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L-Erbgħa, 5 ta' Ottubru 2016 - Strasburgu Edizzjoni riveduta

19. Konferenza tan-NU 2016 dwar it-Tibdil fil-Klima f'Marrakech, il-Marokk (COP22) (dibattitu)
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  Die Präsidentin. – Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die Aussprache über

– die Anfrage zur mündlichen Beantwortung an den Rat über die VN-Konferenz über Klimaänderungen 2016 in Marrakesch (Marokko) (COP 22) von Giovanni La Via, Peter Liese, Jo Leinen, Julie Girling, Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, Estefanía Torres Martínez, Bas Eickhout, Marco Affronte im Namen des Ausschusses für Umweltfragen, öffentliche Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit (O-000103/2016 - B8-0718/2016) (2016/2814(RSP)) und

– die Anfrage zur mündlichen Beantwortung an die Kommission über die VN-Konferenz über Klimaänderungen 2016 in Marrakesch (Marokko) (COP 22) von Giovanni La Via, Peter Liese, Jo Leinen, Julie Girling, Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, Estefanía Torres Martínez, Bas Eickhout, Marco Affronte im Namen des Ausschusses für Umweltfragen, öffentliche Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit (O-000104/2016 - B8-0719/2016) (2016/2814(RSP)).

 
  
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  Giovanni La Via, Autore. – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario Cañete, signor Ministro, ieri abbiamo vissuto un momento storico proprio in questa sede dove, a larga maggioranza, abbiamo dato il via libera all'effettiva entrata in vigore dell'accordo di Parigi prima della COP22 di Marrakech. Dopo Kyoto è stato un processo lungo e obiettivamente oggi abbiamo un accordo globale, legalmente vincolante, per combattere realmente il cambiamento climatico a livello internazionale.

Ma dopo il successo di ieri la nostra mente è già a Marrakech, che sarà il luogo in cui passare dalle parole alle azioni, cioè alle misure di implementazione necessarie per raggiungere gli obiettivi posti a Parigi. Andremo a Marrakech con la stessa determinazione e la stessa ambizione di leadership che abbiamo avuto a Parigi. Nel dettaglio la risoluzione che voteremo domani costituirà il mandato per la nostra delegazione e verranno avviati accordi e negoziati sui principali elementi.

In primo luogo, un quadro rafforzato per la trasparenza, i dettagli per un bilancio globale, alcuni orientamenti aggiuntivi sugli INDC, una comprensione della differenziazione delle perdite e dei danni, oltre a parlare di finanziamenti per il clima, con una governance multilivello inclusiva nonché con un meccanismo inteso ad agevolare l'attuazione e a promuovere la conformità.

Sarà necessario, inoltre, avviare le discussioni sulla forma che assumerà il dialogo di facilitazione del 2018, che sarà un'occasione importante per colmare il divario esistente in materia di mitigazione, alla luce degli INDC attuali, e in cui l'UE potrà giocare un ruolo proattivo in termini di livello di ambizione collettiva e dei progressi nell'attuazione agli impegni assunti.

Nella risoluzione si sottolineano i buoni progressi dell'Unione europea nel raggiungimento degli obiettivi fissati per il 2020 in materia di riduzione delle emissioni di gas a effetto serra e per conseguire gli obiettivi fissati in materia di energie rinnovabili e per gli sforzi che devono essere incrementati al fine di conseguire gli obiettivi per il 2050.

Vorrei sottolineare un importante passaggio della risoluzione: ci rammarichiamo che il settore dei trasporti aerei e marittimi internazionali non sia menzionato nell'accordo, pur essendo il secondo settore per quantità di emissione di gas a effetto serra. Il Parlamento insiste pertanto sulla necessità di attuare una serie di strategie volte a ridurre le emissioni in tale settore. Sappiamo che è un tema ostico, ma il Parlamento continuerà a farsi portavoce di questa esigenza.

In definitiva, saranno necessari sforzi di diplomazia climatica per assicurare che i negoziati siano positivi e producano effettivi passi in avanti in direzione del nostro comune obiettivo. Un obiettivo che dobbiamo a noi e alle future generazioni e che da ieri, grazie anche alla buona politica, è sempre più vicino.

 
  
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  Peter Liese, Verfasser. – Frau Präsidentin, Herr Kommissar, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Gestern war in der Tat ein historischer Tag: Wir haben hier im Plenum die Voraussetzung dafür geschaffen, dass das Übereinkommen von Paris zum Klimaschutz in Kraft treten kann – in Rekordzeit. Aber jetzt geht die Arbeit weiter. Wir müssen Paris umsetzen und in Marrakesch die nächsten Schritte tun. Für unsere Fraktion, die EVP-Fraktion, ist es immer sehr wichtig, dass wir dabei ambitionierten Klimaschutz sowie die Sicherung und Schaffung von Arbeitsplätzen gemeinsam im Auge haben. Da ist auch gestern bei den Verhandlungen im Ausschuss für Industrie, Forschung und Energie über den Emissionshandel ein wichtiger Schritt gelungen. Wenn das Ergebnis die Richtschnur ist, auch für unsere Arbeit hier im Plenum, dann können wir beides gut miteinander verbinden.

Ich möchte darauf hinweisen, dass zurzeit in Montreal eine weitere große Konferenz stattfindet, wo sich die Welt trifft und auch über Klimaschutz spricht. Ich befürchte aber, dass da nicht so etwas Gutes und Ambitioniertes rauskommen wird wie in Paris. Die ICAO, die Internationale Zivilluftfahrtorganisation, trifft sich in Montreal, und wir im Ausschuss für Umweltfragen, öffentliche Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit haben in unserer Entschließung, die das Plenum morgen hoffentlich mit großer Mehrheit annimmt, gesagt: Das, was da auf dem Tisch liegt, ist enttäuschend. Und das hat auch Auswirkungen auf die europäische Klimaschutzpolitik: Der Flugverkehr ist in den Emissionshandel einbezogen, und eigentlich wird es ab nächstes Jahr auch wieder so sein, dass Interkontinentalflüge einbezogen werden. Wir sagen: Wir wollen das nur ändern, wenn in Montreal wirklich ein ambitioniertes Ergebnis beschlossen wird.

Wir brauchen hier mehr Balance. Klimaschutz kann nur funktionieren, wenn alle Schultern mittragen. Es kann nicht sein, dass wir einen Vorschlag haben, wo die Stahlarbeiter um ihre Arbeitsplätze zittern, weil sich gleichzeitig andere Branchen wie etwa der Flugverkehr einen schlanken Fuß machen. Hier brauchen wir Fairness! Alle müssen ins Rad packen, damit das mit dem Klimaschutz etwas wird.

 
  
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  Jo Leinen, Verfasser. – Frau Präsidentin! Herr Kommissar, meine lieben Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Die erste große Hürde haben wir am Dienstag genommen. Die Ratifizierung des Übereinkommens von Paris hier im Europäischen Parlament war in der Tat ein historischer Tag, weil es damit jetzt in Kraft treten kann. Die zweite große Hürde kommt in Marrakesch, nämlich dieser Übereinkommen von Paris mit Leben zu erfüllen. Da geht es um die Zeitpläne und auch die Ziel- und Arbeitspläne, die umgesetzt werden müssen, und da wissen wir, dass, was auf dem Tisch liegt, nun mal nicht ausreicht, um zwei Grad Celsius zu erreichen. Da muss noch wesentlich mehr kommen.

Das ist dann auch die Aufgabe für die Europäische Union. Wir haben unsere Ziele bis 2030. Aber da ist auch Luft nach oben – es ist ja nicht in Stein gemeißelt, dass es bei 40 Prozent bleiben muss. Und wenn ich mir die verschiedenen Sektoren angucke wie Verkehr – Peter Liese hatte den Seeverkehr genannt, den Luftverkehr haben wir immer im Auge, aber natürlich auch den Straßenverkehr –, die Landwirtschaft und den Gebäudebereich, dann ist da noch viel möglich und muss auch noch viel gemacht werden.

Ich frage mich, ob wir viele Jahre vergeuden sollen, bis wir an diese Aufgaben herangehen. Meines Erachtens nach ist 2018 oder 2020 viel zu spät, um über eine Überprüfung nachzudenken. Das sollte eigentlich jetzt nach Marrakesch schon beginnen. Ich sehe auch, dass unser langfristiges Ziel nochmal einmal angepasst werden muss. Ich glaube nicht, dass wir bei 80 Prozent stehen bleiben können. Für 1,5 Grad, da brauchen wir 95 Prozent Reduktion, und, Herr Kommissar, wann gedenken Sie den langfristigen Plan aufzuarbeiten? Und ich frage auch den Rat, was die Mitgliedstaaten in Marrakesch zu tun gedenken, damit dass ein Erfolg wird.

 
  
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  Jadwiga Wiśniewska, autorka. – Pani Przewodnicząca! Szanowny Panie Komisarzu! Prawie rok temu w Paryżu doszło do zdarzenia o ogromnym historycznym znaczeniu. Zdecydowana większość państw z całego świata zgodziła się podjąć wspólne działania na rzecz ograniczenia wpływu emisji gazów cieplarnianych, emitowanych przez człowieka do atmosfery. Dziś ta umowa jest już niemal gotowa do wejścia w życie, gdyż wraz z ratyfikacją przez Unię Europejską osiągnie ona przewidziane progi skutkujące jej obowiązywaniem. Przyznam, że sama jestem zaskoczona tempem, w jakim państwa, niesłynące do tej pory z ambitnej polityki klimatycznej, to jest Chiny czy Stany Zjednoczone, Indie, przystąpiły do ratyfikacji. Choć, jeśli chodzi o Stany Zjednoczone, to w tym przypadku niepewny jest wpływ najbliższych wyborów prezydenckich na status tego porozumienia. Warto jednak pamiętać o powodach, dla których tak się stało: po pierwsze, Państwo to zapewne dobrze pamiętają, że w pewnym momencie przedmiotem twardych negocjacji stało się słowo „dekarbonizacja”. Wiele państw sprzeciwiało się obecności tego słowa, gdyż widząc potrzebę redukcję emisji, uznawały jednak, że mogą to robić, nie rezygnując zupełnie ze stosowania węgla, który jest dostępnym i tanim surowcem, a nowoczesne technologie zdecydowanie ograniczają jego emisyjność. Unia musiała ustąpić i dobrze zrobiła, bo inaczej nie byłoby żadnego porozumienia. Po drugie, porozumienie stawia na równi zmniejszenie emisji i działania zwiększające potencjał do ich pochłaniania. Zatem państwa mogą wykorzystać swoje naturalne predyspozycje i silne strony, bez wymuszania na nich ściśle określonych działań.

 
  
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  José Inácio Faria, Autor. – Senhora Presidente, Senhor Comissário, caros Colegas, quero congratular esta Casa pela aprovação, ontem, da retificação do Acordo de Paris e dos esforços que o Sr. Comissário desenvolveu neste dossiê.

Como tem sido referido vezes sem conta, a União Europeia desempenhou um papel de liderança neste processo e é agora imperativo que se mantenha no grupo da frente, na definição e coordenação das medidas para a sua implementação eficaz, exigindo transparência e ambição. E é precisamente essa vontade que teremos que demonstrar no próximo mês, em Marraquexe, na COP 22.

Acredito que o acordo global de Paris representa condições mais equitativas a nível internacional para promover a luta contra as alterações climáticas. A definição de um quadro legal estável e ambicioso é neste momento essencial para mobilizar a sociedade civil e o setor privado para os investimentos em tecnologias inovadoras, que nos permitam uma sociedade mais sustentável. Haverá agora uma oportunidade de crescimento e de criação de emprego na economia verde e azul que não podemos desperdiçar. Na política climática europeia há setores industriais, algum deles sujeitos a carbon leakage, que poderão ser prejudicados se concentrarmos neles todo o esforço para a redução de emissões.

Senhor Comissário, não podemos dar-nos ao luxo de esquecer, nesse esforço que deve ser de todos, o setor dos transportes, o segundo setor mais importante no que respeita a emissões e aquele cujas emissões continuam em livre crescimento. Os transportes aéreo e marítimo ficaram de fora do Acordo de Paris. ICAO e IMO têm sido remissos e só apresentam progressos tíbios nesta matéria.

Gostaria de manifestar, Senhor Comissário, a minha profunda preocupação com o acordo que está em preparação no ICAO sobre esta matéria. Um acordo que se aplicará tardiamente, só a partir de 2020, que parte de um nível de referência de emissões de CO2 muito elevado e que se antecipa de natureza meramente voluntária, sem impor uma efetiva redução de emissões num futuro próximo, não é, seguramente, o acordo que eu gostaria.

Entendo, também, que as medidas de neutralização de emissões que estão a ser negociadas são pouco claras e a sua qualidade e controlo muito duvidosos. Este acordo parece-me, caros Colegas, longe de cumprir os objetivos de Paris a que nos comprometemos.

Espero, Senhor Comissário, que este acordo não defina o tom e o nível de ambição para os restantes setores dos transportes, nomeadamente os transportes marítimos e que, a materializar-se nas condições que referi, não nos seja vendido como um sucesso.

 
  
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  Estefanía Torres Martínez, autora. – Señora Presidenta, hoy tenemos ante nosotros una nueva oportunidad para hacer realidad la necesaria transición hacia un modelo de vida más equitativo y sostenible. Pero no nos engañemos, porque el Acuerdo de París resulta totalmente insuficiente para lograr el objetivo a largo plazo que se marca: no superar los dos grados de aumento de la temperatura. Si no reducimos los niveles de contaminación, pronto el aumento anual de la temperatura superará los tres grados y medio.

Las personas más pobres del mundo, muchas agricultoras, pescadoras y pastoras, están siendo las más afectadas por las altas temperaturas. Es urgente que los Estados aborden esta cuestión en sus planes de acción climática. ¿Cómo? Pues, por ejemplo es llamativo que este acuerdo no mencione la agricultura industrial, uno de los principales responsables del cambio climático.

El hambre causa 40 000 muertes al día; sin embargo, el 60 % de los alimentos que producimos acaban desperdiciados. Dedicamos el 30 % de toda la superficie productiva a producir alimentos que acaban en la basura. Esto implica la producción de 3 300 millones de toneladas equivalentes de CO2; es decir, el desperdicio alimentario es el tercer causante de los mayores productores mundiales de gases de efecto invernadero, solo por debajo de Estados Unidos y de China. De esto el acuerdo nada dice.

Debemos incidir en el derecho a la alimentación y promover una producción agroecológica con circuitos cortos: así daremos de comer al mundo de manera sostenible y equitativa y mitigaremos también el cambio climático.

Señorías, esta lucha no se soluciona con acuerdos de sumas y restas. El desafío es grande y en él los pequeños agricultores tienen que dejar de ser los más vulnerables para convertirse en los más valiosos de la historia. Para ello, tenemos que reorientar la inversión agrícola hacia las necesidades de estos pequeños agricultores. Como bien dice Latouche, «no se puede salvar el planeta y pretender salvar a la vez un business injusto e insostenible». Hay que escoger de qué lado estamos. Nosotros lo tenemos muy claro.

 
  
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  Claude Turmes, auteur. – Madame la Présidente, je ne vais pas répéter ce qu'ont dit mes collègues, M. Leine, M. Liese ou M. La Via. Le Parlement est très uni sur ce que nous voulons en général. Je voudrais plutôt revenir sur ce qui, pour moi, a été un succès à Paris, à savoir le fait que l'on soit passé du "problème climat" aux "solutions climat".

Monsieur le Commissaire, ma question est donc la suivante: comment allons-nous continuer à dynamiser le Lima-Paris Action Plan, qui va prendre maintenant une nouvelle forme? J'ai très peur que l'on perde cette dynamique, qui a été créée et dans laquelle la France et Mme Royal ont mis beaucoup d'énergie. La Commission européenne est—elle prête à engager des fonds et l'expertise de ses fonctionnaires pour aider à vraiment porter cette initiative?

J'ai trois idées concrètes. Comme nous allons au Maroc, la première est l'initiative "Énergies pour l'Afrique". J'essaie de promouvoir cette idée avec M. Borloo et d'autres ici dans la maison. Nous avons accueilli favorablement la proposition que nous appelons "Juncker 2", à savoir un plan visant à une réduction des risques pour l'Afrique. Pourriez-vous préciser un peu mieux comment l'initiative de M. Borloo intitulée "Énergies pour l'Afrique" s'articule avec le fonds de garantie Juncker?

La deuxième est l'efficacité énergétique. L'Afrique, l'Égypte, l'Algérie, la Tunisie et le Maroc ont besoin d'améliorations sur le plan de l'efficacité énergétique. Nous sommes les champions mondiaux pour ce qui est de l'écoconception et des labels A, B, C et D. Aussi, que faisons-nous pour aider les pays du Maghreb?

La troisième chose, ce sont les renouvelables. Pour moi, l'Espagne, le Portugal et le Maroc pourraient être la première région au-delà des continents où l'on passerait à 100 % de renouvelables. Ne faudrait—il pas offrir aux pays africains la possibilité d'exporter des renouvelables vers l'Europe, et augmenter ainsi notre objectif de renouvelables de 1 % pour leur donner aussi un accès à notre marché en exportant des énergies renouvelables?

 
  
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  Eleonora Evi, Autore. – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, l'accordo di Parigi entrerà in vigore in concomitanza con l'avvio della COP22 e questo è certamente un buon segno. È necessario guardare al bicchiere mezzo pieno di questo strumento per tenere alta la speranza di poter ancora cambiare un processo che è molto più grande di noi, sperando di vedere almeno un rallentamento nel cambiamento climatico.

Ma nel bicchiere mezzo vuoto di tempo per i messaggi rassicuranti e le semplici speranze non c'è né. In questa parte del bicchiere, continua ad albergare una nebulosa politica fatta di impegni vincolanti, ma per i quali non ci sono sanzioni. In questa parte del bicchiere, risuona l'eco dello scarso impegno che i paesi industrializzati hanno mostrato nel finanziare il Green Fund. In questa parte del bicchiere, la somma degli impegni di riduzione, come dichiarati dalle singole parti contraenti, non è ancora sufficiente a contenere l'aumento di temperatura entro i due gradi, figurarsi a stare dentro un grado e mezzo, a fine secolo.

Nel bicchiere mezzo vuoto, manca ancora una seria volontà politica di affrontare il convitato di pietra, ovvero l'agricoltura e l'allevamento animale, in particolare, come ha citato la collega Torres Martínez, un problema tanto concreto quanto ignorato. Secondo un recentissimo rapporto dell'UNEP, la produzione alimentare è seconda solo dopo l'uso dei combustibili fossili in termini di responsabilità nelle emissioni. E attenzione, come ha ricordato la collega, ci si riferisce alla produzione alimentare fondata sullo spreco e alla distruzione delle risorse tipica delle economie avanzate, e non certamente all'agricoltura che dovrebbe sfamare chi patisce la fame.

Nel bicchiere mezzo pieno, invece, aleggia il rischio di un mercato di titoli di emissione internazionale. Un'ottima notizia per gli speculatori finanziari, ma molto meno buona per le sorti del pianeta. Una sciagura, quella dell'ETS, un ETS globale che potrebbe essere peggiorato solo dal continuare a sostenere anche il CCS come soluzione per decarbonizzare le produzioni, una pratica che descrive benissimo cosa vuol dire mettere la polvere sotto il tappeto.

 
  
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  Ivan Korčok, President-in-Office of the Council. – Madam President, after the consent you voted here yesterday, the Council has adopted its decision on the conclusion of the agreement. This Friday my colleague, Environment Minister Sólymos will deposit, together with Commissioner Arias Cañete, the EU ratification instrument to the United Nations in New York. Again, let me thank you for your cooperation, which allowed us to react immediately to the unprecedented international momentum, which was mentioned yesterday by the UN Secretary-General. The EU ratification will enable the entry into force of the Paris Agreement and make it possible that the first meeting of the parties to the Paris Agreement will be convened in November in Marrakesh.

And now specifically on Marrakesh. The outcome of the Paris Conference, including the Agreement, the COP decision and intended nationally determined budget contributions, needs to be implemented in all its elements. Marrakesh will be the first opportunity to start the work on the details of the Paris Agreement and to prepare for its implementation. The EU and its Member States are ready to engage in this work, which will include in particular the following elements:

Firstly, the development of common modalities for the transparency and accountability guidelines under the Paris Agreement. This work is critical. The enhanced transparency framework is the key element of the Paris Agreement, helping build mutual trust and underpinning effective implementation. The enhanced transparency process will help parties in preparing, communicating and accounting for successive nationally determined contributions. It will also be critical in providing robust data to support the global stocktake and for the assessment of progress towards the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement.

Secondly, the definition of modalities and inputs of the global stocktake (GST): The GST will provide the key political momentum and drive the parties’ domestic and cooperative action. It should drive more ambitious action by parties in their successive efforts, and its outcome will in turn inform parties in updating and enhancing their actions and support, as well as international cooperation. The Paris Agreement already determines some of the key aspects of the GST design, but specification on its inputs and modalities must help deliver its purpose and fulfil its role in the ambitious cycle.

Thirdly, further action by all parties individually and collectively will be required to re-orient finance flows and make them consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development. The EU and its Member States are taking initiatives both domestically and internationally to support the shift of investments. We are contributing significantly to this transformation. In 2014, we provided EUR 14.5 billion and the 2015 figures will become available before Marrakesh. The EU and its Member States remain committed to scaling up the mobilisation of climate finance as part of the global effort to assist developing countries to implement their low carbon sustainable development and in particular their nationally determined contributions (NDCs). Domestic implementation, climate policies and measures to achieve intended NDCs and their full integration in national policies are of crucial importance.

Finally, I would like to briefly highlight at this point the ongoing legislative work on the implementation of the EU 2030 climate and energy framework, namely on the proposal to reform the ETS sector and the proposals on non-ETS. These measures will enable the target to reduce EU greenhouse gases emissions domestically by at least 40 % in 2030 compared to 1990 emissons to be achieved.

 
  
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  Miguel Arias Cañete, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, first I would like to thank the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI), and indeed the whole Parliament, for their strong support to ratify quickly the Paris Agreement on behalf of the European Union.

Yesterday’s plenary vote in this very Chamber was a historic moment and a further demonstration of European resolve and determination to combat climate change. We can celebrate today the triggering of the entry into force of the Paris Agreement. In view of the COP22, the European Union has a number of key priorities for advancing the Paris Agreement, as mentioned by the Parliament in its oral question and the debate today.

We need to be able to show clear progress on the implementation of all elements of the Paris outcome. In particular, we must show that countries are putting in place ambitious climate policies and that they are getting ready to implement the nationally determined contributions under the Paris Agreement. Within the European Union, the recent decision to channel 40% of the European Fund for Strategic Investments towards climate-relevant projects in the infrastructure and innovation window shows how we are aligning our instruments to deliver the Paris commitments. We must also mobilise support for the implementation of the nationally determined contributions. The Commission, through its international development and cooperation action, is already pressing on the ground in the most affected countries and supports national governments in their efforts on mitigation and adaptation.

The European Union’s new external investment plan is designed to leverage strategic investments in our partner countries, not only to support climate action but also to facilitate the delivery of the sustainable development goals. The global climate action agenda will also play a vital role in helping governments, business and other stakeholders to be inspired by the action around the world. When it comes to the negotiating agenda, Marrakesh needs to make tangible progress on developing the detailed rule book of the Paris Agreement, including the five-yearly global stocktakes. We will need to assess where we are, what more needs to be done, and what the opportunities are for future action. At the European Union level, our proposals on the 2030 legislative framework make clear provision for a review from 2024 onwards in order to take account of the results of the global stocktake under the Paris Agreement and evolving national circumstances.

The 2018 Facilitative Dialogue will be a key political moment in the international climate negotiations. We will take stock of the collective efforts of the parties in progress towards the long—term emission reduction goal of the Paris Agreement. The dialogue will follow the special report to be published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change on emissions pathways compatible with limiting global temperature increase to 1.5 degrees centigrade. The Commission supports the active participation of the European Union in shaping the dialogue as the first important opportunity to take stock of the collective efforts of the parties.

Progress on climate finance is also critical. The European Union is working with other developed country parties to deliver in Marrakesh a concrete roadmap to mobilise the USD 100 billion annually by 2020 for mitigation and adaptation. The roadmap should provide greater transparency and bring stability to the collective efforts of developed countries. The European Union remains committed to supporting partner countries in their efforts on climate action and remains the biggest donor region, our highest level ever in 2015.

Finally, it is crucial that prior to Marrakesh we recall the need to make progress, as many Members have pointed out, in other international fora. As you know, the ICAO Assembly is taking place right now in Montreal with a view to agreeing a global market—based mechanism in order to achieve the stabilisation of aviation emissions at 2020 levels. Later this month, I will also be present in Kigali with the aim of reaching an ambitious agreement on the global phase—down of HFCs under the Montreal Protocol.

We have achieved remarkable progress this year on global climate action. Less than 12 months ago, we adopted the Paris Agreement and its entry into force was triggered yesterday, but we still have much work to do to implement our commitments on the ground. I count on your continued support both here and in Marrakesh, so that together we can make COP22 a real success.

 
  
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  Seán Kelly, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Madam President, it was a great pleasure for me to attend in Paris last year, especially as it ended in success with the historic COP21 Agreement. I think the European Union played a huge part in laying the foundations for it and in showing leadership, particularly under Commissioner Cañete, in that. It was great yesterday to see the ratification process being signed here by our President, Mr Schulz, in the presence of Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations.

We can look forward with confidence to Marrakesh in November. I think that Marrakesh can be seen as the COP22 of action. At long last, we are in the position to actually transfer agreements, commitments into action. The European Union will play a very important part, and in this we need to show especially diplomatic leadership, because we can do all we like here in the European Union, we could have targets to reduce carbon emissions to zero, but unless the world does the same, it is not going to have an impact. We can help, especially in ensuring all countries fulfil their commitments. We can also help in making the technology that we will utilise in relation to renewable energies, energy efficiencies, ETS, you name it, available to third countries.

I think we can look forward with optimism, but also we have to be conscious of the fact that we have three targets here in Europe. Firstly, to meet our targets in relation to climate change; secondly, to reindustrialise Europe – we had a motion for a resolution on that today – and thirdly, to maintain our competitiveness. We will not have to worry that much about carbon leakage if there is a global agreement, because that will establish a global level playing field, and I think it will make everybody happy that this can be done by increasing jobs and growth and at the same time saving the climate for future generations.

 
  
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  Jytte Guteland, för S&D-gruppen. – Fru talman! Så sent som igår satt vi alla i den här kammaren och jublade över att vi äntligen har ratificerat det internationella Parisavtalet. Jag är glad över att vi lyckades med det och att det är på plats inför den kommande klimatkonferensen i Marrakech. Men vi ska inte klappa oss på axeln alltför mycket, utan vi ska också förstå och inse att det här är början.

Det är nu EU och resten av världen måste kavla upp ärmarna. Det är nu vi måste visa att vi är kapabla och beredda att faktiskt arbeta för de lösningar som krävs om vi ska nå målet att begränsa den globala uppvärmningen till maximalt 2 grader och helst mot 1,5 grader. Det krävs mer än vackra ord för att genomföra detta; nu behövs det konkret politik. Om vi ska visa allvaret med att klimatomställningen inte är ett hinder utan en hävstång för ett hållbart samhälle och en mer resurseffektiv grön ekonomi är det självklart att EU måste leda den utvecklingen.

EU kommer, som alla regioner i världen, att behöva göra mycket mer om vi ska nå Parisavtalets mål. Ett av de viktigaste verktygen är ETS, som vi har till vårt förfogande. Jag själv och kollegor här i parlamentet förhandlar just nu ETS. Vi måste se till att minska klimatutsläppen mer och snabbare än i dagsläget, men vi måste också skapa rätt incitament för industrin så att de vågar genomföra klimatsmarta investeringar.

Jag vill också understryka att klimatomställningen måste omfatta hela samhället. Det är inte okej att vissa branscher åker snålskjuts på andra, utan att bidra till klimatomställningen. Alla som kan ska dra sitt strå till stacken. På samma sätt måste vi också se till att omställningen är solidarisk och undviker negativa sociala effekter. Grupper och regioner med särskilda utmaningar får inte hamna på efterkälken utan måste få ett särskilt stöd i omställningen.

 
  
  

Președinte: ADINA-IOANA VĂLEAN
Vicepreședintă

 
  
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  Merja Kyllönen, GUE/NGL-ryhmän puolesta. – Arvoisa puhemies, ilmastosopimus toteutuu. Hienoa! Kääritään hihat ja ryhdytään töihin. Sopimus ei ole täydellinen, mutta meidän on hoidettava tonttimme.

Kaipaamme kipeästi rahoituksen uudelleensuuntaamista ympäristöllisesti ja sosiaalisesti kestävämmälle pohjalle. Me tuemme miljardeilla fossiilitaloutta, ja voisimme suuntaamalla uudelleen edes osan näistä tuista, vahvistaa energiatehokkuutta ja edistää uusiutuvien energioiden tutkimusta, kehitystä ja käyttöä myös työllisyyttä edistävällä pk-sektorilla. 

On toimittava, jotta tukieurot ja julkinen raha suunnataan toimiin, päästöjen vähentämiseksi, puhutaan sitten ETS-kompensaatiosta, yleisestä maatalouspolitiikasta tai EU:n energia- ja liikennepolitiikasta. Muutoin sopimuksemme jää pelkäksi tyhjäksi kirjaimeksi. Jokainen edustaja voi tehdä toimia oman hallituksensa puoleen, jotta ICAOssa ja IMOssa todella jotain tapahtuu.

 
  
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  Julia Reid, on behalf of the EFDD Group. – Madam President, the small increase in temperature we have seen over the past 100 years is entirely consistent with the natural long—term cyclical changes we have seen for at least 10 000 years and there has been no significant increase in warming since 1995. That the entire text of the motion for a resolution is based on the false assumption that climate change due to AGW is occurring.

We in UKIP deny the climate change alarmism supported by green lobbies, often financed by the Commission, who both are responsible for our current damaging and counter—productive energy policies. To date, hundreds of energy—intensive industries, along with thousands of jobs, have left the EU and moved to the Third World. Despite this, the Commission continues to impose never ending unrealistic objectives for emissions reductions. Sadly such policies, which are forcing investment of vast sums of money will have little or no effect on climate.

On leaving the EU, Britain will be free to formulate its own energy policy whereby our poorest citizens will not be forced to choose between heating and eating.

 
  
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  Gilles Lebreton, au nom du groupe ENF. – Madame la Présidente, il est urgent de lutter contre le réchauffement climatique. Si rien n'est fait, l'Afrique ne pourra subvenir qu'à 13 % de ses besoins alimentaires d'ici 2050. Cela provoquera une invasion migratoire bien supérieure à celle que nous connaissons.

La COP22 de Marrakech va connaître un succès apparent. 62 pays représentant 51 % des émissions mondiales de gaz à effet de serre ont, en effet, déjà ratifié l'accord signé à Paris en 2015 dans le cadre de la COP21.

Mais l'Union européenne va pourtant s'engager dans un marché de dupes. Elle accepte, en effet, de réduire de 40 % ses émissions nocives, quand les États-Unis se contentent de 28 % et quand la Chine n'accepte d'envisager une réduction qu'après 2030.

Je dénonce donc l'irresponsabilité de l'Union, qui va accélérer la désindustrialisation de l'Europe, en se soumettant unilatéralement à des contraintes qui ne pèseront pas sur ses principaux concurrents économiques.

 
  
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  Pilar Ayuso (PPE). – Señora Presidenta, yo, en primer lugar, quiero felicitar al señor Comisario Arias Cañete y a su equipo por los esfuerzos desplegados durante estos años, que se han visto recompensados con este gran éxito que marca un hito en su mandato. Ayer, esta Cámara aprobó por amplia mayoría la ratificación del acuerdo al que se llegó en París a finales de 2015. Supone la culminación del liderazgo que ha mantenido la Unión Europea en las sucesivas conferencias de las partes y tenemos que felicitarnos por ello.

La Unión Europea se comprometió a reducir sus emisiones en un 20 % para 2020 respecto a 1999 y en un 40 % en 2030. El primer objetivo va camino de cumplirse y no tengo duda de que también alcanzaremos la meta que nos hemos propuesto para 2030.

Durante muchos años, hemos insistido en la necesidad de alcanzar un acuerdo internacional, de manera que los países responsables de las emisiones contribuyan todos a la lucha contra el cambio climático en condiciones que sean al menos comparables. No todos los países son igualmente responsables, ni tienen los mismos retos sociales, ambientales, energéticos e industriales. Por ello, es lógico que haya mecanismos de solidaridad para financiar inversiones, investigación y desarrollo.

Al mismo tiempo, sería necesario un mecanismo para hacer el seguimiento de los compromisos que los países van asumiendo y para poder ejercer cierta presión si los esfuerzos no son suficientes. El Acuerdo deberá tener consecuencias positivas para reindustrializar la Unión Europea. También creo que permitirá una rápida progresión de las energías renovables y la eficiencia energética en terceros países.

Es importante agilizar otras negociaciones en el ámbito internacional para que, en Marrakech, haya nuevos avances que desarrollen el Acuerdo de París en lo relativo a la transparencia, el control de las emisiones, los calendarios y el cumplimiento.

 
  
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  Gilles Pargneaux (S&D). – Madame la Présidente, Monsieur le Commissaire, Monsieur le Ministre; Monsieur le Commissaire, en tant que rapporteur pour le Parlement européen, l'an dernier, dans la résolution que nous avons adoptée à l'occasion de cette COP21, je voudrais saluer votre travail, le travail que vous avez accompli et que nous avons accompli avec vous, l'an dernier, à Paris pour trouver cet accord historique. Puis, je voudrais saluer aussi le travail que vous avez effectué depuis dix mois pour permettre la ratification de cet accord, que nous avons officialisé hier, en séance plénière.

En même temps, Monsieur le Commissaire, il va falloir continuer et, ensemble, à Marrakech, nous allons aborder, je crois, un certain nombre de points qui me semblent essentiels.

Tout d'abord, la création de financements innovants pour lutter contre les changements climatiques, avec, par exemple, la fixation d'un prix plancher pour la tonne de carbone ou la réforme du système européen d'échange de quotas carbone, mais aussi l'instauration d'une véritable économie circulaire et la dynamisation des énergies renouvelables ou encore la suppression des subventions allouées au secteur des énergies fossiles – qui mènera, à terme, à l'abandon des combustions fossiles – et, enfin, aussi l'intensification des efforts de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre produites dans les secteurs du transport et de l'agriculture.

Enfin, il faut, comme le dit Claude Turmes, aborder notre coopération en matière d'énergie renouvelable vis-à-vis de l'Afrique et l'ensemble de ce que nous devons faire vis-à-vis de cette Afrique. Nous travaillons avec Jean-Louis Borloo, mais je pense que c'est aussi un sujet que nous devons aborder ensemble.

Oui, Marrakech doit être la COP de l'action.

 
  
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  Roger Helmer (EFDD). – Madam President, I love to drive fast cars, and I just wish we had optional speed limits. But it seems we can have optional emissions limits under the Paris climate deal. We are told again and again that it is legally binding, but in fact it is no such thing.

There are no sanctions available, we are all terribly concerned about getting it ratified. But there is precious little hope that it will ever be implemented. If it were implemented, the EU only accounts for about 10% of global emissions, so we shall have no effect at all, while India and China continue to build coal-fired power stations. So what will we achieve?

I will tell you what we will achieve: we will set in stone the competitive disadvantage in energy prices which we have chosen to impose upon ourselves. We will accelerate Europe’s relative decline, we will leave our children and grandchildren poorer. The only good news is that after Brexit the UK will be in a position to review the Paris deal. I very much hope we have the common sense to repudiate it.

 
  
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  Dubravka Šuica (PPE). – Gospođo predsjednice, ne vjerujem da ćemo doći u priliku da revidiramo Pariški sporazum kad smo ga tek jučer u Parlamentu ratificirali i to s velikom većinom. To je zaista bio povijesni događaj i EU je pokazala da je u stanju biti lider, biti u vodstvu kad se radi o borbi protiv klimatskih promjena.

(Govor je prekinut zbog problema s prijevodom i potom nastavljen.)

Sada je na državama članicama da ga ratificiraju u svojim parlamentima – nadam se da će to učiniti na najbrži mogući način, ali na njima je i da pokažu svoje akcijske planove u borbi protiv klimatskih promjena. Kao što smo čuli od g. Cañetea, postoje programi i vanjski programi Europske komisije za odnose s drugim zemljama i ulaganja u druge zemlje, a isto tako i za odnose s našim partnerima. Nije dovoljno da samo EU ispunjava svoje zadaće. Pariški sporazum tada nema smisla. Stoga je velika vijest da su SAD, Kina, Indija i druge velike sile već ratificirale Pariški sporazum i da on neće ostati mrtvo slovo na papiru.

Od Marakeša se puno očekuje: očekuje se implementacija ovog Pariškog sporazuma, ali i veća podrška izaslanstvu Europskog parlamenta u Marakešu kako bi ono moglo sudjelovati u donošenju svih potrebnih pravilnika. U svakom slučaju ostajemo vjerni ciljevima koje smo zacrtali do 2030., odnosno smanjenju zatopljenja za 2°C i emisija stakleničkih plinova do 40  %. Očekujemo 2018. kao vrlo važnu godinu kada ćemo moći provjeriti sve ovo o čemu govorimo i voditi dijalog. Vjerujem da će to biti vrlo važna godina, ali vjerujem i da će mandat g. Cañetea biti obilježen brzom ratifikacijom i da možemo biti zadovoljni onim što je dosad učinjeno. U svakom slučaju očekujemo implementaciju i provedbu svega onoga što je zapisano u Pariškom sporazumu.

 
  
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  Simona Bonafè (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, questa discussione avviene all'indomani dell'approvazione a larghissima maggioranza, purtroppo non all'unanimità come avremmo voluto vedere, della ratifica europea degli accordi di Parigi sulla lotta cambiamenti climatici. Si è trattato di un momento storico – l'hanno già detto molti – per le azioni per il clima, di cui non possiamo non cogliere però anche il valore simbolico. Mentre nella nostra Unione molti credono di fronteggiare sfide epocali chiudendosi nei propri confini, l'accordo di Parigi dimostra invece che le sfide globali si possono e si devono affrontare con risposte globali e che l'Europa può essere protagonista.

A novembre ci troveremo a Marrakech per la ventiduesima COP e con altri colleghi saremo lì a portare avanti il contributo di idee che sono state evidenziate nella risoluzione del Parlamento. Non torno sui punti già trattati, voglio solo sottolineare un aspetto: per rendere possibile la transizione a una società low carbon non basta una semplice politica di riduzione delle emissioni in atmosfera se non favoriamo e sosteniamo contestualmente un cambio di paradigma del nostro modello di sviluppo, cioè se non passiamo, come più volte ci siamo detti e come abbiamo veramente l'opportunità di fare, a un modello di economia circolare, che significa uso efficiente delle risorse, investimenti in efficienza energetica ed energie rinnovabili, che soli possono tenere insieme sostenibilità e crescita e farci rispettare gli accordi Parigi.

 
  
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  Λευτέρης Χριστοφόρου ( PPE). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, καταρχήν θα ήθελα πραγματικά να αποδώσω δίκαιο έπαινο και όλοι μας να αποδώσουμε αυτά τα συγχαρητήρια στον αγαπητό μας συνάδελφο τον Giovanni La Via και στον Επίτροπο, κύριο Cañete για την εξαιρετική προσπάθεια και σκληρή δουλειά για να μπορέσει να φτάσει το Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινοβούλιο και Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση να ακυρώσει τη συμφωνία των Παρισίων. Μια σημαντική, ιστορικής σημασίας που ανέδειξε τον ρόλο της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. Απέδειξε για μια ακόμη φορά ότι η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση παραμένει ισχυρή και η ηγέτιδα δύναμη που μπορεί να γέρνει την πλάστιγγα υπέρ της ανθρωπότητας, υπέρ της πιο κοινωνικής Ευρώπης, υπέρ των Ευρωπαίων πολιτών, υπέρ των μελλοντικών γενεών.

Είναι γι’ αυτό που εμείς λέμε ότι αυτή η συμφωνία αποτελεί ορόσημο και εμείς οφείλουμε αυτή τη στιγμή να την υλοποιήσουμε και η πράξη της υλοποίησης είναι εκεί που θα κρίνει και την Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή και εμάς στο Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινοβούλιο. Θεωρώ ότι για να μπορέσει να υλοποιηθεί και να αποδώσει αυτή συμφωνία πρέπει να δοθούν κίνητρα στους δύο βασικούς πυλώνες που εμείς ως Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινοβούλιο ορίσαμε: την εξοικονόμηση ενέργειας και τις ανανεώσιμες πηγές ενέργειας που είναι οι βασικές προϋποθέσεις για την ευρωπαϊκή ενεργειακή ένωση και επειδή άκουσα προηγουμένως ότι πρέπει να δώσουμε κίνητρα σε τρίτες χώρες στην Αφρική, εγώ λέω ότι στην ίδια τη Μεσόγειο, αφού η Μεσόγειος έχει το συγκριτικό πλεονέκτημα της ηλιοφάνειας. Η δική μου η πατρίδα, η Κύπρος, έχει πέραν των 300 ημερών ηλιοφάνεια, και μπορεί κάλλιστα να αναπτύξει ανανεώσιμες πηγές ενέργειας, εάν πραγματικά έχει τη στήριξη των προγραμμάτων της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. Εμείς οι ίδιοι μπορούμε να το πράξουμε και δεν βλέπω το λόγο γιατί να κοιτάμε οπουδήποτε αλλού.

Το άλλο σημαντικό που ήθελα να τονίσω είναι ότι πρέπει να υπάρξει κινητοποίηση και των ίδιων των πολιτών της κοινωνίας των πολιτών, για αειφόρο ανάπτυξη, για βιώσιμη ανάπτυξη, αλλά και η καταπολέμηση της ενεργειακής φτώχειας. Εξυπηρετώντας και υλοποιώντας αυτούς τους στόχους, σίγουρα καταπολεμούμε και την ενεργειακή ένδεια, σίγουρα θα αποβούν και προς όφελος των καταναλωτών και τελειώνοντας, αυτή η προσπάθεια δεν μπορεί να χρηματοδοτηθεί από άλλες πηγές εκτός από τη βασική αρχή όλων μας που είναι «ο ρυπαίνων πληρώνει» και δεν νομίζω να σχετίζεται ο φόρος χρηματοπιστωτικών συναλλαγών με την χρηματοδότηση της οποιασδήποτε προσπάθειας να αποτρέψουμε την κλιματική αλλαγή.

 
  
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  Miriam Dalli (S&D). – Chair, Sur Kummissarju, fil-fatt huwa ta’ sodisfazzjon għalija li nkun qiegħda nindirizza proprju din il-plenarja hawnhekk illejla għaliex proprju llejla Malta għadha kif irratifikat il-Ftehim ta’ Pariġi u nafu li r-rattifika tal-Ftehim ta’ Pariġi mill-Unjoni Ewropea hija suċċess. Għedniha kemm-il darba u dan grazzi wkoll għall-Kummissarju Miguel Arias Cañete li qiegħed hawnhekk magħna għad-determinazzjoni li wrejt anki fin-negozjati li f’ħafna ħinijiet ma kinux faċli.

Imma llejla nixtieq inħares ukoll mil-lenti ta’ ċittadina Maltija, gżira żgħira f’nofs il-Mediterran, reġjun li huwa meqjus bħala wieħed mill-aktar esposti għat-tibdil tal-klima. Iċ-ċittadini tagħna, dan it-tibdil, diġà qegħdin jesperjenzawh fil-ħajja tagħhom ta’ kuljum. Jikkonfermaw dan studji li jindikaw li fost l-oħrajn ix-xita tista’ tonqos b’aktar minn nofs sas-sena 2100 u li l-livell tal-Baħar Mediterranju jista’ jkompli jogħla. Għalhekk, iva, hemm bżonn urġenti li jkollna miżuri konkreti u immedjati li jimplimentaw dak li ġie miftiehem f’Pariġi. Għaliex jekk mhux se naġixxu malajr, kwistjonijiet ta’ stabilità u sigurtà fil-Mediterran se jsiru aktar inkwetanti u aktar immedjati.

Għalhekk il-Konferenza ta’ Marakexx qed tiġi fi żmien meta nistgħu nbiddlu l-affarijiet u proprju f’reġjun li tant jeħtieġ din il-bidla. Għandna din l-opportunità f’idejna u rridu naċċertaw ruħna li nkomplu nibnu fuq il-momentum li diġà jeżisti.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye procedure

 
  
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  Csaba Sógor (PPE). – Madam President, in expressing commitment to a carbon—free future, the signature of the COP21 Agreement represents a remarkable global achievement. What we have to do now is to translate this commitment into action; to implement what has been included in the agreement, but also to go beyond what has already been agreed.

One such area would be carbon pricing, an issue rather left out of the Paris Agreement, but which could bear crucial importance in emissions reduction. As opposed to emissions trading schemes – which in the past have often proved less effective because of the inflation in the tradable permits handed out – carbon taxes would represent a more effective way to reduce emissions: they would transform the cost of pollution from a negative externality into actual costs, favouring a change in polluting behaviour. Additionally, revenues from such costs could, in the end, be used for the financing of new renewable energy infrastructures, thus starting a new virtuous cycle.

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, i negoziati di Marrakech devono proseguire sulla scia degli elementi chiave dell'accordo di Parigi, in particolare per quanto riguarda il rafforzamento del quadro per la trasparenza delle azioni di mitigazione del riscaldamento climatico, la definizione delle revisioni 2018 degli impegni nazionali, la creazione dei meccanismi per affrontare le perdite e i danni causati dal clima e la promozione della conformità alle norme dell'accordo sul clima.

Sottolineo la necessità di avviare le discussioni sulla forma che assumerà il dialogo di facilitazione del 2018, che dovrà permettere di colmare il divario esistente in materia di mitigazione. L'Unione europea deve svolgere un ruolo proattivo in questo primo dialogo di facilitazione per fare il punto del livello di ambizione collettiva e dei progressi nell'attuazione degli impegni assunti.

Auspicabile, infine, sarebbe che la Commissione e gli Stati membri presentassero, prima del dialogo di facilitazione, ambiziosi piani energetici e climatici a livello nazionale, relativamente all'attuazione degli impegni assunti a norma dell'accordo di Parigi.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, έχω τονίσει και παλαιότερα ότι, παρά τις θριαμβολογίες Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης και Γαλλίας, η περσινή απόφαση της COP21 στο Παρίσι δεν δημιούργησε σαφές πλαίσιο αντιμετώπισης των καταστροφικών συνεπειών του φαινομένου της κλιματικής αλλαγής κι αυτό διότι δεν έθιξε δύο μείζονα προβλήματα τα οποία θα κληθούμε να αντιμετωπίσουμε στο μέλλον. Πρώτο μείζον πρόβλημα είναι αυτό του παραγωγικού μοντέλου που επί της ουσίας δεν αλλάζει. Τα μεγάλα βιομηχανικά κράτη και οι εταιρείες τους καταφέρνουν τελικά να πλουτίζουν στο όνομα της δήθεν οικολογίας και συνεχίζουν να υπηρετούν το ίδιο μοντέλο ανάπτυξης. Δεύτερον μείζον θέμα είναι αυτό της κλιματικής μετανάστευσης.

Πρόκειται για τεράστια πολιτική αδυναμία της συμφωνίας του Παρισιού η έλλειψη οποιασδήποτε αναφοράς στο καθεστώς του κλιματικού πρόσφυγα ή μετανάστη. Μόνο για την περίοδο 2008-2013, ο αριθμός τους υπολογίζεται σε 166 εκατομμύρια. Επιπλέον, οι έρευνες που έχουν γίνει δείχνουν ότι μόνο όταν μια φυσική καταστροφή βρίσκει απροετοίμαστη μια ομάδα ανθρώπων, αυτοί μεταναστεύουν. Ήρθε λοιπόν η ώρα για τα βιομηχανικά κράτη της COP22 να αναλάβουν χωρίς περιστροφές τις ευθύνες τους και να δημιουργήσουν πραγματικούς μηχανισμούς πρόληψης των προβλημάτων διότι ξέρουμε πώς πρέπει να τα αντιμετωπίσουμε.

 
  
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  Xabier Benito Ziluaga (GUE/NGL). – Señora Presidenta, cuando se hace referencia al cambio climático hablamos como si fuera una cosa a evitar en el futuro. Les daré un dato, un hecho, muy del presente: en una isla de Alaska han tenido recientemente que votar en referéndum si migrar al continente porque su isla estaba siendo literalmente inundada por la subida del nivel del mar. Este es solo uno de los ejemplos más de las poblaciones de refugiadas climáticas en todo el mundo.

Ayer, el presidente del Grupo Popular en esta misma Cámara decía que sí, que el clima es muy importante, pero fue su Grupo quien presentó enmiendas a la opinión del Parlamento para limitar las medidas en función de la competitividad económica.

La Comisión Europea, señor Arias Cañete, también está muy concienciada, al parecer; pero el Fondo Europeo de Inversiones ha dedicado 1 500 millones de euros a infraestructuras de combustibles fósiles, cuando, según el grupo de científicos internacional IPCC, en 2050 el sector eléctrico no tendría que producir ni un solo gramo de CO2 más.

 
  
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  Karin Kadenbach (S&D). – Frau Präsidentin, sehr geehrter Herr Kommissar! Mit großen Worten wie „historischer Tag“ oder „das Wunder geht weiter“ ist die Ratifizierung des Klimavertrags gefeiert worden. Und ich glaube, das Wunder ist wirklich weitergegangen. Wir haben uns letztes Jahr, als der Vertrag in Paris zustande gekommen war, schon sehr gefreut. Wir freuen uns nun, dass er vor der COP 22 in Marrakesch wirklich auch in Kraft tritt. Es ist daher ganz besonders verwunderlich, dass es auch in diesem Haus immer noch Leute gegeben hat, die offenbar den Klimawandel leugnen, die auch gestern gegen die Ratifizierung gestimmt haben.

Wir haben heute viele Beispiele bekommen, dass wir in Zukunft Solidarität brauchen, um diesen Klimavertrag jetzt auch wirklich mit Leben zu erfüllen. Wir haben in diesem Parlament in den nächsten Wochen und Monaten sehr viele Chancen zu beweisen, dass wir es mit diesem Bekenntnis ernst meinen – egal ob es um die Verhandlungen zum Emissionshandelssystem geht, egal ob es um eine Kreislaufwirtschaft geht. Das sind alles Beweise, wo wir zeigen können: Wir meinen es ernst, wir wollen eine CO2-freie Zukunft.

Ich fordere alle hier im Haus auf, dass wir auch in Zukunft genau bei diesen Fragen 610 Abgeordnete haben, die sagen: Ja, wir wollen eine CO2-freie Zukunft haben!

 
  
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  João Ferreira (GUE/NGL). – Senhora Presidente, Senhor Comissário, não embandeiramos em arco no coro de festiva propaganda em torno do Acordo de Paris. São várias as fragilidades deste acordo e a necessidade indiscutível de um instrumento global e vinculativo de redução das emissões de gases de efeito estufa não faz com que valha tudo. E não nos referimos apenas à ausência de objetivos concretos e de compromissos de redução que consubstanciem os objetivos anunciados de contenção da elevação da temperatura, questão relevante, já aqui referida.

Para além das metas temos de cuidar dos meios para alcançar estas metas e deploramos, por isso, a insistência em mecanismos de mercado que já demonstraram a sua ineficácia e perversidade: seja o mercado do carbono, o comércio de licenças para poluir, que estão ao preço da chuva, como bem sabemos, sejam os instrumentos de flexibilidade que vêm de Quioto, igualmente perversos e injustos.

Continua a haver aqui mais intenção de negócio do que preocupação genuína com o estado da nossa Casa comum. Mas há alternativas. Por elas nos temos batido e continuaremos a bater.

 
  
 

(End of catch-the-eye procedure)

 
  
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  Miguel Arias Cañete, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, I would like to thank all the Members who have participated in this debate for their close interest in the preparations for the COP22 Conference in Marrakesh. Success in Marrakesh means demonstrating that implementation of Paris is moving full steam ahead globally on all the elements of the Paris Package. The agenda for Marrakesh is very rich; unlike in Paris, where there was only one big deliverable, we have a variety of outcomes and the challenge will be to weave them together to tell a convincing story. For us, this story has to be one of real step—change after Paris, the world moving full steam ahead in the implementation of Paris. Marrakesh has to demonstrate that commitments are being implemented all over the world and enable more immediate action.

We can see two very broad areas. First, formal deliverables under the negotiating process. In particular, we have important conclusions to reach on loss and damage, with the review of the Warsaw International Mechanism, which is fundamental for islands, and on capacity building. And, of course, we need to make progress in building the Paris Framework. The second broad area is enhancing action and transparency before 2020, because it is essential that we clearly demonstrate that countries are swiftly putting in place ambitious climate policies, that they are gearing up to implement their NDCs and integrate their NDCs into national development planning in full coherence with SDGs? And we have an opportunity for progress on climate finance with a ministerial event which I hope can be pragmatic and action-oriented.

We will continue the multilateral process for monitoring, reporting and verification, because this raises the profile of all countries’ efforts and is a valuable experience for the future. I would also like to see a politically visible high level event on global climate action agenda that will inspire future action.

It is very clear that there is much work still to do. However, as we look to implementing our commitments on the ground and progression in all areas on the Paris Agreement. We in the European Union, already between this year and next year, will deliver all the needed legislation to implement our Paris commitments. We already have the emission trading system, and therefore certain decisions, and we will come forward in December with an ambitious package for electricity market design, energy efficiency directives and energy performance of buildings and a renewables directive, and at the beginning of the year we will come with CO2 standards for cars and light vans.

The European Union not only has ambitious targets, it is enforcing all the policies and is already working with Parliament to deliver our commitments. We are doing our homework and we must help other countries to build capacity to deliver their homework, because for us it is easier, but for developing countries we have to build capacity for everything, for implementing the policies to be able to have monitoring systems, and that is why the Capacity Building Mechanism will be fundamental in Paris.

I count on the support of this Parliament and I can assure you of my intention as always to keep Members of the European Parliament very closely informed of developments in the negotiations. These negotiations will be different to the one in Paris but the European Union, with a high ambition coalition, will work steadily so that we make real progress in COP22 in Marrakesh.

 
  
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  Ivan Korčok, President-in-Office of the Council. – Madam President, I am glad that, after yesterday’s successful completion of ratification of the Paris agreement on behalf of the European Union, today’s debate was already focused on its implementation.

Secondly, I would like to say how much we appreciate your support, honourable Members, in outreach efforts to our international partners. This is very much appreciated.

Lastly, the Council is of course committed to working together in the run-up to the Marrakesh conference in order to achieve the best possible results.

 
  
 

President. I have received one motion for a resolution tabled in accordance with Rule 123(2) of the Rules of Procedure.

 
  
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  Ivo Belet (PPE), schriftelijk. – Met de historisch snelle goedkeuring van het akkoord van Parijs toont de EU dat het haar menens is met de strijd tegen de klimaatverandering. Het is meteen een prima aanzet om ook intern de zaken op orde te brengen en het EU leiderschap inzake klimaat- en energietransitie waar te maken. Zo'n engagement creëert grote economische mogelijkheden waar alle sectoren, burgers, bedrijven en overheden baat bij hebben. Dit vergt van alle actoren een stevige inspanning, maar biedt unieke opportuniteiten. We moeten dit uiteraard doen met de nodige omzichtigheid, zodat we onze bedrijven niet uit de EU duwen, maar een kader creëren dat duurzame investeringen aanmoedigt en aantrekt.

 
  
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  Андрей Ковачев (PPE), в писмена форма. – Благодарение на ратифицирането от ЕС, вече няма никакви пречки пред влизането в сила на Парижкото споразумение навреме за Конференцията за климатичните промени КОП 22 в Маракеш от 7 до 18 ноември 2016 г. Споразумението отбелязва наистина исторически пробив в международните преговори по климата, защото за първи път всички 195 страни приеха правнообвързващата цел за намаляване на емисиите до ниво, което ще поддържа глобалното затопляне под 2°C.

ЕС е лидер в политиките по климата и най-големият финансов донор глобално, но ние не можем сами да се справим с този глобален проблем. Ако само ЕС се ангажира с изпълнението на определени ангажименти, от това ще пострада нашата конкурентоспособност и индустрия. Важно е също така амбициозните цели за намаляване на въглеродните емисии да не доведат до повишаване на зависимостта ни от внос на енергийни източници.

Важно е сега да се премине към изпълнението на колективните глобални ангажименти, за да се ускори преходът към нисковъглеродна и устойчива на изменението на климата глобална икономика. Ранната ратификация ще позволи на ЕС да участва пълноправно в първата среща на страните по споразумението в Маракеш, на която ще бъдат заложени параметрите по изпълнение на поетите ангажименти.

 
  
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  Carolina Punset (ALDE), por escrito. – Por fin, la Unión ha ratificado el Acuerdo de Paris, posiblemente, el más importante acuerdo internacional para salvar la casa común de la humanidad. El cambio climático ya es indiscutible y parecen lejanas las declaraciones negacionistas de muchos políticos conservadores de hace tan sólo dos legislaturas. La mayoría de países firmantes ya han entregado en la sede de la ONU sus contribuciones a la reducción de emisiones, pero los cálculos dicen que no se alcanzará el objetivo de reducir el calentamiento climático a 2⁰, que hace falta mayor esfuerzo. Es hora de pasar de la foto a la acción y acelerar la transición energética. La Unión llena miles de folios con declaraciones de buenas intenciones, mientras algunos Estados miembros baten records de quema de carbón, como España y siembran de inseguridad jurídica la inversión en energías limpias. Por su magnitud y urgencia, deben eliminarse las tecnologías contaminantes en la generación de energía. La Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el cambio Climático de 2016 en Marraquech es una oportunidad para que la Unión recupere el liderazgo en la lucha contra el calentamiento global, si se acompaña de acciones alineadas con los objetivos climáticos, que hasta ahora no se ven.

 
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