica prigione. Speriamo che nel Myanmar non ci sia una prigione nei confronti del cambiamento e come Unione europea, non possiamo fare altro che assecondare questo cambiamento.

 
  
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  Stanislav Polčák (PPE). Pane předsedající, já musím říci, že pro mě bylo to ráno, kdy jsme se probudili do volebních výsledků, které přišly z Myanmaru, velmi skvělou příležitostí ocenit vývoj, který se udál za těch několik let.

A přesto, že vnímám kritické námitky, které zde zazněly od některých mých kolegů právě o nemožnosti volit pro některá etnika, tak si myslím, že bychom měli podpořit ten proces, který byl nastartován v Myanmaru. Myslím si, že bychom měli podpořit i aktivitu volební vítězky paní Su Ťij, která má teď tu největší zodpovědnost.

A požádat vysokou představitelku a samozřejmě i předsednictví, abychom co nejvíce úsilí věnovali na podporu demokratického procesu, který právě v Barmě byl nastartován. To odhodlání, to úsilí občanů v Myanmaru, které bylo vidět na kamerách z těch obrázků, ty šťastné tváře, ty úsměvy, ty myslím, že bychom měli podporovat, protože to je naše společná budoucnost.

 
  
 

(Koniec pytań z sali)

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. – Zamykam debatę.

Oświadczenia pisemne (art. 162)

 
  
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  András Gyürk (PPE), írásban. Az Európai Unió Mianmari Választási Megfigyelési Missziójának tagjaként kértem szót a mai vitában. A helyszínen szerzett tapasztalataim alapján egyetértek mindazokkal, akik nyugodt, jól szervezett és transzparens eseményként jellemezték a november 8-i választásokat. A Yangonban és a Bago régióban több mint egy tucatnyi szavazókörben látottak meggyőztek arról, hogy a választás lebonyolításával megbízottak felelősségteljesen és elkötelezetten látták el a feladatukat. Magas részvétel mellet is gördülékenyen és hatékonyan sikerült lebonyolítani a választásnapi procedúrát.

Az is nyilvánvaló ugyanakkor, hogy a jogi környezet, a törvényi háttér és a választást megelőző folyamatok sok tekintetben hagytak maguk után kívánnivalót. A civil szervezetekkel, az etnikai kisebbségek és a média képviselőivel folytatott megbeszélések számos ilyen hiányosságra mutattak rá. A legnyilvánvalóbb ezek közül természetesen az a tény, hogy a képviselői helyek egynegyede automatikusan a hadsereget illette. Összességében azonban elmondható, hogy a sok évtizedes diktatórikus múltra visszatekintő Mianmar november 8-án hatalmas lépést tett a demokratikus berendezkedés irányába.

A választásokkal kapcsolatosan vitathatatlanul szükséges további eljárásjogi reformok eltörpülnek amellett a történelmi jelentőségű tény mellet, hogy Mianmar polgárai méltóságteljesen és elsöprő többséggel tettek hitet a demokrácia mellet. Meggyőződésem, hogy helyesen döntött az Európai Unió akkor, amikor választási megfigyelési misszió szervezésével támogatta ennek a békés átmenetnek a folyamatát.

 
  
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  Csaba Sógor (PPE), in writing. The most important question following the resounding victory of the National League for Democracy party (NLD) in the recent elections in Myanmar is what Ms Suu Kyi’s plans are for ending one of the world’s longest-running civil wars and for transforming the country into a peaceful federal union by honouring the key promises from the Panglong Agreement. Although it might be speculated that the votes cast for the NLD in multi-ethnic minority states were the result of a tactical decision to weaken the former ruling party, the multi-ethnic national mandate of the new President cannot be denied. Now it remains to be seen what Ms Suu Kyi will do with this mandate and the hopes of ethnic minorities making up around one third of the country.

We are also eagerly awaiting the steps she will take to put an end to the terrible persecution of the Rohingya minority, the members of which were not allowed to take part in the elections. Also, I do hope that in her democratisation efforts Ms Suu Kyi will find a reliable and strong partner in the European Union.

 
  
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  Jarosław Wałęsa (PPE), in writing. On 8 November 2015, the first free elections in the history of Myanmar took place. All of the country’s 135 ethnic groups, across numerous religious and socio—economic backgrounds, gathered in order to contribute to this historic moment in the Republic of the Myanmar. The NLD Party, which secured a majority of Union Parliament seats is a great hope for the people of Myanmar. The fact that the elections took place might be just a beginning for creating a new, more democratic society, but it is a significant step forward. This is due to the fact that the elections were a major milestone in the transition process that Myanmar is going through. This is truly a generational transition – after six decades of conflict and five decades of authoritarian rule. Therefore, those elections can be considered a credible sign that Myanmar is really changing. Hopefully the next thing we know is that it will accelerate its international relations and outside support and reinstate national changes.

 
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