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Procédure : 2015/2227(INI)
Cycle de vie en séance
Cycle relatif au document : A8-0163/2016

Textes déposés :

A8-0163/2016

Débats :

PV 06/06/2016 - 19
CRE 06/06/2016 - 19

Votes :

PV 07/06/2016 - 5.15
Explications de votes

Textes adoptés :

P8_TA(2016)0252

Débats
Lundi 6 juin 2016 - Strasbourg Edition révisée

19. La promotion de l'innovation et du développement économique en rapport avec une gestion agricole d'avenir pour l'Union européenne (brève présentation)
Vidéo des interventions
PV
 

Puhemies. – Esityslistalla on seuraavana lyhyt esittely Jan Huiteman mietinnöstä Innovoinnin ja talouskehityksen tehostaminen tulevaisuuden tilanhoidossa EU:ssa (2015/2227(INI)) (A8-0163/2016).

 
  
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  Jan Huitema, Rapporteur. – We praten hier altijd over problemen, maar één van de grotere oorzaken daarvan is vaak de politiek zelf. Er liggen juist enorme kansen en boeren willen die dolgraag benutten. Het is onze taak ze de ruimte te geven om die kansen te pakken. Daarover gaat mijn verslag.

Ik ben jullie, mijn collega's in de Commissie landbouw, dankbaar voor het harde werk dat ook jullie erin hebben gestoken om het verslag beter te maken. Klimaatverandering, dalende biodiversiteit, schaarste aan natuurlijke hulpbronnen zoals water en vruchtbare landbouwgronden en een groeiende resistentie van antibiotica: de wereld om ons heen verandert, met bijbehorende uitdagingen. Dit vraagt om nieuwe oplossingen.

De land- en tuinbouw kan die uitdaging aan. Door kennis en innovaties kunnen wij de groeiende wereldbevolking voeden met steeds beter voedsel en tegelijkertijd de milieueffecten en het dierenwelzijn verbeteren. Daar ben ik trots op. De land- en tuinbouw wordt nog te vaak gezien als iets ouderwets. Niets is minder waar. Onze trekkers rijden op gps, drones monitoren onze gewassen, afvalstromen zoals mest kunnen worden omgezet in waardevolle producten voor bemesting of energie, enzovoort. Ik zie het als mijn taak om de boeren te helpen van een verkeerd imago af te komen. De sector is in staat de wereld te voeden, het milieu te sparen en goed voor de dieren te zorgen. Dit kan alleen als we de boeren en tuinders de ruimte geven om te innoveren.

Dit is de hoofdboodschap van mijn verslag: ruim baan voor innovatie en ondernemerschap in de landbouwsector. Het potentieel van de sector wordt nog lang niet ten volle benut. Ondoordachte regelgeving zit nog te vaak in de weg. Boeren en tuinders kunnen veel meer dan ze nu mogen. Het is aan ons om de boeren die ruimte te geven en ons niet te laten leiden door groeperingen die van het zwartmaken van de boer en tuinder een bestaansrecht hebben gemaakt. Niemand kent zijn bedrijf beter dan de boeren of de tuinders zelf. Laat hen daarom meedenken over hoe we de gewenste doelen kunnen halen. Wij moeten hun het vertrouwen en de ruimte geven om nieuwe ideeën en innovaties toe te passen. Reken de boer en tuinder niet af op een checklist van maatregelen die van achter een bureau lijken te zijn bedacht, maar op de daadwerkelijke bijdrage voor mens, dier en milieu.

Te veel regels die we vandaag maken zijn morgen al weer verouderd. Zorg er dus voor dat er ruimte blijft voor nieuwe toepassingen, bijvoorbeeld door projecten een proefstatus te gunnen. Juist de landbouw heeft de potentie bij te dragen aan de economie van morgen door kringlopen te sluiten, slim gebruik te maken van de kracht van de natuur en aan te sluiten bij de digitale economie. Zo kunnen we plagen op een natuurlijke manier bestrijden door middel van insecten, onze producten tot op het bord volgen, consumenten een beter inzicht geven in de boerenpraktijk, maar ook CO2 binden in de bodem.

Mijn boodschap aan de Europese Commissie en de Europese landbouwministers is helder. De landbouw van morgen is gearriveerd, maar wij staan nog te vaak te treuzelen. Niet alleen de politiek, maar ook de sector moet de handschoen oppakken. Mijn verslag biedt meer dan genoeg mogelijkheden.

Morgen hoop ik dat al mijn collega's mij steunen in mijn expliciete oproep de boer centraal te stellen in het landbouwbeleid van morgen. Geef boeren en tuinders het vertrouwen en de ruimte en maak gebruik van hun expertise om zo het beste in onze boeren naar boven te halen.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye procedure

 
  
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  Marijana Petir (PPE). – Gospođo predsjednice, nastavak uspješne zajedničke poljoprivredne politike te zadržavanje dostatnosti proizvodnje hrane visoke kvalitete za europske potrošače ovisi i o inovacijama u poljoprivredi. Inovacije su potrebne u razvoju tehnika i tehnologija, ali i sustava financiranja te svih razina upravljanja, a sve kako bi poduprli sigurnost opskrbe hranom stanovnika Europe te pomogli održivosti ruralnih prostora Europe.

Zahvaljujem izvjestitelju jer je prihvatio moje amandmane, a time i naglasio u izvješću važnu ulogu malih i srednjih poljoprivrednih obiteljskih gospodarstava koja daju izniman doprinos stvaranju društveno i gospodarski živih ruralnih područja te očuvanju kulturne i prirodne baštine.

Nasuprot industrijskoj poljoprivrednoj proizvodnji kakvu vidimo na drugim kontinentima, europski način poljoprivrede gotovo je na osobnoj razini usmjeren prema potrošaču te je kao takav, u smislu njegove dodane vrijednosti, prepoznat na globalnom tržištu. Želim da takav odnos poljoprivrednih proizvođača i potrošača opstane te se i dalje razvija poduprt inovativnošću europske znanosti i gospodarstva.

 
  
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  Ricardo Serrão Santos (S&D). – Senhora Presidente, a inovação na agricultura exige suficiente investimento em investigação e desenvolvimento e o envolvimento dos agricultores na busca de soluções e na disseminação de resultados.

Soluções inovadoras como as que compreendem a agricultura de precisão devem estar ao serviço de todos os tipos de exploração, devem apresentar uma relação custo/oportunidade proporcional às capacidades financeiras das explorações de mais pequena dimensão, como é o caso daquelas que se situam em zonas mais remotas ou ultraperiféricas, onde a agricultura é uma atividade imprescindível para o emprego local.

A agricultura, para alimentar o mundo, deverá adaptar-se ao desafio das alterações climáticas e fazer um uso racional dos recursos disponíveis. Para tal, precisamos de soluções inovadoras com base na tecnologia e numa visão diferente de práticas tradicionais, no processo em que os agricultores devem estar no centro das atenções, como principais atores da mudança e objeto de formação adequada.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, ο εκσυγχρονισμός των μικρών παραδοσιακών και βιολογικών καλλιεργειών είναι η καλύτερη, ίσως και η μοναδική απάντηση στο αμερικανικό μοντέλο γεωργίας. Το αμερικανικό μοντέλο –αυτό που κάποιοι και μέσα στην Ευρώπη επιχειρούν να μας επιβάλουν μέσω της ΤΤΙΡ– είναι σίγουρα πολύ αποτελεσματικό μόνο για τους κολοσσούς του αγροτοδιατροφικού τομέα και τα λόμπι των μεγάλων παραγωγών, είναι όμως καταστροφικό για το περιβάλλον, την υγεία μας, τις μελλοντικές γενιές. Είναι καταστροφικό και για τα 25 εκατομμύρια αγρότες των χωρών της Ευρώπης, που στην πλειοψηφία τους επέλεξαν και κατάφεραν με σκληρούς αγώνες να διατηρήσουν μια άλλη οργάνωση της παραγωγής. Αντί λοιπόν να τραβάει το χαλί κάτω από τα πόδια τους, η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση πρέπει να στηρίξει αυτή την κληρονομιά. Δεν υπάρχει κανένας καλός συμβιβασμός για την ΤΤΙΡ. Το ευρωπαϊκό μοντέλο παραγωγής, στηριγμένο στη μικρή μονάδα, βρίσκεται στον αντίποδα αυτού που ζητούν οι αμερικανικές και ευρωπαϊκές πολυεθνικές. Σε μια εποχή που η βιωσιμότητα έχει καταστεί ζητούμενο και η δέσμευση των περισσότερων μεγάλων οικονομιών του πλανήτη υπάρχει, η καταστροφή του ευρωπαϊκού παραγωγικού ιστού θα αποτελέσει μέγιστο πισωγύρισμα.

 
  
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  Jasenko Selimovic (ALDE). – Madam President, innovation remains a key priority for meeting the biggest challenges faced by farming today. In the context of climate change, rising food demand, population growth and threats to the environment, we really need to support agricultural innovation in order to increase the productivity and sustainability of the sector. In other words, farmers will need to produce more with less in the future.

However, adoption of the new agricultural technologies by European farms has been modest until now. The challenge before us, Commissioner, is therefore to support the transfer of knowledge from researchers to farmers and to make use of innovative techniques by updating the relevant legislation, as well as the creation of new financing opportunities for farmers. Most of the farms of today have little in common with the farms of the 1950s and, if we get it right, the farms of 2050 will probably differ significantly from the farms of today.

 
  
  

IN THE CHAIR: ADINA-IOANA VĂLEAN
Vice-President

 
  
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  Jordi Sebastià (Verts/ALE). – Señora Presidenta, hablamos de algo tan importante para la agricultura como es la innovación. Sin duda, un elemento más, pero no el único, para intentar que el sector abandone la crisis en que está sumido y en la que tienen mucho que ver las políticas adoptadas por la Comisión Europea.

La innovación puede tener muchas perspectivas, y por eso quiero agradecer al ponente que haya dejado claro que innovación y sostenibilidad no están reñidas. Innovar quiere decir, también, apostar por una agricultura que se desenganche de la dependencia de los agroquímicos, que permita al agricultor ser más independiente y producir de forma más barata y que aproveche todo aquello que el respeto por la biodiversidad nos proporciona.

Apostar por una agricultura sostenible no es volver al pasado. Es encarar el futuro con responsabilidad, con investigación y con el objetivo de hacer de la agricultura eficaz y duradera una fuente de alimentación segura y permanente. Probablemente, lo más revolucionario y lo más innovador sea volver a aprovechar toda la fuerza que la naturaleza nos da y de la que nos hemos apartado durante mucho tiempo.

 
  
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  Tibor Szanyi (S&D). – Elnök Asszony! Valóban az új, innovatív nemesítési eljárásokkal kapcsolatban is fontosnak tarthatjuk, hogy minél hamarabb kapjunk állásfoglalást a Bizottságtól, hogy megelőzzünk egy megalapozatlan társadalmi elutasítást. Tudniillik, amikor a Bizottság maga folytat eljárást, az nem keverendő össze a GMO-k társadalmi fogadtatásával.

Másik fontos dolog, hogy kössük össze hatékonyabban a kutatásokat és a gyakorlatot. Ilyen tipikusan most a Parlament napirendjén szereplő glifozátnak az esete, amikor itt, csak ebben a teremben rengeteg innovatív javaslat mutatkozott és merült fel, hogy miként lehet a glifozátot helyettesíteni, ehhez képest a világ szinte nem változik, mert a farmerek úgysem fognak tudni arról, hogy mi a teendőjük. Ezért én azt gondolom, hogy a Bizottságnak sokkal nagyobb energiát kell fordítania arra, hogy a megszerzett innovációkat valóban el tudjuk juttatni az egyes gazdálkodókhoz, a farmerekhez.

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, un'agricoltura efficiente ed innovativa è fondamentale per affrontare al meglio le sfide sul piano della sostenibilità cui si confrontano quotidianamente le imprese agricole. L'impresa agricola moderna non è legata solo alla produzione di beni, bensì al concetto di multifunzionalità, trasformazione dei prodotti, vendita diretta, fattorie didattiche, agriturismo. Sono favorevole all'adozione di sistemi di gestione basati sulle tecnologie dell'informazione e delle comunicazioni, sul monitoraggio dei dati in tempo reale, sulla tecnologia dei sensori e sull'impiego di sistemi di rilevazione per l'ottimizzazione dei sistemi di produzione o dell'agricoltura di precisione. Tali azioni condurranno a un migliore controllo delle fasi produttive e a una maggiore resa delle culture. Sono pertanto un profondo sostenitore dello sviluppo di pratiche agricole moderne. Ritengo infatti che esse possano contribuire fortemente a rendere l'agricoltura più attrattiva per i giovani agricoltori ed è per questo che ritengo che la Commissione debba fare di più per favorire l'innovazione in agricoltura.

 
  
 

(End of catch-the-eye procedure)

 
  
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  Phil Hogan, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, I would like to thank the rapporteur, Mr Huitema, for drafting and presenting his report on enhancing innovation and economic development in future European farm management. From a number of conversations I have had with Mr Huitema, I am well aware of his interest in, and support for, innovation and agriculture. Indeed it is something of which I too am very supportive.

The challenges facing our sector are such that a greater focus on innovation is essential, and I am pleased to say is happening. Why is innovation so important? Innovation allows the sector to develop new products, new production methods and services, to respond to challenges like climate change, and to address other societal challenges, particularly in the environment, as well as addressing issues around our competitiveness.

We are all increasingly conscious of the need to ensure food security and of the need for a greater focus on more sustainable food production. Mr Huitema has outlined very effectively the main thrust of his report and the proposals that he is making. I have taken very careful note of the many actions which the Commission is asked to take in relation to the issues raised, whether that is in relation to ICT-based management systems, the need to reduce the use of antimicrobials, or the need to stimulate integrated pest management.

In relation to those areas in which the Commission is urged to act, I would like to underline the importance of subsidiarity. In many such areas, local conditions require local solutions, and the Commission is not automatically best placed to address all of these issues. Therefore the relevant level of policy intervention may be national or regional. I welcome the acknowledgment in the report that agriculture has always developed new practices and techniques, and I agree also that innovation is a prerequisite for maintaining this progress.

Perhaps it is useful to recall how innovation is addressed in the current policy mix. Both rural development policy and our research policy under Horizon 2020 stimulate and support innovation. Horizon 2020 is the European Union’s framework programme for research and innovation and a majority of support for agriculture and forestry, research and innovation, will be granted under societal challenge too, which includes food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine and maritime issues, and inland water research and the bio-economy. Under our work programmes in 2016 and 2017 for societal challenge 2, in the relevant part in the Horizon 2020 policy, you will also see that we have already addressed many of the issues that are raised in the report. I think that under our work programmes of 2016 and 2017 you will see that Horizon 2020 has the largest research budget ever, with nearly EUR 80 billion funding available for 2014 until 2020, and EUR 3.7 billion euros are allocated to the relevant heading: societal challenge 2. But this is co-managed and co-shared by the Director General of Agricultural and Rural Development and the Director General for Research and Innovation.

The total budget for DG AGRI under Horizon 2020 for seven years is EUR 1.5 billion. Four years of Horizon 2020 activities have already been programmed, from 2014 to 2017, representing on the agriculture side 71 topics for a budget of EUR 617 million financing, which is financing an expected 112 projects. 14 have started in April 2015, 22 are scheduled to start in the upcoming months, with others still to be submitted.

In the last three years of the Horizon 2020, which is 2018-2020, will be programmed at once by September 2017. Out of the 118 rural development programmes, 94 will support the EIP actions in the current programing period. We also expect 3200 pilot projects to be implemented in 24 Member States.

I note that the draft report is concerned about a fragmented implementation of the EIP under the rural development programmes. However, I believe that this is its strength. It is thanks to the subsidiarity engrained in the rural development policy that we can reach out across the whole of Europe with projects that are locally appropriate. We think that the current policy mix is a good one, because you cannot have ‘one size fits all’.

We should always look critically at our instruments and policies to see whether we can improve them, and I will be glad to do. Last week I attended the informal meeting of European Union agriculture ministers in Mr Huitema’s native country. While there, I and the Ministers visited the STEK food exhibition in Eindhoven. The exhibition was dedicated to innovation in food production and consumption. While there we saw several very exciting and innovative uses of technology in crop and other food production. I think all of us were impressed with what we saw because it is representative of many of the issues you have raised here this evening: the practical application at farm level of the development of technology and the investment in and value of innovation. One needed nothing more to realise the importance of the issues that have been raised this evening in Mr Huitema’s report.

 
  
 

President. – The debate is closed.

 
  
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  Viorica Dăncilă (S&D), în scris. – Felicit raportorul pentru acest raport complex. De când există agricultură, practicile agricole au cunoscut schimbări fie structurale, fie legate de procesul de producție, iar aceste schimbări au făcut din sectorul agricol unul dintre cele mai dinamice sectoare economice, practicile agricole contemporane fiind de ultimă generație. Consider importantă elaborarea unor strategii care să prevină și să atenueze consecințele negative la nivelul agriculturii în Uniunea Europeană, prin următoarele măsuri: un plan de acțiune în zonele cele mai afectate, folosirea unor soiuri de plante rezistente la noii parametri climatici, adaptarea calendarului activităților agricole la noile condiții, împăduririle, construcția de sere, gestionarea resurselor de apă din agricultură, ecologizarea terenurilor poluate, precum și un plan de viitor pentru eliminarea cauzelor care conduc la schimbările climatice prin promovarea unei economii globale bazate pe emisii reduse de CO2, corelată cu o promovare a securității energiei.

 
  
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  Norbert Erdős (PPE), írásban. – Javaslom, hogy szavazatukkal támogassák a Huitema-jelentés elfogadását. A mezőgazdaság mindig kifejlesztett olyan új gyakorlatokat, technikákat és termelési módszereket, amelyek növelték a terméshozamot, javították a mezőgazdasági gyakorlatoknak az új és változó körülményekhez való alkalmazkodóképességét, és csökkentették a termelési költségeket. A mezőgazdaság és az erdészet a világunk kulcsfontosságú része, amely az élelmiszer-termelésen túlmenő javakat és szolgáltatásokat nyújt, és amely új fejlesztések elősegítésével erősíthető. Úgy látom, hogy az innováció e fejlődés fenntartásának előfeltétele.

 
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