Indice 
 Precedente 
 Seguente 
 Testo integrale 
Procedura : 2015/2138(INI)
Ciclo di vita in Aula
Ciclo del documento : A8-0021/2016

Testi presentati :

A8-0021/2016

Discussioni :

PV 11/04/2016 - 20
CRE 11/04/2016 - 20

Votazioni :

PV 12/04/2016 - 5.13
Dichiarazioni di voto

Testi approvati :

P8_TA(2016)0106

Discussioni
Lunedì 11 aprile 2016 - Strasburgo Edizione rivista

20. Apprendere l'UE a scuola (breve presentazione)
Video degli interventi
PV
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  Der Präsident. – Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die kurze Darstellung des Berichts von Damian Drăghici über den Erwerb von Kenntnissen über die EU an Schulen (2015/2138(INI)) (A8-0021/2016).

 
  
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  Damian Drăghici, rapporteur. Mr President, currently, European citizens have limited knowledge about the EU and how its institutions work. According to a 2014 Eurobarometer opinion poll, 71% of European Union citizens feel that they are not very well informed about the EU and 44% feel that they have a limited understanding of how the EU works. Even more worryingly, 52% of Europeans believe that their voice does not count in the EU.

Under these circumstances it is little wonder that citizens feel distant to or even increasingly estranged from the European project, become even more Eurosceptic, and perceive democratic deficits in the decision-making processes of the Union.

Therefore, enhancing dialogue about the EU in our schools and other educational institutions is crucial in order to bridge the long-standing gap between the European Union and its citizens and to restore their faith in the merits and necessity of the European integration process. This is even more important in the current context of the ongoing refugee crisis and of serious threats to fundamental human rights and democracy due to the recent terrorist attacks.

The Report ‘Learning EU at school’ highlights that the main role of education is to train fully aware and active citizens in an increasingly complex, multicultural and integrated Europe and should therefore equip all learners with solid knowledge about the EU and in-depth understanding of its functioning and concrete added-value.

An EU dimension in education should also encourage learners to critically reflect on European matters and how these influence their country and their own activities. This will empower them to form well-informed and balanced opinions, exercise their democratic rights and responsibilities, value diversity, intercultural and interreligious dialogue and be active and responsible citizens.

With this in mind, the report stresses that the EU should become more visible in teaching materials and extracurricular activities at all levels and in all forms of education, including non-formal and lifelong learning. Teaching about the EU should reflect both the role of Member States in the development of the EU and the influence of the EU on national developments. In this context I would like to stress the importance of a European approach to the teaching of history in developing a reflective awareness of the past and a critical ‘culture of remembering’ based on European values.

Another important aspect the report focuses on is the strengthening of citizenship education with the aim of enabling learners to acquire the competences they need to live and actively engage in pluralistic democratic societies and make their concerns heard. Core elements to be taught include tolerance, awareness and understanding for other cultures as well as democratic values and human rights.

Until now, a majority of Member States has progressively integrated an EU dimension into their curricula and into teacher training, but gaps and disparities between and within Member States continue to exist. Much more could be done, for example, with regard to curricula, teacher training, textbooks and teaching methods.

Therefore the report strongly encourages Member States to review and update their education systems and all forms of EU-related curricula content, to support all possibilities of conveying more information about the EU to learners as well as to teachers and other educators through formal, non-formal and informal learning, and to fully exploit and complement EU financial instruments, programmes and initiatives in this regard.

At the European level, existing possibilities offered by the EU programmes in the field of education and culture should be fully used to promote active citizenship, cultural awareness, intercultural understanding and other valuable key and transversal competences. In this regard, the report calls for adequate financial support for these programmes, a greater focus on their qualitative outcomes and wider access to mobility, paying special attention to teachers and other educators, young people with different socio-economic backgrounds and vulnerable and disadvantaged groups.

In addition, platforms such as EU Twinning, the School Education Gateway and EPALE for adult learning can be used for the development and exchange of teaching materials and projects related to the EU and its institutions, as well as citizenship education.

The report calls on the Commission to continue to support Member States in their efforts to develop and promote an EU dimension in education while respecting their competence in the field, also by providing a common framework and guidelines for learning about the EU and by actively conveying information to key stakeholders and citizens.

I want to thank, first of all, the Committee and all the people that helped on this, and the shadow rapporteurs.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye procedure

 
  
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  Therese Comodini Cachia (PPE). Waqt li niċċelebraw id-diversità Ewropea, nirrikonoxxu l-valuri u l-għanijiet komuni bejnietna u naħdmu biex nifhmuhom. Fost it-theddida ta' radikalizzazzjoni diretta lejn dawn il-valuri, isir aktar meħtieġ li niffaċilitaw l-għarfien ta' dawn il-valuri u għanijiet Ewropej.

Iż-żgħażagħ ħaqqhom l-aħjar opportunità biex ikunu parti mill-proġett Ewropew, jipparteċipaw u jikkontribwixxu fih. L-istudenti jridu opportunità biex jagħmlu l-Ewropa tagħhom.

Stati Membri diġà joffru edukazzjoni fuq "European affairs" iżda l-valuri u l-kultura Ewropea jmorru oltre l-istudju tal-istrutturi.

Biex nagħtu lill-istudenti l-aħjar opportunità, irridu narmaw lill-għalliema bl-għodda tajba. Għalhekk l-EU għandha tikkontribwixxi aktar lejn opportunitajiet ta' “continuous training” għall-għalliema, linji gwida dwar standards edukattivi, tappoġġja networking u tifrix ta' "good practices" u tipprovdi lill-għalliema b'"e-learning platforms" u materjal diġitali.

 
  
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  Viorica Dăncilă (S&D). Domnule președinte, educația este baza societății și felicit raportorul pentru abordarea sa privind includerea conceptului de dimensiune europeană în programele școlare și schimbul de bune practici între instituțiile de învățământ în statele membre.

În calitate de membru al Comisiei pentru agricultură, aș dori să întăresc o idee exprimată în acest raport, și anume faptul că Uniunea trebuie să țină pasul permanent cu noile provocări de ordin societal și tehnologic, iar statele membre trebuie să asigure armonizarea continuă a programelor de învățământ profesional și tehnic, pentru a face față provocărilor. Mediul rural reprezintă pionul principal al dezvoltării economice și, de aceea, educația în domeniul agricol trebuie să reprezinte o componentă importantă în cadrul programelor învățământului profesional și tehnic la nivel european.

 
  
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  Ilhan Kyuchyuk (ALDE). Mr President, many citizens still do not have sufficient knowledge about the values on which European integration is based, nor how the European Union and its institutions function and directly influence their countries and their own activities. To help citizens understand that the European Union benefits our everyday life we need to bring the European Union closer to its citizens, explaining in practical terms what the EU does for each of us. Enhancing dialogue about European Union in our schools, associations and public spaces is essential, especially in the current situation of an increasingly globalised world which faces unprecedented challenges.

Teaching about the EU should reflect the complex relationship between the European Union and its Member States. It should be clear for all citizens that the EU has been shaped by its Member States with their unique histories and diverse cultures. I believe that an intercultural approach to education policy is highly needed.

 
  
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  Zoltán Balczó (NI). Elnök Úr, az uniós ismeretek oktatása akár hasznos is lehetne, ha a fiatalok nem egyoldalú propagandát, hanem valós képet kapnának az Unióról, a jövő lehetőségeiről. Ez a jelentés nem ebben a felfogásban készült. Idézem: „az Unióval kapcsolatos ismeretek hiányossága [...] demokratikus deficit érzését keltheti és az euroszkepticizmus [...] elterjedéséhez vezethet”. A demokrácia hiánya nem csupán érzés, hanem tény, az EU-szkepticizmus pedig nem pestis járvány, hanem összefoglaló elnevezése azoknak az irányzatoknak, amelyek nem az Európai Egyesült Államokban látják a szép jövőt. „Az oktatás egyik célja, hogy az egyéneket felkészítse a multikulturális társadalomban való létre.” Nem, az oktatás a nemzeti és a közös európai identitást kellene, hogy erősítse, a multikulturális társadalom bukott ideálját pedig végleg vessük el!

 
  
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  Isabella Adinolfi (EFDD). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, per sentirsi davvero europei, credo che i cittadini debbano conoscere l'Unione europea. Ciò significa prima di tutto che i cittadini devono avere a disposizione tutti gli strumenti, materiali e intellettuali necessari a questo fine. Significa favorire una riflessione critica sulla storia dell'integrazione e sull'attuale assetto europeo; significa insegnare e promuovere, soprattutto con esempi concreti e positivi, i valori e i diritti fondamentali condivisi; significa ancora spiegare l'assetto istituzionale, i processi decisionali dell'Unione europea, che certo semplici non sono, e il relativo impatto delle decisioni europee sulla vita quotidiana di tutti quanti i cittadini.

Solo così possiamo formare cittadini europei che siano veramente consapevoli e cercare di ridurre il deficit democratico, deficit democratico, la cui esistenza viene riconosciuta in maniera forte e netta dalla relazione stessa. Addirittura si sottolinea esplicitamente come il crescente divario tra i cittadini e le istituzioni europee vada affrontato e risolto.

 
  
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  Bogdan Brunon Wenta (PPE). Panie Przewodniczący! Panie Komisarzu! Popieram wprowadzenie do programów szkolnych nauczania o Unii Europejskiej. Wiedza dotycząca przyczyn i historii integracji europejskiej, funkcjonowania instytucji europejskich czy wpływu Unii na życie codzienne jej obywateli mogą i powinny być częścią kursów historii czy wiedzy o społeczeństwie, tak jak w przypadku mojego kraju, Polski.

Z pewnością takie informacje stanowią wartość dodaną edukacji szkolnej i wyposażą uczniów w wiedzę niezbędną do zrozumienia współczesnego świata. Szczególnie ważna jest inicjatywa edukacji obywatelskiej: rolą szkoły jest nie tylko kształcenie, ale również wychowywanie. Uczniowie powinni czerpać wzorce aktywnego życia obywatelskiego i być zachęcani do uczestnictwa w nim.

Biorąc dzisiaj pod uwagę napływ uchodźców i procentowy wzrost udziału osób pozaeuropejskiego pochodzenia w społeczeństwach państw członkowskich, istotne są szanse edukacyjne, a szczególnie zwrócenie uwagi na wychowanie obywatelskie, jeżeli chodzi o ich integrację w naszym społeczeństwie. Sprawozdanie pana Drăghici popiera te inicjatywy, uwzględniając wsparcie finansowe Komisji Europejskiej.

 
  
 

(Ende des Catch-the-eye-Verfahrens)

 
  
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  Tibor Navracsics, Member of the Commission. Mr President, the Commission welcomes the report on learning EU at school. Let me first of all congratulate Mr Drăghici on his excellent work. Recent developments have once more demonstrated the risks of a ‘disconnect’ between disaffected young people and society. Our answer has to be multifaceted and has to promote our values and foster inclusion through education. Every young person in Europe needs to understand and share our fundamental values. And we need to build a Europe where every young person is able to find their place in society and achieve their potential, regardless of their background or abilities.

What does learning EU at school mean concretely? I fully agree with the broad approach taken by Mr Drăghici in his report. To me it comprises two core aspects: the teaching of European history, cultures and languages on the one hand, and citizenship education on the other. Indeed, these aspects are linked. Without knowing Europe it is impossible to understand the founding values of the EU. In turn, knowing the cultures and languages of our neighbours supports active European citizenship.

All those elements together form the concept of a European dimension in education, as expressed in Mr Drăghici’s report. It is, of course, up to the Member States to integrate this concept into their national school curricula. The Commission is ready to support this through its policy cooperation with Member States and especially the Erasmus+ programme.

Some years ago, the Council and Parliament agreed on the key competences every European needs. They include social and civic competences and cultural awareness and expression. Fostering these competences and encouraging intercultural and interreligious dialogue to help our children become responsible and active citizens has always been an important element of our initiatives at EU level. In the current context, it is more necessary than ever to better understand but, first and foremost, to better transmit our common values.

One year ago, in March 2015, the EU education ministers adopted the Paris declaration in response to the Charlie Hebdo attacks, in order to better promote citizenship and the common values of freedom, tolerance and non-discrimination through education. It is also one of the priorities of Education and Training 2020, our policy cooperation framework with Member States. A working group is currently tackling the topic of preventing violent radicalisation with a focus on enhancing critical thinking and media literacy.

The Commission also welcomes the importance the report attaches to EU programmes such as Erasmus+, Europe for Citizens and Creative Europe when it comes to promoting active citizenship, language skills and cultural awareness. I can confirm that in 2016 the Commission remains fully committed to funding concrete projects under these programmes, which aim at fostering active and democratic citizenship.

I am determined to continue developing our virtual education platforms under Erasmus+, such as e-training, a network of 300 000 teachers, the electronic platform for adult learning in Europe and a school education gateway. These are valid instruments for our teachers and educators, who are key players in the school context. These platforms give them access to relevant high-quality teaching materials, encourage them to network and help them to exchange best practices.

The Commission will closely monitor the impact of all of these measures on actually developing more active and democratic participation among our citizens. I appreciate the commitment of the European Parliament to this essential agenda and I look forward to further cooperation with you on this important topic.

 
  
  

VORSITZ: ULRIKE LUNACEK
Vizepräsidentin

 
  
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  Die Präsidentin. – Damit ist dieser Punkt abgeschlossen.

Die Abstimmung findet am Dienstag, 12. April, statt.

Schriftliche Erklärungen (Artikel 162 GO)

 
  
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  Dominique Bilde (ENF), par écrit. Ce rapport d'initiative de mon collègue socialiste soulève quelques interrogations quant au respect du pluralisme des idées et de la liberté d'expression. En effet, sous prétexte d'apprendre l'Union européenne à l'école, il sera désormais interdit d'émettre des opinions eurosceptiques, critiquer l'édifice européen étant décrit dans ce rapport comme un dangereux virus à éradiquer grâce au vaccin miracle que serait la propagande pro UE.

Ce médicament, qui s'assimile en fait à une vaste campagne de marketing promotionnel auprès de nos enfants, vous souhaitez l'inoculer au détriment de la souveraineté des États qui gardent pourtant officiellement la compétence exclusive en matière d'éducation. Mais les nations européennes, pourtant d'ores et déjà poussées à bout par vos politiques suicidaires, seront sommées d'harmoniser leurs programmes scolaires et de financer des mesures vantant le multiculturalisme, objectif qui, pour vous, semble prioritaire par rapport à l'apprentissage des savoirs fondamentaux comme la lecture, l'écriture, ou les mathématiques.

Chers collègues, si vous souhaitez réellement "reconnecter" les citoyens des États Membres avec l'UE, cessez de nier leur liberté d'expression, arrêter de leur mentir sur les soi-disant bienfaits de la construction européenne et mettez un terme à votre aveuglement et à votre volonté d'imposer aux peuples européens un modèle de société dont ils ne veulent pas.

 
  
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  Andrea Bocskor (PPE), írásban. Először is szeretném megköszönni Damian Draghici képviselő úrnak a színvonalas és átfogó jelentést, nagyra értékelem munkáját. Az Európai Uniónak napjainkban új kihívásokkal kell szembenézni, így sokkal fontosabb, mint valaha, hogy az iskolákban és a közéletben egyaránt párbeszéd alakuljon ki az Európai Unióról, értékeiről, hogy a polgárok ismerjék az európai integrációs folyamat előnyeit és rendszerét. Az uniós polgárok jelenleg hiányos ismeretekkel rendelkeznek az Európai Unióról és intézményeinek működéséről, amit az Eurobarométer 2014 tavaszi felmérése is mutat: az uniós polgárok 44%-a nem érti az Unió működését. Nem csoda tehát, hogy a polgárok nem érzik magukhoz közel az Uniót, és egyre inkább elfordulnak az uniós politikától és projekttől. Ezen úgy tudunk javítani, ha már iskolás korban megfelelőbb tájékoztatásban részesítjük a polgárokat. Ennek egyik módja az iskolai oktatás uniós dimenziójának növelése, amely felkészítheti a polgárokat arra, hogy egy egyre összetettebb és globalizált világban élnek. Meggyőződésem, hogy a jelenkori Európában még inkább szükség van az Európai Unió alappilléreinek, értékeinek megismerésére, továbbá az Unió és tagállamai történelmének és értékeinek ismerete és megértése kulcsfontosságú a további békés együttéléshez, a kölcsönös megértéshez, a toleranciához és a szolidaritáshoz. Köszönöm szépen a figyelmet.

 
  
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  Tamás Deutsch (PPE), írásban. Az európai uniós ismeretek iskolai elsajátításáról szóló jelentés egy rendkívül fontos és aktuális témakört jár körbe. A számok magukért beszélnek: a legutóbbi európai parlamenti választásokon az állampolgárok csupán 42,61%-a (a 18–24 éves korosztály 27,8%-a) szavazott. Az Eurobarometer 2014-es közvélemény kutatása során a válaszadók 44%-a nem értett egyet azzal az állítással, hogy „Értem, hogyan működik az Unió”. Ilyen körülmények között érthető, hogy az állampolgárok távolinak érzik az Európai Uniót, és demokratikus deficitet éreznek annak döntéshozatalában. Ugyan több tagállam oktatási rendszerében már helyet kapnak az uniós ismeretek, jelentős különbségek tapasztalhatóak ilyen tekintetben az egyes tagállamok között és a tagállamokon belül is.

Általánosságban elmondható, hogy az uniós ismeretek csupán kis részét képezik a tananyagnak. Az uniós ismeretek oktatása nem csupán konkrét tárgyi ismeretek átadását jelenti. Legalább ilyen fontosak a személyes élmények, mint például az ifjúsági és önkéntes munka, az Erasmus programban való részvétel, az uniós intézmények meglátogatása, uniós hivatalnokokkal való kapcsolat, gyakornoki lehetőségek. Az idegen nyelvek oktatása is kulcsszereppel bír, hiszen segíti az interkulturális tudatosság kialakulását, és támogatja a tagállamok közötti mobilitást. Bár az oktatás önmagában nem számolja fel az állampolgárok Unióval szemben érzett esetleges fenntartásit, erősítheti az Unióhoz tartozás érzését, a közösségi szellemet, és az uniós intézmények működésének jobb ismeretét.

 
  
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  María Teresa Giménez Barbat (ALDE), por escrito. Este informe evidencia que introducir una dimensión europea en la enseñanza de los países no es un lujo, sino una necesidad, si aspiramos a construir una ciudadanía europea compartida. Provengo de un país, España, que valora muy positivamente la dimensión europea de la educación, como ponen de manifiesto los datos de la Comisión, según los cuales somos el país que más estudiantes recibe y más estudiantes envía dentro del programa Erasmus. Se pone de manifiesto también que aprender una ciudadanía europea común no implica olvidar las distintas identidades y tradiciones culturales. Deseo subrayar que este «enfoque intercultural» debe estar fuertemente articulado alrededor de valores y principios comunes, pues no es posible una integración escolar positiva allí donde los derechos personales son subordinados por razón de religión, ideología o cultura. El sentimiento de pertenencia europeo es una travesía difícil, pues la historia de Europa lo es también de egoísmos nacionales. En esta pluralidad de gentes, culturas y sensibilidades habita a la vez el peligro y la salvación. Debemos emprender este viaje con tacto, cuando se trata de respetar las identidades legítimas de los europeos, pero también con audacia, cuando se trata de orientarnos hacia el horizonte común que nos ilusiona.

 
  
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  Андрей Ковачев (PPE), в писмена форма. Смятам, че въвеждането на европейско гражданско образование в училище е изключително важно, защото ще позволи на децата от ранна възраст да са запознати с правата и задълженията си като европейски граждани и да участват пълноценно в политическия живот на Европа и на собствената си страна.

Спадът на избирателна активност сред младежите е особено притеснителна тенденция, която, според мен, ясно показва необходимостта от преподаване на гражданско образование, което да запознава младите хора с европейските демократични институции, принципи и практики, както и възможностите, които европейската интеграция им дава. Неразбирането на начина на функциониране на ЕС и на неговите основни ценности и принципи превръща младите европейски поколения в лесна мишена за дезинформационни кампании, които целят да подкопаят устоите на демократична Европа и да отслабят нейните институции, засилвайки популистките и националистически нагласи. Това е предизвикателство, заслужаващо европейски отговор, който уважава националните компетенции и образователни традиции.

Европейското измерение в образованието ще спомогне за възстановяването на отслабената връзка между Европейският съюз и неговите граждани чрез създаването за чувство на принадлежност към една общност, основаваща се на ценности и върховенство на закона. В този контекст е важно да се гарантира, че учителите са мотивирани да преподават на младите това знание и разполагат с всички необходими ресурси.

 
  
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  Victor Negrescu (S&D), în scris. Educația despre Uniunea Europeană este foarte importantă în construcția proiectului european. Cetățenii europeni și mai ales tinerii trebuie să înțeleagă care sunt avantajele oferite de UE, să cunoască mecanismele de funcționare ale instituțiilor europene, dar și să deprindă tehnicile prin care pot participa la procesul decizional european. Din păcate, în prezent, nu știm suficient unii despre alții, iar sistemul nostru educațional nu prezintă tinerilor drepturile lor în calitate de cetățeni europeni. Cu un plus de cunoaștere a istoriei întregii Uniuni Europene și cu mai multă informație despre actualitatea europeană, tinerii vor recăpăta încrederea în instituțiile europene construite cu atât de multă dificultate pentru a asigura pacea și dezvoltarea continentului nostru.

De aceea, în calitate de cadru universitar, dar și de inițiator al mai multor dezbateri despre nevoia de a avea o programă comună la nivel european despre UE, susțin cu toată tăria acest raport care sper să genereze din partea Comisiei Europene și a statelor membre soluții clare pentru uniformizarea, dar și popularizarea educației despre UE.

 
  
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  Ева Паунова (PPE), в писмена форма. Европейският съюз се изправя пред все повече предизвикателства - локални, национални, глобални, икономически, политически. За да можем да се изправим срещу тях и да продължим още по-силни, е важно да се чувстваме европейци, да знаем как работи Съюзът, какво може той да направи за нас и какво можем ние да направим за него.

Ето защо вярвам, че познанията и принадлежността към ЕС трябва да бъдат изградени от най-ранна възраст, като училищата във всички страни членки трябва да насърчат европейското измерение в образованието. Докладът на Европейския парламент за обучението за ЕС в училище предоставя отлични насоки за това как могат да бъдат придадени познания за целите и механизмите на Съюза, както и да бъде насърчено критичното разсъждаване върху приоритетите и ценностите на Европа. Само така младото поколение ще бъде подготвено да работи и живее като активни граждани в един все по-интегриран Съюз и в един глобализиран свят.

Опознаването на ЕС в училище изисква също прилагането на нов подход, редом с подготовка на преподавателите, както е споменато в доклада. Вярвам, че е ключово в класната стая да бъдат използвани интерактивни методи и примери за това как ЕС е от значение за живота на всеки един от нас.

 
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