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Viták
2016. május 11., Szerda - Strasbourg Lektorált változat

6. A harmadik országbeli állampolgárok kutatás, tanulmányok folytatása, gyakorlat, önkéntes szolgálat, diákcsereprogramok vagy oktatási projektek és au pair tevékenység céljából történő beutazása és tartózkodása (vita)
A felszólalásokról készült videofelvételek
PV
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  La Présidente. – L'ordre du jour appelle le débat sur la recommandation pour la deuxième lecture de la commission des libertés civiles, de la justice et des affaires intérieures sur les conditions d'entrée et de séjour des ressortissants de pays tiers à des fins de recherche, d'études, de formation, de volontariat, d'échange d'élèves et de travail au pair (14958/2/2015 - C8-0131/2016 - 2013/0081(COD)) (Rapporteure: Cecilia Wikström (A8-0166/2016)).

 
  
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  Cecilia Wikström, rapporteur. Madam President, allow me to start by thanking the entire team that has worked on this important dossier over a number of years and a special thanks, of course, to my own assistant and to the shadow rapporteurs and their teams, as well as for the excellent work by the Secretariat of the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) and colleagues in the Commission. I have had the pleasure of working together with several very competent presidencies also and here a special word of gratitude needs to be expressed to the Luxembourg Presidency for their enormous efforts on this dossier, without which I doubt we would be standing here today.

Competitiveness is all about attracting excellent intellectuals from all over the world to come to the European Union and make their contribution in our different Member States. The excellent researchers, entrepreneurs and students of the world will help us develop the growing competitive business of tomorrow. In doing so, they will be the ones to bring economic growth, employment and social progress to our economies and societies. For far too long, this continent has crippled itself completely unnecessarily, imposing bureaucracy and hindering creative and productive minds that only want to make their contribution to our societies.

Let me give you some concrete examples. When we started working on this directive, my home country, Sweden, had a system where graduate researchers, doctors, engineers and others who had received a PhD from outside Europe were given 14 days to basically leave the country once they had completed their studies or their research projects. Instead of putting to use the knowledge and experience of these people whom we had helped to educate and had invested a lot of money in, we pushed them away and most of them went to other places in the world – to the US, to Canada and to Australia – and made their contributions to society there.

With the directive we are about to vote on tomorrow, all masters students, as well as researchers, will now have the possibility to stay up to nine months in the EU to apply for jobs or start a business after they have concluded their studies or research. The mobility regime for students will be greatly improved by the new directive. Students will be able to move from day one with a simple notification. Before, they needed a full application. As for researchers, mobility is also improved with the extension of short-term mobility up to six months, compared with three months before. The minimum time that students are allowed to work will also be increased from 10 hours to 15 hours a week.

Before the revision of the Directive, the entry into the EU of family members of researchers was previously fully discretional upon Member States and they had absolutely no right to intra-EU mobility and no right to access the labour market. The present proposals constitute a major step forward by ensuring that family members can easily accompany researchers to Europe and they are allowed to work. This is very important for the attractiveness of European universities when they are competing to attract the best minds from all over the world.

Finally, the scope of the directive will be increased. Trainees are now added as a mandatory category and European Voluntary Service volunteers are added as a mandatory category and au pairs as an optional category. It should be noted that this is actually the first time ever that we have granted protection to au pairs through an EU instrument. Before the review, unremunerated trainees were optional, they are now covered.

In these days when we talk mostly about migration – internal migration policy – I think it is especially important that we manage to conclude on a major dossier which promotes legal migration to the EU. We need far more of this in the days to come and I hope that we can continue to be ambitious in this regard. Thank you once again to everyone that has contributed to this great success.

 
  
  

PRESIDENZA DELL'ON. ANTONIO TAJANI
Vicepresidente

 
  
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  Dimitris Avramopoulos, Member of the Commission. Mr President, I would like to start by saying that I am really glad that we are finalising the revision of the Directive on students and research. Today I fulfil also my commitment that I gave you during the hearing one and a half year ago. This updated directive makes the EU more attractive for talents from abroad and, therefore, makes the European Union more competitive on the global scale.

I would like to express my thanks, in particular, to Ms Wikström and the shadow rapporteurs, who have done a fantastic job. Thanks to your excellent work we have managed to keep a really ambitious text.

Κυρία Wallström ξέρω ότι μιλάτε και ελληνικά και θα ήθελα να σας πω και στην κοινή μας γλώσσα ένα μεγάλο ευχαριστώ! Η συμβολή σας ήταν και είναι καθοριστική.

The conclusion of the negotiations is important for several reasons. Firstly, we have clearly improved the immigration rules for students and researchers. Their rights are now more clearly defined. Secondly, intra-EU mobility rules have been improved so that knowledge and skills can circulate more freely within the European Union. Thirdly, students can now work a minimum of 15 instead of 10 hours per week, which means they contribute more to our economy and they can also be financially more independent.

With the new instrument, graduates and researchers have a right to look for a job or to set up a business once they have finished their studies or research. Finally, we now also have binding EU-wide rules for trainees and volunteers within the European Voluntary Service. In parallel, for the first time we will also have common rules for third—country national au pairs, though only optionally.

Let me also underline that the agreement sends out important messages in these challenging times. First of all, we welcome talent from outside of the European Union to come to us to study, carry out research, learn or volunteer. Those who would like to stay longer to work or to create a business are invited to do so. Equally importantly, we show that the EU sticks to its commitments to improve legal migration routes.

Understandably, a lot of focus is now on the refugee crisis and people seeking protection. But migration is not just about asylum. It is also about mobility and empowerment, and facilitating that through legal channels. This is an important part of our overall migration policy and we deliver, as promised.

Overall, could we have done better? Yes, there is almost always room for improvement. The Commission, together with this Parliament, has insisted throughout the negotiations that Member States’ discretionary powers with regard to rejecting an application may only be used when strictly necessary and, of course, justified.

We made it clear in our joint statement to the political compromise that such discretionary power by the Member States should only be used on a case-by-case basis. It should take into account the specific circumstances of the third—country national and the principle of proportionality, and on the basis of evidence or serious and objective reasons. I can reiterate that the Commission will ensure that Member States implement this provision in line with this interpretation when transposing the directive and will inform Parliament and the Council thereof.

Today Europe attracts 45% of international students worldwide but the international higher education landscape is changing rapidly. Such students and researchers are an asset and a contribution and I welcome the agreement on the revised EU rules to facilitate that contribution even more.

 
  
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  Anna Maria Corazza Bildt, on behalf of the PPE Group. Mr President, the PPE Group also very much welcomes this agreement. Europe needs to be attractive in the global competition for talents. We have a knowledge—based economy and facilitating the entry of researchers, students and unremunerated trainees to bring their skills to Europe is important to sustain European growth, innovation and jobs. We need to train, develop and keep talents in Europe to match the needs of our companies, our academic institutions, our universities and other research institutions.

The PPE goal has been to have a system that strikes the right balance between facilitating access and, at the same time, preventing abuse. I am glad that we have reached our goal. With this directive we move from cumbersome, long, fragmented procedures to common, clear and simple rules across Europe. We are cutting red tape, we are providing legal certainty. One of the main achievements is the intra—EU mobility, the possibility for students and researchers to continue their activities in another Member State without having to leave Europe and reapply again for entry. This will, of course, encourage cross—fertilisation, exchange of knowledge, people—to—people contact and also the possibility to finalise research projects or degrees.

Let us be clear. This directive is not about letting more people into Europe. The rules are clear. Member States will continue to decide how many entry permits are granted and they will also have the possibility to do labour market checks when deciding on admission. This is not about students and researchers taking European jobs. On the contrary, it is about them contributing to creating jobs in Europe. So students and researchers will be given the possibility to work, but the rules of the labour market will remain national. Applicants for admission have to clearly show that they are able to support themselves and they are not living on social benefits. I hope that this big achievement will not be undermined by populist rhetoric.

 
  
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  Tanja Fajon, v imenu skupine S&D. Najprej seveda zahvala poročevalki in izvrstni kolegici Ceciliji. Evropa si še vedno ni povsem opomogla od posledic gospodarske krize in demografska slika ostaja nespremenjena. Zaradi zapletenih in dolgih birokratskih postopkov ter skromnih investicij v razvoj, raziskovanje in izobraževanje zaostajamo za najrazvitejšim svetom v pridobivanju mladih talentov. S tem zapravljamo velik potencial, ti pa zato odhajajo drugam.

Prenovljena pravila bodo omogočala številnim mladim lažje bivanje in delo v Evropski uniji ter jim zagotavljala več pravic, omogočala več mobilnosti, možnost opravljanja dela in raziskovanja ob študiju, ter možnost, da po zaključku študija še eno leto ostanejo v Evropi. Več pravic bodo po novem uživali tudi njihovi družinski člani. Dejstvo je, da so danes drugod v svetu bolj uspešni v privabljanju mladih talentov in če tega ne spremenimo, se nam obeta negotova prihodnost.

Prenovljena pravila, o katerih bomo glasovali opoldne, in verjamem, da dobili tudi močno podporo, so rezultat dolgih in napornih pogajanj, a uspela nam je velika zmaga. Z napori socialistov in demokratov smo uspeli zagotoviti, da bodo imeli mladi tuji študenti, raziskovalci, praktikanti, prostovoljci in varuške na voljo enostavnejše in hitrejše postopke za pridobitev vizumov ali dovoljenj za vstop, več socialnih ali delavskih pravic ter zdravstveno in pravno varstvo. Ravno varuške so bile do zdaj zaradi pomanjkljive pravne zaščite pogosto žrtev izkoriščanja. Po novem bodo nameč vključene v pravni okvir. Izkoriščanje tujih mladih kadrov moramo enkrat za vselej ustaviti in Evropa mora biti zgled.

Prepričana sem, da bodo ta nova pravila pozitivno vplivala na kulturne, znanstvene in socialne čezmejne vezi ter stike med ljudmi. Samo inovativna in bolj konkurenčna Evropa bo ustvarila nova delovna mesta in s tem bo bolj privlačna za mlade talente iz celega sveta.

Navkljub pomembnim dosežkom pa obžalujem, da bodo odslej imele države članice možnost zavrniti prošnjo za pridobitev vizuma ali dovoljenja za vstop tudi brez utemeljenih razlogov. Brez te klavzule Svet ni želel prižgati zelene luči k direktivi. V Parlamentu bomo zato pozorno spremljali izvajanje pravil v praksi in v primeru zlorab tudi ustrezno ukrepali.

 
  
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  Kazimierz Michał Ujazdowski, w imieniu grupy ECR. Panie Przewodniczący! To jest dobra decyzja, dobrze się stało, że dzisiaj od rana zajmujemy się dwiema ważnymi kwestiami. Pierwsza z nich dotyczy bezpieczeństwa, druga – otwartości Europy, bo o to w istocie chodzi, o wolny akces i dobre warunki pobytu w Europie tych, którzy zajmują się poszukiwaniami, nauką – studentów i wolontariuszy. To jest kwestia globalnej odpowiedzialności Europy, a także konkurencyjności naszych krajów. Z punktu widzenia polskiego doświadczenia ta dyrektywa jest także czynnikiem jak najbardziej pozytywnym. Chcę Państwu powiedzieć, że Polska jest oblegana przez studentów z Ukrainy, przez naukowców z Ukrainy. To są tysiące ludzi, którzy chcą związać swoje losy z Polską, a więc zbliżenie ustawodawstwa w tym zakresie jest bardzo sensowne. To wszystko trzeba powiązać z polityką naukową Unii Europejskiej, ze współpracą między uniwersytetami, z lepszą wymianą wewnątrz samej Unii Europejskiej.

 
  
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  Gérard Deprez, au nom du groupe ALDE. Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, tout d'abord, je tire mon chapeau devant le travail remarquable qui a été effectué par notre collègue, Cecilia Wikström. Félicitations, chère collègue.

Pour être à la hauteur de ses ambitions et de son destin, l'Europe doit à tout le moins répondre à trois défis. Premièrement, investir massivement dans l'innovation, c'est-à-dire dans l'intelligence pour relancer la croissance et créer des emplois. Deuxièmement, maintenir et renforcer son modèle social en garantissant l'égalité des droits et en luttant contre toutes les formes de discrimination. Troisièmement, ne pas se replier sur elle-même mais faire rayonner dans le monde la synthèse originale qu'elle veut promouvoir entre son modèle de croissance et son modèle social unique.

C'est à la lumière de ces trois exigences que je soutiens sans réserve la proposition qui nous est soumise aujourd'hui. Elle vise, en effet, d'abord à faciliter l'accès au territoire européen à des personnes hautement qualifiées. Demain, grâce à cette proposition, un étudiant pourra venir plus facilement en Europe, il aura davantage de possibilités de travail et de mobilité et le droit de rester pendant douze mois dans l'Union afin d'y chercher un emploi. Par ailleurs, je salue les conditions plus favorables offertes aux chercheurs, tant en matière de regroupement familial qu'en matière de mobilité, en leur permettant de poursuivre leurs recherches dans d'autres États membres que celui qui leur a fourni leur permis de séjour.

Mais j'entends également mettre l'accent, avec la même vigueur, sur la contribution de cette proposition au développement du modèle social européen. Je me réjouis qu'un statut soit enfin offert aux salariés au pair et aux stagiaires non rémunérés, catégories fragiles s'il en est, et donc susceptibles d'exploitation.

L'Europe est ainsi fidèle à elle-même, à la fois dans son ambition économique et dans sa vocation sociale.

(L'orateur accepte de répondre à une question "carton bleu" (article 162, paragraphe 8, du règlement))

 
  
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  Tibor Szanyi (S&D), Kékkártyás kérdés. Köszönöm szépen a kérdés lehetőséget, Elnök Úr, és Önnek is, Képviselő úr. Ugye osztom egyébként az optimizmusát, én is meg fogom szavazni ezt a javaslatot. De azért meg kell mondjuk, hogy ez három évvel ezelőtt született, amikor még nem volt a migrációs válság ennyire kiélezett, mint most. Ön elégségesnek látja-e ennek a javaslatnak a védelmi mechanizmusait az idegenellenes tendenciákkal szemben?

 
  
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  Gérard Deprez (ALDE), réponse "carton bleu". Votre question me paraît importante. Je pense que nous sommes tous d'accord pour dire que nous devons organiser, demain, des voies légales d'accès au territoire européen, en définissant les conditions et les modalités de manière telle qu'à la fois, les gens puissent venir dans des conditions de sécurité et que cela soit positif pour nous, pour l'économie européenne, pour eux et pour le développement de l'Union européenne. Je crois donc que cette proposition va dans le bon sens, même si elle a pris beaucoup de temps pour arriver.

 
  
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  Marina Albiol Guzmán, en nombre del Grupo GUE/NGL. Señor Presidente, hoy aprobamos garantizar mayor libertad de movimiento a un grupo reducido de personas y los grandes Grupos parlamentarios de la Cámara se felicitan por el avance supuestamente progresista. Se llenan la boca hablando de libre circulación, mientras se está gaseando a personas en las fronteras y se les impide encontrar un lugar seguro para establecerse en nuestro continente.

Hoy, todos están hablando de facilitar el acceso y la estancia en nuestro continente a investigadores y estudiantes superiores, pero son los mismos que votan a favor de agilizar y aumentar la deportación y blindar nuestras fronteras.

Parece que solo importan los derechos de una élite, porque los que huyen de la guerra o los que huyen de la explotación son expulsados y son devueltos a los lugares de los que han huido gracias a ese Acuerdo Unión Europea-Turquía.

Es enormemente clasista que se elija quién puede entrar o no en la Unión Europea en función de si han tenido o no acceso a la educación superior. Pero ya lo dijo el Partido Popular durante todas las negociaciones: que no se trata de migración, sino de un valor añadido para las empresas, es decir, que eso es lo que somos las personas: si servimos a las grandes empresas, si servimos para que las grandes empresas puedan tener beneficios, podemos entrar; si no, pues somos expulsados.

Empiezan queriendo que vengan solo aquellas personas que vienen a investigar o que vienen a hacer doctorados, pero ¿cómo van a terminar? ¿Terminarán como los compañeros socialdemócratas de Eslovaquia, que solo quieren recibir a refugiados cristianos?

(La oradora acepta responder a una pregunta formulada con arreglo al procedimiento de la «tarjeta azul» (artículo 162, apartado 8, del Reglamento))

 
  
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  Maria Grapini (S&D), Întrebare adresată conform procedurii „cartonaşului albastru”. Domnule președinte, stimată colegă, de la bun început vreau să vă spun că nu împărtășesc ceea ce ați spus dumneavoastră.

Susțin raportul, este foarte binevenit, dar vă întreb: dumneavoastră credeți că chiar nu trebuie să ne gândim la securitatea cetățenilor și să existe posibilitatea selectării persoanelor care intră în statul membru, în statele membre pentru a asigura cetățenilor noștri securitate? Chiar nu credeți că avem nevoie de îmbunătățirea securității în Uniunea Europeană?

 
  
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  Marina Albiol Guzmán (GUE/NGL), respuesta de «tarjeta azul». No, yo lo que creo es que lo que tenemos que hacer en la Unión Europea es cumplir con la legalidad internacional y dar acogida a todas aquellas personas que están huyendo de las guerras o que huyen de la explotación en sus países. Creo que relacionar seguridad con migración es tremendamente peligroso y es lanzar un mensaje que no es nada positivo para los valores que se supone que defendemos en la Unión Europea.

 
  
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  Jean Lambert, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. Mr President, I would like to add my thanks to our rapporteur for the work that she has done on this, and just say a word to the previous speaker: I would agree with a lot of what you have said, but I do not think we are necessarily making a choice here – by restricting the rights of some, you do not necessarily expand the rights of others. I think this is an important piece of legislation, and I think it is important not only for the individuals concerned or for the institutions with which some of them may be studying or working, but it is also an important part of a soft foreign policy. Some of the questions raised here today about the difficulties of access – about the feeling that you are not actually wanted as a student or a researcher in the European Union – have been raised with a number of us during many of the delegation trips that we have travelled on to various third countries.

I also want to say that I welcome the Commission’s statement in terms of its interpretation of transposition, about rejection being based on a case-by-case basis, because I think that is really important. I, too, on behalf of my Group, welcome the improvements within this directive in terms of reducing a number of the barriers and the difficulties that people have faced. While we were working on this report, we came across cases of people who had not been able to take up research positions because they had waited so long for various permissions. That not only affected their lives, but the research projects on which they were coming to work.

We also welcome the possibilities of having greater opportunities to finalise your research if there have been particular problems during the course of it, and of course the questions about families being able to stay together is also extremely important. For volunteers, the question about this possibility to develop intercultural understanding, we see the exchange of expertise, too, as crucial for strengthening civil society – such an important part of any democracy.

 
  
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  Jonathan Arnott, on behalf of the EFDD Group. Mr President, this debate is about rules for people coming from outside the European Union into the European Union, whether for studying, for research, for training, for voluntary work, to become an au pair or for an educational project. Quite often this kind of migration actually does have a positive impact on society, so I am not going to stand here and argue that international students coming to the UK, paying fees to British universities, helping some of the top universities in the world to survive, is in any way a bad thing. In fact, in a lot of ways I would rather have non-EU students than EU students coming to the United Kingdom under the current rules, because we actually get a rather rough deal when the British Government gives EU students loans which are often not repaid.

So what is the problem? Well, although people coming to the UK to study can be a good thing, it is also a decision that we should take as the British people ourselves, based on common sense and thinking about what we need for our colleges and our universities and what is right for the United Kingdom. This EU nonsense, expecting us to extend these changes not just to those who wish to study or do research here but also to their families and also for an additional 18 months after the course of study is completed, is likely to result in something approaching a free—for—all.

At the moment, we in the UK do have an opt—out, so the side in the British referendum campaign which is currently busy claiming that Brexit will lead inexorably to World War III are going to be the ones that will accuse me of scaremongering. But an opt-out is only an opt-out until some bright spark decides that they want us to opt back in. After that, it is too late, because of the ratchet principle of the acquis communautaire in this Union. Maybe you trust David Cameron not to opt back in and maybe you trust Jeremy Corbyn, but watch the Labour Party in today’s vote, because if Labour votes for this today you can bet that any future Labour government would vote to opt us back in. So whenever we have an opt—out, you have to ask yourself: do you trust Cameron, do you trust Corbyn, and do you trust every future British Prime Minister? If you cannot say yes to all three, the bottom line is that by voting to stay in the European Union, you vote to risk handing over control of our immigration policy to Brussels.

 
  
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  Laurenţiu Rebega, în numele grupului ENF. Domnule președinte, dragi colegi, în urmă cu mai mulți ani se vorbea despre Uniunea Europeană că are cele mai bune licee din lume, iar despre Statele Unite că are cele mai bune universități din lume. Desigur, era o ironie simplificatoare, dar aceste expresii la nivelul înțelegerii comune se transformă în stereotipuri care generează greșeli grave atunci când sunt preluate ca dogme corect politice. Desigur, a facilita accesul tinerilor din terțe țări în sistemul de educație european este o idee nobilă și generoasă. Nu mă opun acestei idei! Cu cât vor fi mai mulți tineri de valoare în universitățile europene, cu atât va fi mai bine. Vreau însă să atrag atenția că diavolul se ascunde în detalii. Nu este suficient să ai creiere, trebuie să știi și ce să faci cu ele și cum să le pui la lucru. Are Uniunea Europeană o strategie în acest sens? Știm cum să facem ca specialiștii țărilor membre instruiți în Uniunea Europeană să nu fie doar o formă de brain draining? Știm cum să îi convingem să se întoarcă în țările lor și să devină acolo relee ale culturii și științei europene? În fine, știm cum să facem ca în urma acestor contacte să crească nivelul universităților noastre?

Uniunea Europeană nu este un vas care trebuie umplut, ci o făclie care trebuie să lumineze!

 
  
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  Ελευθέριος Συναδινός ( NI). Κύριε Πρόεδρε, είναι χλεύη ότι η μετανάστευση από χώρες εκτός Ένωσης αποτελεί πηγή εισροής ατόμων υψηλής ειδίκευσης, και εξηγώ. Οι νέοι και οι νέες στα κράτη μέλη αντιμετωπίζουν σοβαρά προβλήματα ανεργίας και πρόσβασης στην αγορά εξειδικευμένης εργασίας. Ειδικά στην Ελλάδα και στις χώρες του Νότου, προπτυχιακοί και μεταπτυχιακοί απόφοιτοι εξαναγκάζονται είτε σε φυγή από τις πατρίδες τους είτε σε εργασία αδήλωτη, ανασφάλιστη και αβέβαιη ως προς το μέλλον. Ποια δικαιολογία άραγε θα ψελλίσετε στις διακόσιες χιλιάδες νέους και νέες που έφυγαν από την Ελλάδα των δεξιών και αριστερών μνημονίων; Τι κάνατε για τον αποδεκατισμό του ελληνικού πληθυσμού, την αποψίλωση της επιστημονικής αφρόκρεμας και το ασύλληπτο ποσοστό ανεργίας των νέων; Όσοι προωθούν σχέδια ενίσχυσης των πολιτισμικών δεσμών και εμπλουτισμού της πολιτισμικής πολυμορφίας δεν έχουν κανένα δικαίωμα να αναγκάζουν τα κράτη μέλη να δέχονται υπηκόους τρίτων χωρών με το πρόσχημα του επιστημονικού δυναμικού. Οι Έλληνες και οι Ευρωπαίοι εθνικιστές δεν είμαστε λιγότερο ανθρωπιστές και κοινωνικά ευαίσθητοι όπως μας κατηγορείτε. Η δημογραφική αλλοίωση της Ευρώπης αποτελεί ωρολογιακή βόμβα για την Ευρώπη και ευθεία απειλή για την εθνική ασφάλεια, για την κοινωνική συνοχή των κρατών. Οι άριστοι νέοι επιστήμονες μπορούν να μεγαλουργήσουν με ανάλογα κίνητρα και στις χώρες τους.

 
  
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  Mariya Gabriel (PPE). Monsieur le Président, chers collègues, je tiens tout d'abord à féliciter la rapporteure et les rapporteurs fictifs pour leur travail sur cette proposition de directive. En effet, l'accord trouvé avec le Conseil permet de clarifier et d'améliorer les conditions pour les stagiaires, les bénévoles, les étudiants et les élèves non européens au bénéfice de l'Union et de ses États membres, ainsi que des pays d'origine.

J'aimerais souligner trois éléments. Tout d'abord, cette directive devra être utilisée par les États membres pour atteindre les objectifs d'Europe 2020. Les conditions d'entrée et de séjour prévues pour les étudiants et les chercheurs, notamment, encourageront une internationalisation plus rapide de nos systèmes d'enseignement. Il s'agit de rendre l'Union plus attractive, plus compétitive et de parvenir à une Europe de la connaissance et de l'innovation: tel est notre objectif, et nous faisons un réel pas en avant aujourd'hui. Un autre atout important du texte, dont on peut se féliciter, est qu'il présente des mesures pour garantir une meilleure protection des stagiaires en donnant à un État membre la possibilité de s'assurer que le stage ne remplace pas un emploi. Enfin, je lance ici un appel pour que cette nouvelle directive soit prise en compte dans le cadre de la politique européenne de voisinage.

L'éducation, la recherche et la promotion d'échanges culturels restent des objectifs et des moyens de construire des ponts entre l'Europe et ses voisins, en particulier avec la région méditerranéenne. Cette directive prend tout son sens si elle est utilisée avec nos voisins. C'est un investissement mutuel entre nous et nos voisins en faveur, notamment, des jeunes, et nous savons combien il est crucial d'offrir des opportunités aux jeunes dans certains pays de notre voisinage.

Voilà, je me réjouis que nous puissions conclure ce dossier et encourager, ici, une politique intelligente maîtrisée et la migration circulaire.

 
  
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  Cécile Kashetu Kyenge (S&D). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, gestire responsabilmente il fenomeno migratorio significa anche e soprattutto aprire dei canali legali e regolari di immigrazione legale. Ecco, con l'adozione di questa direttiva il Parlamento e il Consiglio prendono atto della necessità di armonizzare le procedure e rendere più facile l'ingresso e il soggiorno di ricercatori, studenti, alunni, volontari e ragazzi alla pari.

Con il voto di oggi apriamo la strada ad una futura politica migratoria comune basata su canali di accesso regolare all'Unione europea. Certo, si tratta pur sempre di misure di migrazione economica temporanea, ma un primo passo è stato compiuto. Grazie alle modifiche apportate da quest'Aula nel corso della procedura legislativa, i cittadini di paesi terzi avranno il diritto di entrare, soggiornare e svolgere una parte della ricerca o degli studi in uno o più Stati membri. Lo stesso diritto sarà inoltre riconosciuto agli alunni, ai volontari e ai lavoratori alla pari. A queste stesse persone riconosciamo il diritto ad un trattamento pari a quello dello Stato membro interessato. Agli studenti e ai ricercatori riconosciamo la possibilità di soggiornare per un periodo successivo alla scadenza dei loro studi o della loro ricerca al fine di permettere loro di trovare un'occupazione o avviare un'impresa.

Le sfide demografiche e le molteplici carenze di manodopera, non solo altamente specializzata, ci impongono di rivedere le politiche nazionali frammentate in materia di migrazione economica, di concentrarsi su regole generali in materia di ingresso e di residenza dei lavoratori provenienti dai paesi terzi. L'apertura di canali per i migranti economici sarebbe anche la misura più efficace per contrastare il moderno schiavismo che sempre di più si sta radicando nei nostri territori, attraverso lo sfruttamento di manodopera di lavoratori migranti, soprattutto donne.

È un dato di fatto, signor Presidente: l'Europa può prosperare solo se agevola la mobilità delle conoscenze, dei beni e delle persone.

 
  
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  Sander Loones (ECR). Moeten wij onze asielverantwoordelijkheid opnemen? Ja, dat moeten we. Maar laten we ook eerlijk de vraag stellen: wanneer wordt beweerde barmhartigheid naïviteit? Laten we eerlijk benoemen wat de uitdagingen zijn als wij de asielzoekers willen opvangen. Als wij hun een sociaal vangnet willen en moeten bieden, dan zullen wij ook een sterke economie nodig hebben om dat te schragen.

En zo komen we aan het thema van dit debat: hoe kunnen we studenten en onderzoekers van topniveau naar Europa halen? Hoe zorgen we ervoor dat we dat wereldwijde toptalent aantrekken en zo onze welvaartstaat versterken? Tegelijkertijd mogen we niet naïef zijn, want als we naar de omgeving kijken, als we naar Europa kijken, dan zien we ook een zeer hoge jeugdwerkloosheid. Ook dat moeten wij in rekening brengen. Dit voorstel doet dat ook effectief door de lidstaten zelf te laten bepalen hoeveel visa ze toekennen en hoeveel niet, maar ook door onze sociale welvaartstaat en sociale zekerheid bij de lidstaten te laten. Dat lijkt mij een echte win-winsituatie.

 
  
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  María Teresa Giménez Barbat (ALDE). Señor Presidente, estimados compañeros, tras complejas negociaciones, esta Directiva llega a la etapa en que podrá ser aplicada a todos los ciudadanos de terceros países que pidan ser admitidos en un país europeo para completar un camino de investigación, de estudio, de práctica o de voluntariado.

Creo que todos en esta casa compartimos la misma reflexión: entre los sueños realizados por la Unión Europea, entre los éxitos más poderosos de la integración europea, está el programa Erasmus. Hoy, gracias a esta Recomendación, damos un paso más hacia un sistema de Erasmus global, hacia una cooperación cultural y educativa aún más fuerte a nivel internacional.

Este texto pretende simplificar el marco normativo para atraer el talento juvenil hacia la Unión Europea. Los requerimientos de una sociedad moderna exigen reforzar los lazos sociales y culturales a través de un intercambio constructivo de excelencias más allá de las fronteras europeas.

 
  
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  Tania González Peñas (GUE/NGL). Señor Presidente, estimados colegas, saludamos esta Directiva porque entendemos que favorece la integración social y laboral de aquellas personas extracomunitarias que, una vez finalizados sus estudios, deciden investigar o trabajar en Europa, y entendemos que esto es algo que tendrá efectos positivos en nuestras sociedades y en nuestras economías a corto y medio plazo.

No obstante, es un punto de partida, no es aún un punto de llegada, quedan muchos aspectos por mejorar, por ejemplo, con respecto a colectivos como los au pair o las au pair, que en muchas ocasiones viven en situaciones de desprotección, con condiciones laborales de absoluta miseria. Y no se trata de pocos casos: en 2014 había 59 000 españolas trabajando en este sector. Ser au pair no debería ser sinónimo de mano de obra barata.

Esperamos, asimismo, que esta Directiva sirva para eliminar las prácticas discriminatorias, como las de algunos Gobiernos regionales, por ejemplo en España, que cobran el triple a los estudiantes extracomunitarios. Por lo tanto, esperamos que se cumpla y que se vele por la igualdad de trato a los ciudadanos europeos y de terceros países.

 
  
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  Dominique Bilde (ENF). Monsieur le Président, en tant que membre de la commission de la culture et de l'éducation, j'ai un grand intérêt pour les questions ayant de près ou de loin un rapport avec la formation et l'éducation.

Vous estimez que, dans les années à venir, le secteur de la recherche et du développement nécessitera 1 000 000 d'emplois supplémentaires. Ces emplois, pourquoi ne pas les donner à nos chômeurs – environ 12 % dans la zone euro, 40 % en France? Des étudiants Bac + 5 n'ont pas d'emploi un an après leurs études.

Par ailleurs, vous dites dans l'exposé des motifs que nos meilleurs chercheurs et innovateurs s'expatrient par milliers dans des pays où les conditions sont plus favorables. Si l'on rendait les conditions favorables, il n'y aurait plus de fuite des cerveaux. Faire venir de la main-d'œuvre bon marché qui puisse circuler sans entrave dans toute l'Union européenne, quid de nos propres chômeurs, de nos étudiants et de nos chercheurs? Ont-ils moins de talent que les migrants?

Quant à la politique de développement, elle consisterait à ce que les jeunes puissent être formés chez eux pour être les futures élites de leur pays et contribuer au développement de leur propre pays.

Chers collègues, je respecte vos vœux pieux pour la croissance de l'Europe, j'aimerais simplement que vous cherchiez à la faire avec les Européens.

 
  
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  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE). Pane předsedající, domnívám se, že tato směrnice, která je projednávaná více než tři roky, je skutečně již ve stavu, kdy ji můžeme podpořit. Měla by splnit cíl, kterým je zjednodušení pravidel pro vstup a pobyt občanů třetích zemí za účelem studia, výzkumu. Slučují se tak pravidla pro studenty a výzkumné pracovníky a rozsah působnosti se rozšiřuje i na stážisty, dobrovolníky a au-pair. Byť v případě dvou posledně jmenovaných nejsou tato pravidla pro členské státy povinná a já považuji za správné, že je tady dodržen princip subsidiarity.

Takto nastavené podmínky mají potenciál přilákat do Evropské unie mladé, nadané lidi, což samozřejmě podporuje mobilitu. Dělají také z Evropské unie atraktivnější prostředí pro nadané lidi z celého světa. To je, myslím, nezbytné pro zlepšení konkurenceschopnosti Evropy. V tomto směru postupujeme podobně jako Spojené státy americké, které dlouhodobě lákají talenty na své území.

Za pozitivní též vnímám skutečnost, že směrnice dává možnost výzkumným pracovníkům, aby si do Evropské unie přivedli také své rodinné příslušníky. Toto je, myslím, správný případ pro slučování rodin. Jako částečně kontroverzní vnímám možnost pro studenty zůstat po ukončení studia či výzkumu v Evropské unii po dobu nejméně devíti měsíců, ale myslím, že i zde došlo k rozumnému kompromisu. Tudíž výsledek podporuji.

 
  
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  Christine Revault D'Allonnes Bonnefoy (S&D). Monsieur le Président, les migrations légales ne sont pas un danger pour l'Union européenne et ses États membres. Au contraire, elles représentent un atout pour nos économies et une chance pour l'avenir, d'autant plus face au défi démographique important que nous connaissons.

Le groupe des socialistes et démocrates soutient pleinement cette directive qui permettra de préciser et d'harmoniser les conditions d'entrée et de séjour en Europe des étudiants et des chercheurs mais aussi des stagiaires volontaires et travailleurs au pair.

Ce texte contient de nombreuses avancées indispensables pour rendre l'Union plus attractive vis-à-vis des citoyens de pays tiers qui constituent un véritable vivier de nouveaux talents. Des droits renforcés sont garantis pour les étudiants et chercheurs, notamment s'agissant du droit au travail. Leur mobilité est facilitée au niveau européen, ce qui s'appliquera également à leurs proches. Il était aussi essentiel que la directive supprime de nombreux obstacles administratifs et facilite ainsi les procédures d'admission.

Je salue ce texte qui vient s'ajouter au panel de mesures de l'Union en matière de migration légale. Il ne pourra que redynamiser l'espace européen d'éducation et de recherche, et offrir des perspectives positives pour nos sociétés, tant d'un point de vue social que culturel. Plus encore, il va tout à fait dans le sens de notre volonté d'ouvrir des voies sûres et légales vers l'Europe.

Toutefois, nous devrions aller au-delà de cette approche fragmentée qui continue de ne s'appliquer qu'à certaines catégories de personnes. La prochaine étape devra être de proposer un cadre global, qui encadre le séjour des ressortissants de pays tiers dans l'Union, afin de pouvoir répondre aux besoins du marché du travail européen.

 
  
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  Николай Бареков (ECR). – Приветствам бъдещото решение на Европейския парламент. Европа трябва да бъде дом за всички умни, млади учени иноватори. На бежанския натиск Европа трябва да отговори с привличането и селекцията на висококвалифицирани млади учени. Но какво правим с източването на мозъци вътре в Европейския съюз?

Моята родина България е жертва на емиграцията. Милиони млади и умни българи бяха прокудени в чужбина от глада и мизерията и станаха част от интелектуалния елит на Великобритания, Франция, Испания и други европейски държави.

Трябва обаче да подходим внимателно и с необходимите защитни механизми за европейските нации. Трябва селективно да дадем пропуск за Европа само на тези студенти и учени, които със сигурност ще повишат интелектуалния ни потенциал и високотехнологичните производства, за които има недостиг на работна ръка.

 
  
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  Steeve Briois (ENF). Monsieur le Président, en effet, cette directive est censée faciliter l'arrivée d'étudiants étrangers dans l'Union européenne, afin qu'ils puissent se former et mettre à profit leurs compétences dans leur pays d'origine. Mais en réalité, cette directive créera de nouvelles filières d'immigration légale.

Ces ressortissants sont appelés à rester en Europe pour, soi-disant, pallier un manque de main-d'œuvre qualifiée, ce qui est totalement grotesque, car, enfin, si nos jeunes diplômés ne s'expatriaient pas par milliers chaque année pour échapper au chômage de masse, nous n'en serions pas là, aujourd'hui, à tenter de colmater la fuite des cerveaux, dont vous êtes les principaux responsables.

En vérité, cette directive contribuera, une fois encore, à renforcer la concurrence entre les candidats fraîchement diplômés sur le marché du travail, à la plus grande satisfaction des grandes entreprises qui pourront ainsi bénéficier d'une main-d'œuvre qualifiée et bon marché.

En résumé, cette directive reflète le mépris de la Commission: mépris envers nos jeunes qui subissent de plein fouet le chômage et mépris envers les pays dont l'avenir repose essentiellement sur le retour de leurs cerveaux et de leurs talents.

 
  
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  Csaba Sógor (PPE). Mr President, in the cut-throat global competition for highly skilled professionals, attracting and keeping talent from outside the EU is an ever—increasing challenge. Unfortunately, thousands of the best researchers and innovators have already chosen to head to the US, Australia or Canada, where they are welcomed with more favourable conditions.

Human capital represents one of the key assets to achieving smart growth. The Europe 2020 strategy has already recognised that to remain globally competitive and to meet its targets, Europe needs at least one million more research jobs. In this context, it is essential that we also attract highly skilled third country national students and researchers. This is why having a common set of rules on admission and residence requirements in the European Union would greatly contribute to increasing the attractiveness of the EU as a destination for talent. I think that the agreement reached on the final text, by reducing administrative red tape and allowing increased intra—EU mobility and access for students to our labour markets by preventing attempts to abuse that system, will bring us one step closer to attracting the best and brightest minds to our economies.

 
  
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  Juan Fernando López Aguilar (S&D). Señor Presidente, la Unión Europea no se encuentra en buen estado, ¿verdad? De hecho, está atravesando la peor crisis de su historia y hace tiempo que prácticamente todo va mal, pero cuando me piden una respuesta corta a qué es lo que más aprecio de la construcción europea, digo sin duda: la libre circulación de personas. ¿Y qué es lo que más combato? La mirada negativa a la inmigración que, prácticamente, abre muy escasas —si es que alguna— ventanas a la inmigración regular.

Pues bien, esta refundición de dos Directivas, que hay que saludar gracias al trabajo de su ponente, nuestra colega la señora Wikström, es un paso en la buena dirección. Porque no solamente regula y refuerza los derechos de estudiantes, investigadores, doctorandos, estudiantes en prácticas —remuneradas o no remuneradas—, servicio de voluntariado y personal au pair, sino que además certifica un refuerzo de esos derechos en relación con la limitación de su jornada de trabajo y de su «mochila» también de derechos sociales. Pero, sobre todo, abre una puerta de inmigración regular a una Europa envejecida que la necesita con urgencia, no solo de personal cualificado.

Pero, insisto, es solo un paso limitado que debe ser ampliado con un refuerzo claro de la política migratoria europea inteligente de gestión de flujos migratorios, no solamente para estudiantes e investigadores, sino en general con todos aquellos que estén en disposición de contribuir al sostenimiento de nuestro modelo social, con su trabajo, con su contribución a las cotizaciones sociales y al sostenimiento de los servicios públicos que caracterizan el modo de ser europeo, más en crisis y en peor crisis que nunca.

 
  
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  Емил Радев (PPE). – Г-н Председател, в сегашната миграционна криза често забравяме, че освен за нелегални емигранти и бежанци, Европа е привлекателна и за висококвалифицирани кадри от трети страни. Застаряващото население и недостигът на квалифицирана работна ръка са притеснителни от гледна точка на необходимостта от развитие на информационните технологии, дигиталния пазар и научните изследвания, които трябва да са бъдещето на европейската икономика. Ето защо трябва да бъдат създадени условия за привличане на най-добрите кадри в света.

Поради тази причина приветствам постигнатата договореност със Съвета относно улесненото пътуване на студенти и научни изследователи от трети страни в рамките на Европейския съюз. Имайки предвид трансграничния характер на много научни изследвания и съвместната работа на редица европейски научни центрове, такова улеснено придвижване е изключително важно не само за учените, но най-вече за развитието на европейската наука.

В същото време естествено не трябва да бъде пренебрегвана необходимостта от намиране на работни места за милионите безработни европейски граждани – особено младите хора – и създаване на условия, така че те да основават процъфтяващ европейски бизнес и да намират работа, отговаряща на тяхната квалификация и способности.

Като европейски законотворци наше задължение е да защитаваме интересите и правата най-вече на европейските граждани и затова призовавам още веднъж за зачитане на правото на свободно движение в рамките на Европейския съюз, без да се прилагат дискриминационни мерки или отношение към гражданите на определени държави членки.

 
  
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  Caterina Chinnici (S&D). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, ringrazio la collega Wikström per il lavoro svolto. La direttiva che voteremo oggi ha un forte valore simbolico. Non istituisce, infatti, soltanto un quadro normativo coordinato e trasparente per rendere più accessibile ai cittadini dei paesi terzi l'ingresso in Europa per motivi di studio, ma determina le condizioni per la mobilità degli studenti, non la fuga ma la circolazione dei cervelli, per creare un mercato del lavoro aperto ai ricercatori non solo europei.

Stiamo dando la possibilità di accrescere le competenze di coloro, e sono tantissimi, che intendono venire in Europa per formarsi, per acquisire conoscenze e vivere esperienze di tirocinio che saranno spendibili non solo nell'Unione ma anche nei paesi di origine. Essere riusciti, per esempio, ad aumentare il limite minimo delle ore settimanali per permettere agli studenti di svolgere lavori part-time, significa dare loro la possibilità concreta di formazione sul campo in modo da sviluppare profili professionali immediatamente spendibili nel mercato del lavoro e dell'impresa.

La direttiva delinea le modalità di accoglienza nel mondo della formazione, della ricerca e quindi del lavoro di coloro che credono e apprezzano il disegno europeo e vedono nell'Europa un polo di eccellenza, di cultura ma anche di opportunità. E sono opportunità reciproche, perché l'Europa, per restare competitiva sulla scena mondiale, necessita di persone altamente qualificate in diversi settori della ricerca e dell'innovazione.

Considero questa direttiva anche un importante tassello della politica di immigrazione europea, che segna la strada verso la migrazione legale guardando soprattutto ai giovani, in particolare studenti e ricercatori, promuovendo e sostenendo la mobilità intra ed extra europea.

 
  
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  Adam Szejnfeld (PPE). Panie Przewodniczący! Żyjemy w czasach globalizacji dobrobytu. Jej podstawą jest upowszechnianie oświaty, wiedzy i nauki. Działanie więc i dzielenie się wiedzą jest nie tylko inwestycją w kapitał ludzki, ale także budowaniem fundamentów rozwoju i wzrostu gospodarczego. To także budowanie mostów zaufania pomiędzy narodami innych państw a krajami starego kontynentu. Ludzie zdobywający bowiem wiedzę tu u nas w Unii Europejskiej, później stają się naturalnymi ambasadorami naszej kultury poza naszym kontynentem. Są to więc działania nie tylko prospołeczne, ale także nastawione na rzecz zwiększenia wzajemnego zrozumienia i tolerancji. Z tych też powodów proponowane przepisy należy zdecydowanie poprzeć.

 
  
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  Monika Flašíková Beňová (S&D). Predložená smernica zodpovedá potrebám, ktoré boli zistené v správach o vykonávaní predchádzajúcich dvoch smerníc, a to v záujme nápravy zistených nedostatkov. Dôležité je zabezpečenie právnej istoty, a najmä poskytnutie jednotného právneho rámca pre rôzne skupiny osôb prichádzajúcich do Európskej únie z tretích krajín. Existujúce ustanovenia je dôležité zjednodušiť a zahrnúť do jedného nástroja a smernica by sa mala zamerať aj na posilnenie kontaktov medzi ľuďmi, a to najmä vo vzťahu ku krajinám v rámci európskej susedskej politiky alebo ku strategickým partnerom Európskej únie.

Migrácia na účely stanovené v tejto smernici podporí vytváranie a získavanie poznatkov a zručností a s touto smernicou by sa mala Európska únia zatraktívniť aj ako miesto pre výskum a inovácie, čím by sa mohol dosiahnuť pokrok Únie v oblasti posilnenia celkovej konkurencieschopnosti a rastu. Ustanoveniami tejto smernice nie je dotknutá právomoc členských štátov regulovať rozsah prijímania štátnych príslušníkov tretích krajín na účely vykonávania práce, ale v súlade so zásadou proporcionality dosiahnuť na úrovni EÚ čo najlepšie podmienky.

 
  
 

Procedura catch-the-eye

 
  
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  Ivana Maletić (PPE). Gospođo predsjednice, jedan od indikatora konkurentnosti i razvijenosti društva i gospodarstva jest sposobnost privlačenja talenata, a mi smo predugo vremena zatvoreni i neatraktivni znanstvenicima i istraživačima.

U znanju možemo rasti samo ako ga dijelimo s drugima koji donose svoje ideje, inovacije i nove poglede nama. Kolegica Corazza Bildt izvrsno je istaknula da se ne trebamo bojati da će studenti i istraživači iz trećih zemalja oduzeti poslove našim mladima. Upravo suprotno – efekt će biti da će zajedno stvarati više novih radnih mjesta. To je sinergija za koju moramo biti otvoreni.

Predugo smo čekali, ali nikad nije kasno za dobra rješenja. Nova pravila mobilnosti studenata i istraživača iz država izvan EU-a jednostavna su i prilagođena njihovim potrebama. Konačno im šaljemo poruku dobrodošlice i veselim se zajedničkom radu s njima.

 
  
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  Silvia Costa (S&D). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, credo che la direttiva di oggi, dopo una lunga gestazione, grazie al lavoro del Parlamento finalmente crei condizioni e regole comuni perché studenti, ricercatori, tirocinanti, ma anche volontari e stagiaire di paesi terzi possano entrare e restare in Europa per studiare, ma anche per avviare un'attività.

Si danno garanzie comuni sui tempi minimi di permanenza, che potranno essere più lunghi per i ricercatori, sulla possibilità di fare qualche attività lavorativa per mantenersi, ma anche di portare i membri della propria famiglia. Questo è un primo importante passo per definire finalmente un quadro generale della mobilità globale nell'ambito dell'istruzione superiore, del volontariato e della ricerca, sulla base dell'esperienza positiva ma limitata nei numeri di Erasmus e di Erasmus mundus, ma anche per l'internazionalizzazione delle università, dei centri di ricerca e delle imprese europee.

Quindi non si tratta soltanto, come qualcuno ha detto, di una questione di immigrazione, ma si tratta finalmente di una nuova prospettiva, quella dell'internazionalizzazione, della competitività dell'Europa e di una cooperazione diversa, che ormai viene chiesta alle nostre università, alle imprese e ai centri di ricerca.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). Κύριε Πρόεδρε, σε μια φάση που η Ευρώπη έχει γεμίσει από στρατιές εκατομμυρίων ανέργων νέων, σε μια φάση που, με αφορμή τη διαπραγμάτευση της Βρετανίας, δρομολογείται περιορισμός των εργασιακών δικαιωμάτων των ίδιων των πολιτών της Ένωσης, σε μια φάση που πάνω από 200.000 νέοι επιστήμονες από την Ελλάδα και χιλιάδες άλλοι νέοι του ευρωπαϊκού Νότου μεταναστεύουν στις χώρες του σκληρού πυρήνα της Ένωσης, σε μια φάση που εκατοντάδες χιλιάδες πρόσφυγες και παράνομοι μετανάστες πλημμυρίζουν την Ελλάδα και τις άλλες χώρες της Ένωσης, συζητούμε τη νέα οδηγία και τις ρυθμίσεις οι οποίες δίνουν την ευκαιρία νόμιμης απασχόλησης, με χαμηλές αμοιβές, σε υπηκόους τρίτων χωρών οι οποίοι θα καλύπτουν τις λίγες διαθέσιμες θέσεις εργασίας στην Ευρώπη, την ώρα που χιλιάδες νέοι της Ελλάδας και των χωρών της ευρωπαϊκής περιφέρειας θα συνωστίζονται στις υπηρεσίες ευρέσεως εργασίας. Γνωρίζουμε καλά επίσης ότι στην Ελλάδα εργάζονται με μισθούς πείνας σε διάφορα ξενοδοχεία χιλιάδες υπήκοοι τρίτων χωρών, που κάνουν δήθεν πρακτική άσκηση, ενώ χιλιάδες Έλληνες ξενοδοχοϋπάλληλοι είναι άνεργοι. Αντιλαμβάνεστε ότι αυτό δεν μπορεί να γίνει αποδεκτό από τις ευρωπαϊκές κοινωνίες. Το ίδιο ισχύει και για την υπό συζήτηση οδηγία.

 
  
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  Milan Zver (PPE). – Jaz bi se pridružil kolegicam in kolegom, ki so že čestitali kolegici Wikström za pripravljeno poročilo o uredbi, ki se pripravlja.

V zvezi s tem bi govoril o mobilnosti mladih, ki se na novo odpirajo. To so nove možnosti za pridobivanje, vabljenje talentov, človeškega kapitala v Evropsko unijo, kjer se seveda lahko pustijo svojo dodano vrednost ali pa svoje znanje, veščine prenesejo nazaj v svoje domovine in tam prispevajo k razvoju svoje države.

Ta uredba je pomembna predvsem zaradi tega, ker je uravnotežena. Ne gre samo za poenotenje pravil v okviru Evropske unije, ki omogočajo mladim boljše življenje in delo v času študijske in delovne raziskovalne mobilnosti, ampak omogoča tudi državam članicam, ki so si pridržale diskrecijsko pravico zavrnitve vloge na podlagi individualne obravnave. Torej je zadoščeno obema pristopoma, obema kriterijema.

Jaz bi rad poudaril, da bo ta uredba dodatno vplivala na boljšo mobilnost zlasti naše populacije.

 
  
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  Seán Kelly (PPE). Mr President, I think this is an excellent proposal. The European Union rightly prides itself on being the biggest donor in humanitarian development aid in the world and we bring in migrants who are fleeing persecution, etc. But, on the other side of the coin, we actually deny ourselves the opportunity of helping the most talented people who, by coming here, can add value to what is happening in Europe and when – or if – they go back to their own country, they will add huge value back there in due course.

So this is a very sensible proposal. If you want to be the best, you must attract the best, and this is the best way of doing it: helping researchers, students, volunteers, etc. These are people with talent who can make a difference, and having them all together and creating an opportunity that creates jobs in itself and makes progress and innovation is a great idea.

 
  
 

(Fine della procedura catch-the-eye)

 
  
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  Dimitris Avramopoulos, Member of the Commission. Mr President, I do not need to repeat why it is really important that we have agreed to revise and update EU rules on foreign students and researchers. As the context on migration and mobility evolves, it is understood that so should our rules and policies.

The agreed text is a very important element of our overall migration approach. It sends the important signal that the European Union is a globally competitive and welcoming destination for much—needed students and researchers from abroad. At the same time, it provides for a clear legal framework which does not mix up other categories such as asylum seekers or refugees, and it does not touch on Member States’ competences to grant access to the labour market. This agreement is ambitious and balanced and will allow Europe to attract more talented students and researchers in the future who can contribute to our societies and to our economies.

As many of you have insisted on this, I will repeat that the Commission has insisted, together with you, that Member States’ discretionary powers with regard to rejecting an application may only be used when strictly necessary and justified, and we will of course be monitoring this. As I mentioned earlier, let us not forget that migration and mobility are also about empowerment, creativity and socio-economic development.

COMMISSION STATEMENT

Joint declaration by the European Parliament and the Commission on the grounds for rejection (Article 20)

The European Parliament and the Commission understand point (f) of Article 20(2) of this Directive as allowing Member States to reject an application only on a case-by-case basis and taking into account the specific circumstances of the third-country national and the principle of proportionality and on the basis of evidence or serious and objective reasons. The Commission will ensure that Member States implement this provision in line with this interpretation when transposing the Directive, and will inform the Parliament and the Council thereof, in the framework of its obligations under Article 39.

The European Parliament and the Commission consider that the inclusion of this provision in this Directive should not constitute a precedent for future legal migration instruments.

 
  
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  Cecilia Wikström, rapporteur. Mr President, we live in a globalised world where competitiveness between countries and continents is increasing. It is all about attracting the most skilled people: intellectuals, entrepreneurs and researchers. The EU must invest in intelligence, and this revised directive provides a lot of added value compared to the current directives. By improving the conditions for students and researchers, we are fostering growth and prosperity in the EU, and this is very much needed.

When we talk about migration today, we tend to talk about asylum migration, but asylum is just one part of the migration scheme. Legal migration is the second part, and this is one instrument of legal migration that is indeed needed. We need many more in order to strike the right balance between asylum and legal migration. Today’s achievement strengthens the academic status of European Union universities worldwide, it makes the EU more attractive, and it allows knowledge and excellence to flow more freely.

I am proud today of my team in this House. I am happy that this directive is one instrument that will foster growth and prosperity and give us hope for a better future, where entrepreneurs, innovators and researchers will help us to maintain our welfare all over the EU and also to increase and improve it. I am also happy that this is the first step in the right direction. There is much more to do, but we can do it and we can manage together.

Κύριε Επίτροπε, σας ευχαριστώ πάρα πολύ από την καρδιά μου.

 
  
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  Presidente. – La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà mercoledì 11 maggio 2016, alle ore 12.00.

(La seduta, sospesa alle 11.40, è ripresa alle 12.00)

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 162)

 
  
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  Vladimír Maňka (S&D), písomne. – Pokladám za zásadnú vec, aby Únia a členské štáty tvorili spoločné zásady prisťahovaleckej politiky, ktoré budú tvoriť základný štandard na pobyt, prácu a vzdelávanie osôb z tretích krajín, ktoré sa oprávnene zdržiavajú na území členských štátov. Predložený návrh smernice, ktorý upravuje pôvodné smernice z roku 2004 a 2005, dopĺňa doterajší zoznam oprávnených osôb o platených stážistov a aupairov. Zjednotením pravidiel pobytu pre oprávnené osoby a zjednotením udeľovania povolení a lehôt sa odstráni neistota a doterajšie rôznorodé procesné požiadavky pre oprávnené osoby, ktoré sa budú na území Únie oprávnene zdržiavať počas obdobia presahujúceho tri mesiace. Takouto podporou oprávneného pobytu týchto osôb z tretích krajín sa pomôže predísť ich prípadnej diskriminácii a vykorisťovaniu a poskytnú sa im garancie spravodlivého zaobchádzania, právnej ochrany a istoty. Zároveň sa zlepší komunikácia medzi členskými krajinami, podporí sa výmena a presun zručností s tretími krajinami a posilnia sa vzájomné hospodárske, kultúrne a sociálne vzťahy.

 
  
  

IN THE CHAIR: IOAN MIRCEA PAŞCU
Vice-President

 
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