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Martedì 13 settembre 2016 - Strasburgo Edizione rivista

12. Vertice ad alto livello delle Nazioni Unite dedicato alle modalità per affrontare i grandi spostamenti di rifugiati e migranti (discussione)
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President. The next item is the debate on the statement by the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy on the UN High-level Summit on addressing large movements of refugees and migrants (2016/2878(RSP)).

 
  
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  Federica Mogherini, VPC/HR. – Madam President, first of all, thank you for this debate. I know that you are always surprised to have a ‘thank you for this debate’, but I really think that it is important that we have issues on the agenda regularly and I have always noticed that the European Parliament has kept a constant focus on migration. I am sure you will remember this very well: just two years ago, migration was very low on our common European agenda, both here in Europe and globally, and this year it will be one of, or maybe the, central issue of the UN General Assembly.

So let me say, maybe it’s stating the obvious today, but looking backwards, it was not obvious at that time. There is a new global awareness and an understanding that migration can only be dealt with as a global issue. It is not an issue for one country or another, it is a global issue that needs a global response. And this is happening, this new global awareness, also because there is a new European awareness. We came a bit late, but we got there. So for sure this is linked to the magnitude of the phenomenon that touched the European continent, but I would say that finally we woke up to the ‘new normal’ of global migratory trends and in the last months I believe we have shaped an adequate external policy to manage this complex phenomenon on a global level.

So our approach is feeding into the global approach in the last months in quite a significant way. Our work in the European Union, especially on our external site, is becoming in these months, in these weeks, a point of reference for the global community. And again if I look back and think that when I took office less than two years ago migration was not even an issue or a topic for the Foreign Affairs Council, we have come quite a long way.

Today, we have some – some – elements of our policy that are points of reference for the global response, to the need to manage together the migratory flows. Operation Sophia has been repeatedly endorsed by the United Nations Security Council resolutions. The same concept of migration compacts or migration partnerships that we have started last June is reflected in and will be central to our discussions next week in New York in the General Assembly ministerial week.

The declaration for refugees and migrants that we will adopt in New York is consistent with many of the actions we are currently putting in place – currently and finally I would say, putting in place. The declaration sets out an immediate comprehensive refugee response framework, which should lead to a global compact for refugees. This parallel of global compacts with our compacts, our partnerships, I believe are the result of European thinking that was somehow contaminated by, and contaminated itself, the global thinking in quite a relevant way. In parallel it outlines the process towards a truly global management of migrations with a future compact for safe, regular and orderly migration.

So the logic is to look beyond the current ‘refugee crisis’ as we have called it in the last year, realising that this is not only something that is happening here and now in our region, but is, as I said, the new normal of global trends. We have to look beyond this crisis approach. We even need to look beyond the other refugee crises happening in other parts of the world, with countries such as Ethiopia or Kenya hosting huge numbers of displaced people.

Migration will stay with us, and this is I know something that some of you in this room, and some of our citizens, do not like to hear, but this is a simple reality of today’s world. In a world of 7 billion people with rising inequalities, with dramatically diverse demographic trends, migration is the new normal; and if properly managed, let me remind you of something that is also some of you might not like to hear, and some of our citizens might not like to hear, but if properly managed it can bring about great opportunities for those who leave, for those who stay and for those who welcome.

And we need to face also with a certain realism our own European demographic trends and realise that we need and we will continue to need migration. So it is not something we need to stop, it is something we need to manage, and manage properly in an orderly way, in a way that is respectful of human rights and can become mutually beneficial.

So this is not simply about how we manage our frontiers. This is something that touches on many different other aspects, much more in-depth. We need investments, first of all, and both on refugees and on the wider issue of migration our Union is finally investing new resources in innovative ways – and I will come to that in a moment.

But I want to be very clear. I started with things I am proud of, the things that we are bringing to the global stage, our concept of partnerships, of compacts, or investment. In our response to the refugee crisis and the migratory phenomenon there is also a lot I am really not proud of, and I will be also clear about that. I am not proud of the hate campaign we have seen around Europe, I am not proud of the walls. I am not proud of discriminations based on race or religion. And we have to be clear also on that if we want to be credible on the global scene.

I believe many were caught by surprise when the refugee crisis arrived in Europe to such an extent. I understand that many are scared. But we have also shown that we can manage both the emergency and the long-term challenge.

So to go back to the things I’m proud of, because I believe that in these times we need a bit to focus also on what we’re good at: I’m proud of the unity we have shown in creating and running together Operation Sophia. I’m proud of the lives we’ve saved. I’m proud that we’ve mobilised incredible resources, especially to build schools and hospitals but especially on education for refugees. I’m proud that we’re finding innovative tools, from debit cards to the migration compacts, to help millions of refugees in Turkey, Jordan and Lebanon.

And the same goes for our long-term approach. This is something I’m finally proud of. The world is changing fast and we couldn’t just stick to the old way of doing things. So we’ve started to change the way of doing our things. I know that most of the debate around this has been focused, in our Member States in particular, on the issue of returns and readmissions, and that is indeed part of our policies. But readmission, obviously, is important to move towards a better system for human mobility, to make it sustainable, providing better channels for legal migration, and discouraging or preventing dangerous travels through the desert or at sea.

I remember we had a very heated exchange here in this Chamber a couple of months ago about this, and I always recall that I witnessed myself first-hand the great work we do in countries like Ethiopia for the reintegration of women who were reduced to slavery after they fled their home country. So this is something we always have to keep in mind, and something I’m proud of.

But as I said, readmissions are only one part of our approach, and I would say maybe not the fundamental one. Because if anyone believes that we can solve the issue of migration by sending everyone back, that person needs a reality check and would be proven to be wrong. We need to work hard within the countries of origin and to look beyond the short term.

As I said, readmissions and returns are an important part of our policy, but it is only one part. We need to look at the causes of the huge migratory movements we’re facing in the world, and we need to tackle them where they are. This is the reason why we are investing in a new approach based on partnership.

As I see our African friends are now truly willing to engage with us and to take responsibility, with a new true commitment to a common shared approach to manage migration properly and together, we’re opening somehow a new chapter, I think, based on partnership. And this is not happening without a reason. There is this global awareness shaping up between those who understand that migration is there to stay and has to be managed together. And this is the new global context we are living in. This new global context also requires from our side creativity, respect and the ability to bring about new instruments.

Public resources alone will never be sufficient, in an era of harder financial constraints even more so, but our funds can help mobilise private investors and international institutions towards shared strategic goals, and this is the core idea behind our new External Investment Plan which we have just established today. European firms are already employing hundreds of thousands of people, in Africa but also in our neighbouring countries, generating wealth both in those continents, in those countries, and here at home. But to expand business or to move into a new country, often a very difficult one, they need security and protection from risks, be it financial, legal or due to instability. So we can provide them with a guarantee, and this is what the new investment plan will do. We are getting to establish new tools for dealing with an unprecedented challenge, we are changing our mind-sets, and this is quite difficult to do but finally I believe we might get there. We’re building new partnerships beyond the traditional fault lines, beyond a donor-recipient mentality, beyond the traditional divide between public and private, and even beyond the North and South divide, because we are together in this, so that’s why the partnership approach is so crucial.

Ultimately we are calling for a global partnership to deal with migration, and the UN summit will be an important step in this direction. This can be the beginning of a new path, also for the UN approach to migration and refugees. But for the first time in history, 193 countries will gather together and commit to a common approach to migration. And this is already a major achievement, determined also, I would say mainly through the contribution of the European Union.

Now we will need to ensure that intentions are turned into actions, and that our European Union process feeds into a global engagement to shape up the world’s migration system. We do count also on Parliament to make this a reality, and to continue engaging with us on the follow-up to the UN summit in New York. It is an opportunity, it is an opportunity that Europeans cannot miss, and Europe can and must lead the process, also following up the UN summit in New York towards a global partnership on migration.

But let me stress here again, we can play this key role on the international, global level on creating this new global compact for migration, first if we are consistent internally, second if we are united in this approach. And here comes also the role of Parliament. I believe that no matter if you come from the right or the left, from Portugal or Finland, or from the far East or the far West of the European Union, we all share an interest to make migration managed, properly managed and sustainable, and to invest in our neighbours’ development, and when I say neighbours I include the whole continent of Africa which is our neighbour. So I really count on your support. But more than that, let me say, I count on your work. And I especially look forward to reading your report to move towards a system for human mobility that is fit for the 21st century.

(Applause)

 
  
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  Mariya Gabriel, au nom du groupe PPE. – Madame la Présidente, Madame la Haute représentante, chers collègues, permettez-moi d'en venir directement au fond du sujet, au-delà de l'importance même de la convocation de ce sommet.

Je souhaite souligner certains aspects sur lesquels l'Union européenne devrait insister lors du sommet. Premier point, l'aide internationale doit être renforcée pour les communautés d'accueil. Cet engagement du sommet devra se concrétiser au plus vite et à un niveau suffisant dans la crise actuelle des réfugiés syriens.

Deuxièmement, je me réjouis qu'une place importante soit faite aux femmes réfugiées non seulement en tant que personnes vulnérables, mais aussi en tant que porteuses de changement et d'avenir. Favoriser l'autonomisation des femmes, c'est investir dans la reconstruction et la stabilisation du pays d'origine.

Ensuite, je trouve encourageant que la gestion des frontières et le démantèlement des réseaux criminels de trafic des migrants soient pris au sérieux. Il nous faut mécanisme clair pour la coopération entre les pays d'origine, de transit et de destination. Renseignements et analyse des routes, contrôle des frontières et perspectives d'avenir pour les migrants sont trois éléments clés pour promouvoir l'immigration sûre, fluide et régulière.

Quatrième remarque: le document du sommet doit être renforcé concernant les causes profondes et l'anticipation des mouvements. Je pense notamment à la prévention des conflits et aux effets du changement climatique sur les mouvements de personnes.

Enfin, le projet de document reconnaît les initiatives régionales existantes telles que les processus de Rabat et de Khartoum et le plan d'action de La Valette. L'UE doit s'assurer qu'effectivement ces initiatives seront pleinement prises en compte au niveau global et un calendrier clair assorti pour la mise en œuvre sera le bienvenu.

 
  
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  Elena Valenciano, en nombre del Grupo S&D. – Señora Presidenta, muchas gracias, señora Alta Representante. Tal y como se afirma en la declaración, que será aprobada en Nueva York, los fenómenos migratorios no son nuevos, han existido a lo largo de toda la historia y, por cierto, han sido un elemento imprescindible en el progreso humano.

Es cierto que hoy el mundo vive un momento extraordinario y por eso mismo tenemos que responder con acciones extraordinarias, como esta Cumbre de las Naciones Unidas, que debe ser una cita histórica para que estemos a la altura de las circunstancias y necesidades actuales y, tal vez, a la altura de la respuesta que se dio hace más de seis décadas, cuando la comunidad internacional supo firmar la Convención sobre el Estatuto de los Refugiados, crear el ACNUR, crear la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones.

Pero quiero subrayar la necesidad de que esto se aborde desde una perspectiva humana. Parece mentira que haya que recordarlo, pero así es. Humana, que sitúe la protección de los derechos humanos en el centro de su acción, sin que importe el estatus personal: los migrantes, los refugiados son seres humanos, eso es lo que son. Y la Unión Europea, como decía la Alta Representante, debe jugar un papel de liderazgo.

Tal vez seríamos más visibles si diéramos mejor ejemplo con nuestras prácticas, si cumpliéramos con la palabra dada y con nuestras propias normas. Pero sabemos también dónde está el verdadero problema y sabemos de los esfuerzos de la Comisión y de la Alta Representante.

El verdadero problema de esta Unión, que se está resquebrajando, es la acción insolidaria de muchísimos Gobiernos de los Estados miembros, descoordinada, miope y muchas veces desleal. Esto tenemos que resolverlo dentro.

La cita en Nueva York, el 19 de septiembre, y la Cumbre del día después con el Presidente Obama deben marcar un antes y un después. Deben ser el inicio de una respuesta global a un fenómeno que es global, el de la movilidad humana —de eso hablamos, de la movilidad humana—, que, por el bien de todos, debemos ordenar, respetar y gestionar de forma solidaria para ser todos más dignos.

 
  
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  Charles Tannock, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Madam President, last year over a million people arrived on the shores of Europe from Africa, the Middle East and beyond, an unprecedented figure that has focused the debate. This can lead some to view this as an isolated and regional phenomenon rather than a global issue, but we only have to look at Jordan and Lebanon to realise that mass movements are occurring across the globe.

It is a mistake, however, to believe that the patterns, motivations and effects are always the same. As has always been the case throughout human history, military conflicts of course make individuals flee for safety just as horrible regimes encourage those to escape persecution.

But seeking better employment and economic prospects is also no less of a natural motivation to move elsewhere. However, as poverty levels decrease across the world, the financial means for more and more people in the developing world to do this increases.

In my view, the 1951 UN Convention on Refugees is no longer adequate or fit for purposes. In my opinion, we need to accommodate this emerging phenomenon, particularly in a world of mass communications and accentuated wealth disparity, by looking at the Convention again. It is therefore imperative for the UN Summit to look at this, in addition to state building, sustainable development and conflict prevention.

 
  
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  Cecilia Wikström, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Madam President, according to the UNHCR, more than 85% of the 60 million refugees in the world live in developing countries. That should be kept in mind when we are discussing the 1.5 million refugees who made it last year to this continent. Migration is a global issue and therefore I am very happy that the United Nations has now decided to call for the summit next week. I am personally happy to lead the LIBE delegation there. I look forward to working closely with the Commission and European players in ensuring its success.

Europe has a proud history of granting asylum and defending the fundamental rights of migrants. During these last years, however, we have seen how rising tides of xenophobia and populism have also had a detrimental effect on the European debate. We have unfortunately seen how principles of asylum law, such as the respect of non-refoulement, the right to family reunification and the right to apply for asylum have come under pressure in the European Union as well. During the summit I hope that we can once again unite around the principles of humanity and tolerance that were the basis for the creation of the Geneva Convention and other international standards for the protection of refugees.

We must also be much better at tackling the root causes that force people to flee in the first place. But, as long as there are human beings who need protection, those of us who are lucky enough to live in places that people flee to rather than from, need to take our responsibilities seriously. Again I encourage all of us in the global approach to migration and I am happy that we are, as a delegation, participating in the UN summit.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 162(8))

 
  
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  Tibor Szanyi (S&D), Kékkártyás kérdés. – Képviselő Asszony, Ön említette, hogy örül, hogy részese lehet ennek a delegációnak. 19-ig azért nagyon-nagyon kevés idő van. És azt is említette persze, hogy itt az Európai Unió tagországain belül sem egyértelmű a kérdéshez való hozzáállás, de – és ez egy őszinte kérdés – mit fog Ön válaszolni egy olyan kérdésre, hogy jó-jó, vannak tagországi kormányok, amelyek csúnyán viselkednek, de mit tesz a többi tagállam e renitens tagállamokkal szemben?

 
  
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  Cecilia Wikström (ALDE), blue-card answer. – I would respond that we are in the process, it is work in progress that we are now trying to shape up a good policy for migration and refugees, where every Member State has to take its part of the responsibility. I am personally the rapporteur for the Dublin Regulation that is under reform at this moment, and I am happy to convey a message that Europe prevails, a humanitarian continent, a humanitarian Union, and that the good principles still do prevail even if they are challenged from time to time.

 
  
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  Marie-Christine Vergiat, au nom du groupe GUE/NGL. – Madame la Présidente, ce sommet de l'ONU est effectivement un sommet d'espoir. Depuis des mois, l'ONU et ses différentes instances alertent sur la situation des migrants, et le moins que l'on puisse dire, c'est que les États les plus riches du monde ne sont pas à la hauteur.

Le nombre de réfugiés, plus encore de déplacés, atteint des chiffres inégalés. Parmi eux, un nombre insupportable d'enfants. Cinquante millions, selon l'Unicef, ont fui guerre, conflits internes, misère, changement climatique et, plus largement, environnementaux, car la main de l'homme est souvent derrière nombres de catastrophes naturelles.

Les États membres répondent par toujours plus de demandes de contrôles aux frontières et de chasse aux migrants dits économiques alors que la frontière entre réfugiés et migrants est de plus en plus difficile à établir et que la migration légale vers l'Union européenne diminue. L'année dernière, un million de personnes, dont plus d'un tiers d'enfants, ont traversé la Méditerranée, 0,2 % de de la population européenne contre 20 % au Liban par exemple.

Madame la Haute représentante, même le mécanisme de relocalisation ne marche pas, moins de 5 000 personnes accueillies en un an, pour 160 000 annoncées. À ce rythme-là, il faudra plus de 30 ans pour atteindre l'objectif fixé pour 2 ans – qui est loin d'être à la hauteur des besoins – et il y aura en fin d'année plus de morts en Méditerranée que l'année dernière.

Je n'ai pas le temps de parler des conséquences des mobilisations de toutes les politiques extérieures de l'Union, des accords de partenariat économique, du Fonds européen de développement utilisé pour l'externalisation de la gestion des frontières, y compris avec les pires dictatures, notamment de la Corne de l'Afrique. Un exemple: 50 Soudanais renvoyés récemment d'Italie directement vers le Soudan.

L'ONU appelle à la responsabilité et à la solidarité. L'Union européenne doit veiller à ce que ses États membres passent à des actions qui soient réellement conformes aux besoins mondiaux, notamment en Afrique où, je le rappelle, 85 % des migrations sont intra-africaines.

 
  
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  Bodil Valero, för Verts/ALE-gruppen. – Fru talman! Jag hade hoppats att vi hade haft både en debatt och en resolution idag eller under veckan, så att vi också kunde ge vår input till FN-mötet här från parlamentet. Men en debatt är bättre än ingenting alls.

När de stora strömmarna flyktingar från krigets Syrien började anlända till Europa stod vi med byxorna nere. Det fanns ingen beredskap, och det visade sig också att vissa länder inte visade någon som helst solidaritet vare sig med flyktingarna eller med andra medlemsstater. Med dåligt beredda ad hoc-åtgärder försökte vi lösa akuta problem. Därför är FN-mötet så viktigt. Vi måste lösa denna fråga gemensamt.

Omkring 60 miljoner människor i världen befinner sig ju på flykt, inte bara från krig, utan även från fattigdom, politiskt förtryck, klimatpåverkan. Om vi inte på allvar tar itu med grundorsakerna, så kommer de bara att bli fler och fler.

De som flyr fattigdom är inte mindre värda än de som flyr krig, men de har inget rättsligt skydd. Det är dessa människor som medlemsstaterna nu snabbt vill skicka hem igen. Till fortsatt fattigdom, till fortsatt förtryck, till fortsatt torka. De kommer inte att försvinna bara för att vi väljer att ta emot bara de vi enligt Genève-konventionen måste ta emot. Risken är att vi skapar stora grupper papperslösa i Europa framöver och i världen.

De flesta lämnar faktiskt inte sina hem för att de vill utan för att de måste. Om vi menar allvar, måste vi börja med att hjälpa människor att slippa migrera när de inte vill det – både när det gäller dem som flyr fattigdom och dem som flyr krig.

 
  
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  James Carver, on behalf of the EFDD Group. – Madam President, I am pleased that the UN General Assembly will shortly be debating the issue of migration and refugees, as this matter must be looked at from a truly global perspective.

There are many international laws and norms that clarify refugee rights, and these must be adhered to by all nations. Last summer’s tragic waste of life could have been avoided if Chancellor Merkel had not made the reckless decision to open Germany, and thus the rest of the Schengen area, to all who could physically make it to its borders. As we know, the wave of people taking up this call also allowed for infiltration from terrorists opposed to Western values. President Erdoğan has used the migration crisis to pull the European Union’s strings. Many concessions have been made, notably in visa liberalisation and Turkish EU accession talks. Opinion polls in Hungary show 70% to 80% opposition to this migration deal. The EU must learn to respect the opinions of such citizens or risk further fragmentation.

Now the UK is looking beyond the European Union, the need for mutual cooperation and cordial relations is nowhere more apparent than in affairs of migration and refugees. The UK, France and the Republic of Ireland must continue to cooperate effectively on our mutual borders and avoid any unnecessary and punitive restrictions on UK-EU travel arrangements.

 
  
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  Gerolf Annemans, namens de ENF-Fractie. – Ja, mevrouw de commissaris, staat u mij toe. Ik ben het niet met u eens. Als u zegt dat we immigratie nodig hebben, dan ben ik het niet met u eens. Stop alstublieft met de new speak en met het gebruik van het woord “vluchtelingen”. Vanmorgen zijn in Sleeswijk-Holstein en Nedersaksen zogenaamde vluchtelingen uit hun vluchtelingenkamp gehaald, omdat het IS-terroristen bleken te zijn. Ook Die Welt am Sonntag heeft in het weekend in een reportage onthuld dat Irakezen en Syriërs met hun reiskoffer naar hun land terugreizen, hoewel ze hier als vluchteling geregistreerd zijn. Ik ben niet diegene die zegt dat alle immigranten terroristen zijn, maar houdt u alstublieft op met te zeggen dat het allemaal vluchtelingen zijn. Natuurlijk, u hebt dat morele sausje nodig: vluchtelingen, het redden van levens op zee en dergelijke meer. Maar het zou minder hypocriet en eerlijker van u zijn indien u gewoon de waarheid zou zeggen, namelijk: “Wij van de Europese Commissie hebben over de hoofden van u, Europese burgers, beslist een volksvervanging te organiseren. Wij hebben beslist dat u ongevraagd met een immigratie te maken krijgt, de grootste en de wildste immigratie en de massa-immigratie met de grootste impact uit de geschiedenis van dit continent.” Dat zou u moeten zeggen. Daarvoor zou u de eerlijkheid moeten hebben en daartoe roep ik u op.

 
  
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  Λάμπρος Φουντούλης ( NI). – Κυρία πρόεδρε, είναι τουλάχιστον θετικό το γεγονός ότι έχετε αρχίσει να παραδέχεστε ως πρόβλημα που χρειάζεται λύση τις μαζικές μετακινήσεις προσφύγων και λαθρομεταναστών. Ακούγαμε πολλούς πολιτικούς ηγέτες, ακόμα και μέσα σε αυτήν εδώ την αίθουσα, να λένε πως οι μετανάστες θα λύσουν το πρόβλημα της γήρανσης των λαών της Ευρώπης, πως θα συμβάλουν στην οικονομική μας ανάπτυξη. Θα θυμάστε και εσείς ασφαλώς τις στημένες γραφικές εκδηλώσεις με τα συνθήματα στη Γερμανία «καλώς ήρθατε πρόσφυγες». Τα αποτελέσματα των πρόσφατων εκλογών σε κάποιες ευρωπαϊκές χώρες μας δείχνουν πως οι λαοί έχουν διαφορετική άποψη από αυτήν που θα θέλατε να έχουν. Φοβισμένοι λοιπόν μην τυχόν χάσετε τις έδρες και τα προνόμιά σας, αρχίσατε πλέον να αντιμετωπίζετε την κατάσταση όπως πραγματικά είναι. Βασισμένοι σε ιδεολογικές εμμονές, προσπαθείτε να δώσετε μια προπαγανδιστική και όχι ανθρωπιστική λύση, ενώ στην πράξη συνεχίζεται η αθρόα και παράνομη προσέλευση απελπισμένων από κάθε γωνιά της υφηλίου.

Αρχικά, όσον αφορά τις πρόσφυγες, ο χαρακτηρισμός αυτός πρέπει να δίνεται σε όσους προβλέπεται αλλά να ισχύει μόνο στη χώρα υποδοχής. Να μη γίνονται χώρες, όπως η Ελλάδα και η Ιταλία, αποθήκες ανθρώπινων ψυχών. Ως χώρα υποδοχής δεν μπορεί να είναι άλλη από την πρώτη χώρα στην οποία εισέρχονται οι πρόσφυγες. Όλες οι χώρες πρέπει να συνεισφέρουν οικονομικά στα έξοδα που απαιτούνται ώστε να τους εξασφαλίζεται μια ανθρώπινη διαβίωση για όσον καιρό παραμένουν εκεί, και να ασκούν πολιτικές πιέσεις με σκοπό τον τερματισμό της κατάστασης που τους ανάγκασε να γίνουν πρόσφυγες. Όνειρο του κάθε πρόσφυγα είναι να επιστρέψει στην πατρίδα του. Οι οικονομικοί μετανάστες να μπορούν να έρχονται μόνο μετά από την εκδήλωση ενδιαφέροντος, οι δε παράνομοι θα πρέπει αμέσως να απελαύνονται πίσω στις χώρες τους. Εάν δεν σταματήσουν οι πόλεμοι και επιτρέπουμε στις μεγάλες εταιρείες να εκμεταλλεύονται απάνθρωπα τους λαούς των αναπτυσσόμενων χωρών δεν θα μπορέσει ποτέ να υπάρξει πραγματική λύση.

 
  
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  Jiří Pospíšil (PPE). – Paní předsedající, paní vysoká představitelko, já jsem si se zájmem poslechl Vaše vystoupení k tomuto bodu. Já jsem osobně velmi rád, že se koná takovýto summit, který má řešit příčiny migrace a nejenom důsledky a následná opatření. Zde, na půdě Evropského parlamentu, v zásadě pouze debatujeme o tom, jak řešit následky migračních vln, a to zkrátka je málo, protože následnými opatřeními migraci nikdy nevyřešíme, ani její toky nesnížíme.

Jsem přesvědčen, že klíčem má být práce se zeměmi, odkud migranti primárně přicházejí. Bude nutné mít cílené investice do těchto zemí, pomáhat lidem v zemích tak, aby neměli důvod k velkým migračním vlnám. Bude to velmi složité najít konkrétní podobu, zvláště když se podíváme třeba na dnešní dopolední jednání, byla zde debata o svěřeneckém fondu pro Afriku, kde zkrátka chybí peníze. Takže najít konkrétní řešení, jak pomoci zemím, odkud lidé migrují, to má být podle mne cílem Vašeho jednání na summitu.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes (S&D). – Senhora Presidente, a Cimeira das Nações Unidas sobre Refugiados e Migrantes será teste à cooperação para responder ao maior desafio global que enfrentamos: o de valer a milhões de pessoas forçadas a deixar os seus países em busca de proteção e dignidade.

Governos europeus - uns mais que outros - não têm estado à altura das suas obrigações morais e legais como membros da União Europeia. Refugiados e migrantes estão a sofrer às portas da Europa e em solo europeu horrendas violações dos direitos humanos, em especial mulheres e menores desacompanhados. Milhares entregam as suas vidas a redes de traficantes e de outra criminalidade organizada, que os nossos governos fazem prosperar ao recusar abrir vias legais e seguras para quem precisa de pedir asilo ou trabalho. Assim se põe em causa não apenas a credibilidade, mas, realmente, a própria segurança da Europa.

O processo de recolocação decidido pelo Conselho Europeu marca passo, só 3 000 de 160 000 pessoas foram reinstaladas. Há seis meses que um grupo de 470 Yazidis desespera perto de Idomeni, Grécia, por chegar a Portugal, que reitera poder recebê-los.

O pacto UE-Turquia fomenta a abertura de novas rotas de negócio para os traficantes e implica deportar pessoas impedidas sequer de pedir asilo ou reunificação familiar.

Como se não bastasse, a União quer replicar o modelo com regimes causadores da opressão e da miséria de que fogem refugiados e migrantes - como o da Etiópia que está a matar desbragadamente etíopes, Senhora Alta Representante, perante o silêncio cúmplice da União Europeia.

Construir muros, como anunciado em Calais, para além do desperdício de recursos, é ineficaz e vai contra tudo aquilo que a União Europeia representa.

 
  
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  Nathalie Griesbeck (ALDE). – Madame la Présidente, Madame la Haute représentante, ce sommet est une grande première, mais il ne doit pas rester lettre morte. Pour cela, la question clé est de réussir à en faire un véritable tournant face aux défis migratoires pour que cette approche, pour la première fois mondiale, permette de faire évoluer les dirigeants, évoluer les comportements, comme vous l'avez rappelé dans votre propos introductif.

Les dirigeants du monde y seront nombreux et, en même temps, ils refusent, pour la plupart, depuis des mois, l'accueil des réfugiés syriens, notamment en Europe. Ils refusent de participer à la relocalisation et à la réinstallation. Pour mémoire, en 2015, 8 500 personnes ont été réinstallées en Europe.

Il faut, Madame la Haute représentante, faire de ce sommet le pas important, le pas dont vous parliez, de cette approche globale et non le transformer en un bal des hypocrites, parce qu'il faut un message clair, des réponses concrètes, pour éviter que cela ne ressemble à une mascarade. Nous sommes nombreux à compter sur vous à New York.

 
  
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  Ska Keller (Verts/ALE). – Madam President, of course this summit will be a great opportunity to talk about resettlement, and resettlement is a good thing. It is something we should do and, of course, we should do it well. But I think it would be a mistake if we, the European Union, were to go to the summit and say ‘Hey, we are doing great, you should do more!’ because we should not forget that other regions of the world are carrying a much larger share of the responsibility. Think of poorer countries like Lebanon, think of countries like Pakistan that host a huge population of refugees, while we as Europeans, a rich continent with 500 million inhabitants, are not even able to host one million refugees – which I think is a big shame.

So we should not be finger-pointing, we should instead look at ourselves and see how can we do more and what can we do better, and I think there is a lot of room for improvement.

One of the issues that it would be good to reconsider is the fact that money is indeed needed, but that we need fresh money, not money already earmarked for certain projects that are not going to be done, or just calculated into the resettlement effort. We should be honest with ourselves here.

 
  
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  Kristina Winberg (EFDD). – Fru talman! Aldrig någonsin har vi skådat den folkvandring som nu sker till Europa. Försöken att stoppa den kommer inte att lyckas, eftersom ni har fel om grundorsaken till varför det sker nu. Det är ingen slump att en så stor del av migranterna tar sig till Sverige och Tyskland. Våra förmånliga bidragssystem, kombinerat med inkompetenta ledare, som utan att tänka sig för välkomnar hela världen till våra länder, har skapat denna kris.

Nu har vi i Europa istället hamnat i en situation där vi blir utpressade av Turkiet. Dessutom lägger vi fram idiotiska förslag om tvångsmekanismer samt tar bort medlemsstaternas rätt till självbestämmande kring invandringen. Ni pratar ständigt om solidaritet, men vi i Sverige vet vad er solidaritet innebär. Vi tar alltid hand om era problem i slutändan och betalar mest till EU-budgeten per invånare av alla.

Det är dags för er att börja tänka på de riktiga flyktingarna, på plats, utan att blanda ihop dem med ekonomiska migranter.

 
  
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  Mario Borghezio (ENF). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, ci è voluta questa straordinaria crisi migratoria per aprire gli occhi e far aprire gli occhi all'Unione europea e decidere finalmente la politica che noi chiediamo da sempre, quella di aiutare questi popoli nei loro paesi e magari stroncare questo traffico immondo di esseri umani che si chiama l'immigrazione asservita ai grandi interessi.

Possiamo domandare domani al Dalai Lama cosa pensa dell'immigrazione, lo ha detto in dieci interviste: è sradicamento di popoli, quindi si può avere un'idea diversa dell'immigrazione senza essere né razzisti né xenofobi, perché il Dalai Lama non è né razzista né xenofobo, né è assimilabile a questi giudizi il documento importantissimo che in Italia tre presidenti delle regioni maggiormente toccate, tre regioni del Nord, hanno stilato – lo farò avere all'Alto rappresentante – che indica alcuni punti. È un documento equilibrato, che affronta in maniera laica, ma intelligente e costruttiva, l'emergenza immigrazione.

Bisogna riconoscere questo stato di emergenza, il fatto che lo sbarco dei clandestini attraverso le carrette del mare è un metodo sbagliato che serve solo ai trafficanti. Adesso scopriamo la tragedia dell'espianto di organi, una vergogna che dovrebbe essere combattuta militarmente dall'Europa, bisogna sostenere politiche di contrasto dei traffici e creare centri di raccolta, di identificazione e di assistenza anche in Africa.

Per essere contrari a questa immigrazione si ha diritto a non essere tacciati, come fra le righe ho sentito dal discorso della signora Mogherini, di essere il minimo di razzismo. Noi rifiutiamo questa cosa, che riteniamo indegna di una forza politica, indegna del nostro onore. Noi siamo contrari a questa immigrazione che significa traffico di carne umana, espianto di organi, traffici di mafia che voi non avete saputo combattere adeguatamente. Era ora che si cominciasse ad aiutare i popoli africani e non a servire gli interessi delle grandi banche e delle multinazionali. Era ora!

 
  
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  Linda McAvan (S&D). – Madam President, like colleagues here, I welcome this summit. It is a first, and let us hope it leads to some concrete results and that these two compacts will actually lead to change and to new players being brought into both humanitarian aid and development aid.

I think Ska Keller is right that we should go for a certain humility though. We do not have a perfect track record on refugee policy, and 86% of refugees live in the poorest countries on the planet, not in Europe. As you said, Ms Mogherini, it is only in recent years that we have begun to take this issue seriously, as refugees started landing on our shores. We were not particularly bothered until that point. But you have also spoken about the need for a long—term approach and I hope that is something we will take into account when we develop the appropriate instruments.

This morning we voted on the Africa Trust Fund in this Parliament, and the key message from our resolution is that we need to keep an eye on long-term development, on reducing poverty and reducing inequalities, on gender equality, tackling climate change and improving the lives and the economic and social well-being of people in the world’s poorest countries.

We have got to be very careful not to divert funding into things like border controls or to use our development policy as a kind of carrot and stick, introducing a new kind of creeping conditionality into it, linked to returns and border controls. I think you get that, Ms Mogherini, but I think there are some in our Member States who do not get it at all. They see the EU development budget as an endless pot of money which they can dip into for their new ideas. But we will not tackle the refugee crisis and the migration crisis by cutting development funding. So I think your approach on partnership is the right one and I hope you will be able to stick to it.

 
  
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  Eva Joly (Verts/ALE). – Madame la Présidente, Madame la Haute représentante, ce sommet des Nations unies représente une occasion unique pour instaurer un système plus solidaire au niveau international, ce dont nous avons grandement besoin car la crise que nous traversons actuellement n'est pas une crise des réfugiés mais bien une crise de l'accueil des réfugiés.

Alors que moins d'une dizaine de pays accueillent à eux seuls la moitié des réfugiés, il est urgent que les États s'engagent à un meilleur partage des responsabilités. J'espère que l'Union européenne défendra une position ambitieuse et solidaire accompagnée d'objectifs chiffrés et de mesures concrètes. Sans cela, nous savons malheureusement que les États se détourneront bien trop vite de leurs belles promesses.

Ce sommet doit également être l'occasion d'affirmer que l'aide au développement ne doit pas être conditionnée à des objectifs de gestion de frontières. L'aide au développement vise à combattre la pauvreté et les inégalités, pas à renforcer le contrôle aux frontières pour empêcher des populations de quitter le pays.

J'espère que les pays de l'Union européenne sauront être à la hauteur des enjeux de ce sommet.

 
  
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  Jean-Luc Schaffhauser (ENF). – Madame la Présidente, Madame la Commissaire, chers collègues, nous avons à dire la vérité aux Nations unies sur l'immigration économique illégale.

Nous devons abandonner cette vision iréniste de l'immigration au détriment du droit, des droits de nos peuples, mais aussi des peuples des pays d'envoi, qui perdent leur force vive économique.

Nous devons abandonner cette connivence entre l'immigration illégale et l'économie du profit maximum qui exploite les illégaux.

Nous devons abandonner le soutien indirect aux filières des mafias et groupes criminels et la soumission, entre autres, au satrape Erdoğan.

Ces faits seront-ils entendus? Je ne le sais, car nous avons une vision d'un monde de la mobilité, d'un monde généralisé où les pays ne sont plus que des hôtels d'un monde ouvert, mais cet hôtel devient un monde de passe pour les trafiquants et les criminels.

 
  
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  Josef Weidenholzer (S&D). – Frau Präsidentin! Der UN-Gipfel ist ein sehr wichtiges Ereignis, vielleicht das wichtigste Ereignis im zu Ende gehenden Jahr. Er steht in der Tradition einer jahrzehntelangen Arbeit der Vereinten Nationen – UNHCR, UNRWA usw. – , und es ist gut, dass in einer Zeit, wo die Welt aus den Fugen zu geraten scheint und die Flüchtlingsbewegung zunimmt und viele Menschen dadurch auch verunsichert sind, die Völkergemeinschaft eine strukturierte Diskussion über mehr Koordination und einen besseren Schutz der individuellen Rechte beginnt.

Es geht um zwei Phänomene beim Gipfel. Es geht um Migration – ein Phänomen, das es zwar immer gegeben hat, das aber in der globalisierten Ökonomie eine ganz besondere Bedeutung hat. Und es ist wichtig, dass Migration nicht nur als Belastung, sondern auch als eine Chance für die Gastländer und für die Menschen gesehen wird. Und deshalb muss sie politisch gestaltet werden. Mit der steigenden Zahl der Flüchtlinge ist es auch wichtig, sich dieses Themas besonders anzunehmen. Das ist keine freiwillige Migration.

Und wir sollten uns darum bemühen, die Situation in den Flüchtlingslagern zu verbessern, über Schutzzonen zu diskutieren und darüber, wie wir sie organisieren können, über eine bessere Finanzierung – vor allem sollten die zugesagten Mittel auch wirklich eintreffen. Und es ist auch wichtig, dass wir über die Organisation von resettlement reden, über Quoten, über humanitäre Einreisekorridore und Kontingente, weil das die beste Garantie dafür ist, dass Menschen nicht auf hoher See ertrinken.

 
  
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  Barbara Lochbihler (Verts/ALE). – Frau Präsidentin, sehr geehrte Hohe Vertreterin! Dieser UN—Gipfel zu Migration ist sicher auch eine Gelegenheit, die derzeitige EU—Flüchtlingspolitik auf den Prüfstand zu stellen. Und da gibt es Bereiche, auf die wir überhaupt nicht stolz sein können, wie Sie, Frau Mogherini, anfangs eben auch den Begriff „stolz“ eingesetzt haben. Der EU—Türkei—Deal zum Beispiel war von Anfang an aus völker- und menschenrechtlicher Sicht höchst fragwürdig. Und es ist mehr als offensichtlich, dass die EU hiermit das Ziel verfolgt, dass weniger Menschen bei uns Schutz finden. Nun hat die EU-Kommission angekündigt, den EU-Türkei-Deal zur Blaupause zu nehmen – vermutlich erneut am Europäischen Parlament vorbei –, um vergleichbare Verträge mit weiteren Drittstaaten abzuschließen, und dies trotz zum Teil katastrophaler Menschenrechtsbilanz vor Ort. Ana Gomes hat einige Länderbeispiele hier zitiert.

Die Vorschläge der Kommission stehen teilweise also in eklatantem Widerspruch zu Artikel 21 der europäischen Verträge. Sie verletzen völker- und menschenrechtliche Normen. Deshalb warne ich eindringlich davor, gerade diese Vorschläge als Lösungsansätze auf globaler Ebene einzubringen.

 
  
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  Pier Antonio Panzeri (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, bisogna ammetterlo: l'Unione europea si è fatta trovare impreparata un anno fa quando flussi misti di rifugiati e migranti da est e da sud hanno raggiunto il continente europeo, chi spinto dalla guerra, dalle persecuzioni, e chi dalla ricerca di opportunità migliori.

Io penso che il vertice della settimana prossima servirà a ricordare a noi europei che questo non è un fenomeno circoscritto, che colpisce solo le nostre coste o i nostri confini. I grandi movimenti di persone, rifugiati e migranti, sono un evento globale e richiedono quindi un approccio di pari livello. E dove discutere di soluzioni globali se non in sede di Nazioni Unite, il forum più adatto a rinnovare fermamente i valori di dignità e uguaglianza di ogni individuo?

Io ritengo che per affrontare al meglio questi spostamenti di persone, i governi debbano avere chiara la differenza tra la figura del rifugiato e quella del migrante, non nel trattamento dell'essere umano, bensì nella formazione di politiche più adatte, più appropriate, misure di emergenza per situazioni straordinarie nel caso dei rifugiati e provvedimenti a lungo termine per la gestione del flusso migratorio.

Io mi auguro che i leader mondiali siano consapevoli dell'esigenza di creare un sistema più responsabile, basato sul cambio di paradigma proposto dall'Assemblea generale, ovvero il passaggio dalla condivisione di pesi alla condivisione di responsabilità nella gestione di grandi movimenti di persone.

 
  
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  Eugen Freund (S&D). – Madam President, I am totally behind the concept of a holistic approach to migration and the refugee movement, and also the debate on that important issue at the United Nations. What I have to observe critically though is the timing. Today, we have about 60 million people regarded as refugees. Ten years ago that number stood at about 37 million so it has almost doubled in that short timespan.

We could have, and should have, acted much sooner. It is crystal clear that action – decisive action – cannot wait any longer. Another point which is important to me is that one third of all people fleeing are children. I am counting on you, Ms Mogherini, to ensure that the debate in New York will concern itself particularly with that tragic aspect. We must not forget, we cannot forget, we cannot afford to forget those most vulnerable.

 
  
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  Elly Schlein (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, sarò anch'io al vertice di New York, e se da un lato è positivo che segni una nuova consapevolezza che si tratta di una sfida globale che, come dice l'Alto rappresentante, necessita di una risposta globale, dall'altro il summit si profila purtroppo come un'occasione mancata.

È saltato l'impegno dei paesi più ricchi ad accogliere il 10% del totale dei rifugiati, richiesta avanzata dallo stesso Ban Ki-moon. Non vi è alcun accordo concreto, ma solo auspici e buone intenzioni; inoltre viene rinviata l'adozione dei due Global Compact al 2018, ma le persone che fuggono non possono aspettare due anni, così come i paesi in via di sviluppo, che stanno facendo i maggiori sforzi.

Solo 27 Stati hanno programmi regolari di reinsediamento nel mondo. Certo, anche noi saremmo più credibili nel chiedere una condivisione globale degli sforzi se intanto dessimo il buon esempio al nostro interno. Un anno fa, i governi europei si erano impegnati sui reinsediamenti e sui 160 000 ricollocamenti, e ne hanno effettuati poche migliaia, mentre il Canada, ad esempio, in quattro mesi reinsediava 25 000 siriani, mostrando che quello europeo non è un problema di numeri o di mezzi, ma solo ed esclusivamente di volontà politica.

 
  
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  Νίκος Ανδρουλάκης ( S&D). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, σύμφωνα με τα στοιχεία του ΟΗΕ, σε παγκόσμιο επίπεδο υπάρχουν 65 εκατομμύρια εκτοπισμένοι και προσφυγές και 244 εκατομμύρια μετανάστες. Το ασταθές γεωπολιτικό και οικονομικό περιβάλλον, οι συνέπειες της κλιματικής αλλαγής και η δημογραφική έκρηξη στις χώρες της Αφρικής μας οδηγούν στο συμπέρασμα ότι τα στοιχεία αυτά θα αυξηθούν περαιτέρω τα επόμενα χρόνια. Γι’ αυτό είναι σημαντική η διάσκεψη του ΟΗΕ για την προετοιμασία σε μετάβαση μιας εποχής πολύ υψηλής ανθρώπινης κινητικότητας. Εύχομαι όμως να μην μείνουμε στα λόγια και να προχωρήσουμε στις πράξεις σε σχέση και με αυτά που κάναμε εμείς ως Ευρώπη. Χαρακτηριστικό παράδειγμα είναι το πρόγραμμα μετεγκατάστασης, το οποίο φυτοζωεί: μόλις 3677 πρόσφυγες, από τους 6400 έχουν πάει από την Ελλάδα σε άλλες χώρες. Τρία κράτη μέλη δεν έχουν πάρει ούτε έναν πρόσφυγα και δύο κράτη μέλη δεν έχουν δηλώσει καν διαθεσιμότητα. Εάν δεν υπάρχει ολοκληρωμένο σχέδιο, σχέδιο αλληλεγγύης σεβόμενο τα ανθρώπινα δικαιώματα αλλά και την κοινωνική συνοχή και ασφάλεια των πολιτών, θα ζήσουμε την επέλαση της μισαλλοδοξίας, είτε με επέκταση της ισχύος αυτών καθαυτών των εκπροσώπων της, όπως η κυρία Λεπέν, είτε με την υιοθέτηση των ιδεών τους μέσω της συντηρητικής στροφής των σημερινών κυβερνήσεων.

 
  
 

Procedura „catch the eye”

 
  
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  László Tőkés (PPE). – Elnök Asszony, a szeptember végi ENSZ-csúcstalálkozónak hivatalbóli vezérszónoka lesz az a Zeid Raad el-Husszein jordániai herceg, az ENSZ emberi jogi főbiztosa, aki egyik legutóbbi megszólalásakor Orbán Viktor miniszterelnököt azon „populistának” nevezett politikusok közé sorolta, akiknek „ideológiája közel áll az Iszlám Állam szellemiségéhez”. Néhány napra rá Jean Asselborn luxemburgi külügyminiszter a küszöbön álló magyarországi kvótareferendum kapcsán hasonló nemtelen támadást intézett miniszterelnökünk ellen, egyenesen Magyarország kizárását kezdeményezve az Európai Unióból. Az egymásra találó muzulmán és európai előítélet és elfogultság ezen hazug és ellenséges támadásait visszautasítva, tisztelettel kérem a Parlamentet, személy szerint pedig Federica Mogherini alelnökasszonyt, hogy vegyék védelmükbe az igaztalanul megvádolt Orbán Viktor miniszterelnököt és az Unió tagországaként a nemzeti szuverenitásához ragaszkodó Magyarországot.

 
  
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  Caterina Chinnici (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, con riferimento al vertice organizzato dalle Nazioni Unite, guardo con interesse agli incontri dedicati al settore privato che si terranno a margine del summit. Trovo significativo tale spazio in quanto sappiamo che l'apporto fornito dalle ONG si è dimostrato indispensabile per svolgere funzioni di assistenza e di soccorso che le istituzioni e le autorità locali, per mancanza di risorse o limiti di mandato, non sempre possono fornire; il loro ruolo e contributo va riconosciuto e incentivato.

Auspico sinceramente che nel prossimo vertice si possano trovare soluzioni condivise, sostenibili e di lunga durata sulla drammatica situazione del movimento di migranti e rifugiati, così da colmare quel deficit di solidarietà e di responsabilità che in Europa, purtroppo anche in tempi recenti, si è registrato. E a mio avviso, la nostra più grande responsabilità riguarda i minori non accompagnati. È necessario, e per questo sappiamo di poter contare su di lei, signora Mogherini, portare il dramma dei minori non accompagnati nell'ambito delle discussioni del summit per far sì che la tutela dei bambini diventi una priorità, sempre e dovunque.

 
  
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  Илхан Кючюк (ALDE). – Г-жо Председател, уважаема г-жо Върховен представител, уважаеми колеги, огромните миграционни вълни са глобалният феномен на това десетилетие и за тях няма национално решение. Ето защо считам, че форумът на високо равнище, който ще се проведе под егидата на ООН, е от съществено значение. Ние трябва да имаме водеща роля в него като една от най-засегнатите страни, но също така и най-големият донор на хуманитарна помощ в света.

За пръв път ще се съберат държавни лидери, неправителствени организации и всички заинтересовани страни в търсенето на отговор на бежанската криза. Европейският съюз трябва да работи за съставянето на силна политическа декларация, която да е основата на глобална и ефективна рамка за сътрудничество, базираща се на споделената отговорност за приемане на бежанци и мигранти.

Смятам, че този форум е и историческа възможност да се противопоставим на ксенофобията и езика на омразата, под които най-често попадат бежанците и мигрантите, и същевременно да потърсим глобалната формула за тяхната интеграция в свободните демократични общества.

 
  
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  Σοφία Σακοράφα ( GUE/NGL). – Κυρία εκπρόσωπε, στις 19 του μήνα, όπως είπατε, θα πραγματοποιηθεί γενική συνέλευση των Ηνωμένων Εθνών, η πρώτη Διεθνής Διάσκεψη σε επίπεδο αρχηγών και κυβερνήσεων για το προσφυγικό. Όλοι μιλάνε για σημαντική ιστορική ευκαιρία ώστε να καταλήξουμε επιτέλους σε ένα ολοκληρωμένο σχέδιο για την αντιμετώπιση των προσφυγικών ροών. Αναρωτιέμαι τι θα υποστηρίξουν η ηγέτες της Ευρώπης μεθαύριο γιατί, όπως είπατε και εσείς, αυτοί που θα μιλήσουν για αλληλεγγύη είναι οι ίδιοι που αρνούνται να δεχθούν πρόσφυγες στις χώρες τους. Αυτοί που θα μιλήσουν για δίκαιο καταμερισμό ευθυνών, είναι οι ίδιοι που, έπειτα από έναν ολόκληρο χρόνο, έχουν πραγματοποιήσει λιγότερο από το πέντε τοις εκατό του περίφημου μηχανισμού ανακατανομής. Αυτοί που θα υπερασπίζονται ασφαλείς και ομαλές προσφυγικές ροές, είναι οι ίδιοι που χτίζουν τείχη και δημόσια παρακαλούν τους πρόσφυγες να μην έρχονται στην Ευρώπη. Άλλωστε, μόλις προχθές, ο Πρόεδρος του Ευρωπαϊκού Συμβουλίου μας ξεκαθάρισε πως η πρακτική ικανότητα της Ευρώπης των είκοσι επτά κρατών και των πεντακοσίων εκατομμυρίων πολιτών να φιλοξενήσει νέα κύματα προσφύγων, για να μην αναφέρουμε τους παράτυπους οικονομικούς μετανάστες, βρίσκεται κοντά στο όριο. Γι’ αυτά τί θα κάνετε κυρία εκπρόσωπε; Σ’ αυτό θέλω να μου απαντήσετε.

 
  
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  Afzal Khan (S&D). – Mr President, I welcome the summit but it appears that the historic opportunity to find a desperately needed global solution to the crisis has been lost. Some governments are rejecting the plan to resettle 10% of the world’s refugees annually and have delayed any chance of a deal until 2018. We cannot allow the politics of fear to paralyse us and allow this humanitarian crisis and suffering go on.

Policies focused on deterrents and building walls are doomed to fail. Europe must redouble its efforts in addressing the sources of the refugee crisis and not just the symptoms. This means providing more support to developing countries to get refugees access to employment and education opportunities.

However, maintaining aid is not enough. One in five people in Lebanon are refugees. By comparison, there is one refugee for every 530 people in the UK. We must step up the responsibility sharing, not responsibility shifting. War and instability, poverty and climate change all mean that people will keep trying to come to Europe in search of refuge or a better life. Only if we act globally can we find effective and lasting solutions to this crisis. Europe must lead the way and set an example.

 
  
 

(End of catch-the-eye procedure)

 
  
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  Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice-President of the Commission. – Madam President, many of you called – well, some of you called – in this room for us to tell the truth, so let’s try to do this exercise once again together.

First, as some of you mentioned, migration or human mobility is part of the history of mankind. To tell the truth mankind itself is the result of human mobility, and maybe we should keep that a bit in mind. Coming from some countries this might be easier to remember, for others maybe a little bit difficult, but all of us, all of us, are the result of human mobility: truth number one.

Second truth, others are doing more than the European Union is doing, you were saying this perfectly well. This is not a European phenomenon, and even less a European crisis. If you look at the movements of people inside Africa, inside Asia, they are much bigger than the movements of people towards Europe from these two continents, not only combined but also taken alone. And wherever you go in Africa or in Asia, every single country, or almost every single country, is itself at the same time a country of origin, a country of destination and a country of transit. So we have to get a little bit out, in our public debate, of this Eurocentric approach that we are at the centre of the flows of the whole world, and realise that indeed there are many other countries in the world, most of the time countries that are living in conditions that are much more difficult than ours from an economic point of view, from a climate point of view, from a conflict point of view, that are doing much more than we are doing. And indeed that we can lead by example, if we are able to provide some good examples – and let me tell you in some fields we are not. I mentioned things which I am not particularly proud of, but we are in some other fields capable of leading by example.

And let me tell you, on a personal note, I had the occasion of briefing the UN Security Council twice, this year and last year, on the EU policies on migration and I have noticed a radical change in the attitude of our global partners to our response, or our policies on both refugee and migration, which means that probably – let me put it this way a bit bluntly – last year we woke up. We woke up in what was for many a surprise, not for me personally, not for many in this room, but for many of us was a sudden wake-up. And this year we managed to elaborate or to react to this shock and put in place policies – finally.

I often told you, I told you at the beginning of our debate today, to me it was a shock when I came in, moving from my time being an Italian minister to the position of High Representative, that migration was not on the table of the Foreign Affairs Council. It was a purely internal matter, as if we had to tackle this issue only from an internal point of view, but where are these people coming from? So we come from there. Two years ago, this was not an issue, if not an issue of interior ministers only, so in two years I think we have come a long way.

Third truth: there are things where we can lead by example. There are solutions we can find only if we do it together, as Europeans and globally. And what we can try to do is to manage this complex phenomenon in all these different aspects. I will come to the different aspects in a moment, but let me stress one point that I think Mr Panzeri mentioned. I refer to this as the need to manage a complex phenomenon. I will never, never personally call this a problem or a burden, because it is people. It is people with names, stories, even when we do not see the photos, it is people. So the language we use is important, the respect we pay to persons is important, especially to children, and the point on non-accompanied children is one that we will for sure bring up in New York.

We have to keep that in mind also when the photos are not on the front line, on the front page of the newspapers, and let me tell you with sadness and shock, I never understand the fact that those that claim our Christian identity the most are also those who are the first to forget the word and the message of Pope Francis on migration and refugees. This is a mystery to me.

So we can do things to manage this phenomenon together, as Europeans and globally. It is different aspects of things we need to do. On the refugees, it is the urgency of supporting globally, first on resettlement programmes, something good, something we need to do more, something we need to encourage our partners to do more, and also financial support, which is what we are doing the most.

We need, on migration, to work on the implementation of the SDGs, on Agenda 2030, on investments in countries of origin and transit. I am glad to hear also from the right side of the Chamber tonight that indeed there is support also from that side to increase our budget for development policies. This is news to me, welcome news, and I think that will need to be tested with coherent and consistent voting, but this is good news if we realise that investing long-term in the economic and social development of countries from where people are coming, is indeed a major step forward in our own policies.

Then, we also need to work very much on dismantling the smugglers and the people traffickers. This is what we are trying to do at sea. This is also what we are trying to do with our partners in some countries, in full respect of human rights, and in coordination with the IOM and with UNHCR. This goes together with opening regular channels for migration. The more we open regular channels for migration, the more we manage to discourage the irregular channels, thus preventing the loss of lives at sea and on land, especially in the desert.

And here let me mention we have to work with partners more and more. I mentioned the UNHCR and the IOM. The summit in New York will be essential in this respect, the role of civil society and NGOs is crucial, as is the role of local authorities also here in Europe, in so many cases they are doing much more the national governments, let me tell you.

So we need a partnership approach, also internally probably, to put together different strengths, and I will close by saying that indeed the role of the European Parliament’s delegation in New York at the summit will be important. We will meet there and I hope that we will manage to pass on together this message, knowing that it is a political fight, and that we have taken some steps forward in the last two years, in the last year in particular, and that I think we will need to continue working together using this window of opportunity.

I would not call the UN summit that is coming ahead an exercise that has its limits. Let’s go, let’s go and bring our inputs, let’s go and test our own policies. Let’s go and meet our partners, let’s go and try to build these global partnerships and with a sense of the limits, but also with a sense of hope that this phenomenon can be managed. I thank you very much and I am continuously counting on the European Parliament’s support and work in this respect.

(Applause)

 
  
 

President. The debate is closed.

 
  
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  Agustín Díaz de Mera García Consuegra (PPE), por escrito. – Doy la bienvenida a la Cumbre de alto nivel de Naciones Unidas relativa a los grandes movimientos de refugiados y migrantes y al acuerdo político alcanzado por 193 Estados. Agradezco especialmente que haya un compromiso que se centre en las dos vertientes: por un lado, los refugiados y, por otro, la migración segura, ordenada y regular. Era absolutamente fundamental que todos los países se unieran para dar una respuesta global a un problema que así es. Acojo con satisfacción la creación de un sistema más responsable, predecible y solidario, con una responsabilidad compartida. Para todo ello, juega y jugará un papel clave el ACNUR, como iniciador y desarrollador de la respuesta, pero en coordinación con todos los demás actores, como los Estados receptores, las entidades locales y nacionales, las organizaciones internacionales, etc. El ACNUR no puede hacer frente al problema en solitario. Por lo tanto, aplaudo la voluntad de estos 193 países de dar un enfoque global a esta crisis, pero espero no se quede en eso, en simple voluntad. Debemos estudiar a fondo las causas que generan estos movimientos masivos de población, para poder anticiparnos, y tomarlo como un reto de desarrollo y no exclusivamente humanitario.

 
  
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  Филиз Хюсменова (ALDE), в писмена форма. – Уважаеми г-н Председател, приветствам организирането за първи път на среща на върха на ООН, посветена на бежанците и миграцията, и приемането на глобална рамка за справяне с проблема. Действително, миграционната ситуация в съседство на Европа не бива да бъде разглеждана като изолиран, регионален проблем, а като глобално предизвикателство с дълбоки корени, което има нужда от трайни решения.

Настоящата хуманитарна ситуация налага колективен политически отговор и споделени международни ангажименти. За да можем да изискваме повече солидарност на световно равнище, пример за това трябва да бъде даден и от Европейския Съюз и неговите държави членки – чрез преодоляването на настоящата криза на солидарността и пълно споделяне на отговорност по отношение на бежанците.

 
  
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  João Pimenta Lopes (GUE/NGL), por escrito. – Os representantes dos Estados-Membros e da União Europeia têm um contributo muito significativo para esta cimeira. O silêncio!

O silêncio da vergonha de quem tem responsabilidades na desestabilização e na guerra, particularmente na região do Norte de África e Médio Oriente. O silêncio da vergonha de quem tolera e patrocina muros nas fronteiras de vários países europeus, de que são exemplos recentes a Hungria e a França. O silêncio da vergonha de quem responde militarmente a uma gravíssima crise humanitária, de quem permitiu que o Mediterrâneo se tornasse numa autêntica vala comum. Mais de 10000 mortos em 3 anos!

O silêncio da vergonha de quem todos os dias espezinha em solo europeu os direitos humanos e criou autênticos campos de concentração. Envergonhem-se com a agenda xenófoba e racista que têm promovido e que alimenta vagas de descriminação, o recrudescimento da extrema-direita e do fascismo! Demitam-se de dar lições sobre direitos humanos ou sobre a resposta ao drama e às necessidades dos refugiados, pois não têm nenhumas para dar!

 
  
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  Kati Piri (S&D), schriftelijk. – Met wereldwijd bijna 60 miljoen mensen op de vlucht is het goed dat de VN bij elkaar komt om te praten over de grote uitdagingen rond wereldwijde migratie. Maar grote uitdagingen vragen om ambitieuze oplossingen, die ik helaas niet terugzie in de voorlopige conclusies van de top. Omdat de VN-landen het niet eens kunnen worden over grootschalige hervestiging, wordt besloten om het er volgend jaar nog maar eens over te hebben, maar er is nu een oplossing nodig voor miljoenen mensen die recht hebben op internationale bescherming.

De Europese Commissie stelt voor om 20 000 mensen per jaar te hervestigen in Europa, maar ik zou Federica Mogherini willen vragen om deze ambitie bij te stellen, en pleit voor het hervestigen van minstens 100 000 kwetsbare vluchtelingen per jaar. De EU moet het voortouw nemen en haar humanitaire plicht nakomen door het goede voorbeeld te geven, namelijk: werk maken van grootschalige hervestiging van de meest kwetsbare vluchtelingen én door middel van herverdeling een eind maken aan de afschuwelijke omstandigheden in Griekenland en Italië.

 
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