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Postopek : 2015/2316(INI)
Potek postopka na zasedanju
Potek postopka za dokument : A8-0245/2016

Predložena besedila :

A8-0245/2016

Razprave :

PV 24/10/2016 - 17
CRE 24/10/2016 - 17

Glasovanja :

PV 25/10/2016 - 7.4
CRE 25/10/2016 - 7.4
Obrazložitev glasovanja

Sprejeta besedila :

P8_TA(2016)0404

Razprave
Ponedeljek, 24. oktober 2016 - Strasbourg Pregledana izdaja

17. Človekove pravice in migracije v tretjih državah (kratka predstavitev)
Video posnetki govorov
PV
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  Presidente. – L'ordine del giorno reca la relazione di Marie-Christine Vergiat, a nome della commissione per gli affari esteri, sui diritti umani e la migrazione nei paesi terzi (2015/2316(INI)) (A8-0245/2016).

 
  
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  Marie-Christine Vergiat, rapporteure. – Monsieur le Président, je voudrais tout d'abord remercier tout particulièrement les rapporteurs fictifs qui m'ont accompagnée sur ce rapport, leurs assistants et les conseillers des groupes ainsi que Marion, ma propre collaboratrice, sans qui ce rapport n'aurait pu se faire. Nous y travaillons depuis près d'un an, leur soutien m'a été précieux malgré les vicissitudes que nous avons traversées, dont la pire a été ce que j'appellerais l'épreuve des langues. En sous-commission DROI, les traductions sont en partie confiées à des services extérieurs, ce qui doit coûter relativement cher; on devrait en attendre un service rendu à la hauteur. Or, ce fut une horreur. Nous avons découvert que certaines d'entre elles étaient des traductions automatiques. C'est pourquoi, Monsieur le Président, je demande instamment que les instances ad hoc du Parlement européen fassent une enquête en la matière.

Ce rapport porte sur les droits de l'homme et la migration dans les pays tiers et ne porte donc pas sur les politiques migratoires de l'Union. Notre Parlement a fait un rapport sur ce sujet, celui de Mme Metsola et de Mme Kyenge, adopté à une large majorité, et en élabore un autre sur les politiques extérieures. Nous nous sommes donc concentrés sur la situation dans les pays tiers, avec la volonté de resituer les migrations dans leur contexte mondial.

Ce rapport insiste sur l'évolution des politiques migratoires, de plus en plus mondialisées mais aussi régionalisées, ainsi que sur leurs causes, de plus en plus multiples et complexes: 244 millions de migrants internationaux, soit 3,3 % de la population mondiale contre 2,9 % en 1990; 80 % des mouvements se font désormais entre pays aux frontières communes, et de plus en plus Sud-Sud. La plupart des pays du monde sont aujourd'hui des pays d'origine, de transit, de destination, y compris en Europe. Ces migrations concernent de plus en plus de femmes et d'enfants, et notamment des mineurs isolés et, donc, autant de personnes vulnérables qui ont droit à une protection particulière sur les routes de plus en plus dangereuses des migrations. Ils sont aussi de plus en plus diplômés: déjà 59 millions en 2010, et c'est l'Afrique qui paie le plus lourd tribut à cette fuite des cerveaux.

La question des réfugiés a une place toute particulière dans ce rapport. Le nombre de personnes déracinées, réfugiées et déplacées atteint désormais 65 millions selon le Haut Commissariat pour les réfugiés, avec une augmentation de 10 % en un an, surtout du nombre de déplacés.

Dans nos propositions, nous avons voulu partir du respect des droits de l'homme, tels qu'ils sont reconnus et protégés par les conventions internationales, et voir comment l'Union européenne, dans ses politiques de partenariat avec les pays tiers, peut agir pour un meilleur respect des droits de l'homme, y compris en montrant l'exemple sur son territoire et en faisant respecter les conventions internationales ad hoc.

La convention internationale sur la protection des droits de tous les travailleurs migrants et des membres de leur famille n'a été signée par aucun État membre de l'Union européenne. Tous les migrants ont des droits, quelle que soit leur situation, comme le dit régulièrement le rapporteur spécial chargé des migrants à l'ONU. Partir du respect des droits de l'homme, cela veut dire, par exemple, refuser les réadmissions forcées de migrants vers les pays où ils risquent mauvais traitements et tortures; refuser les expulsions collectives et les refoulements qui sont contraires au droit international; respecter le droit au regroupement familial et le droit de quitter un pays, y compris le sien, et de pouvoir y revenir, et ce dans tous les pays du monde.

Ce ne sont là que quelques exemples. Un tel souhait peut paraître un vœu pieux. Certains disent ici que ce rapport serait trop progressiste. Nous avons considéré majoritairement, au sein de la commission des affaires étrangères, que l'Union européenne devrait œuvrer davantage dans ce domaine, en travaillant avec ses principaux partenaires à la mise en œuvre de législations respectueuses des droits des migrants, en commençant par le droit d'asile.

Il nous semble que l'IEDDH est un bon instrument pour avancer et qu'il serait temps d'adopter des lignes directrices spécifiques pour les droits des migrants. Nous savons tous que les questions migratoires prennent une place croissante dans les dialogues de l'Union européenne avec les pays tiers. Nous savons aussi qu'une part croissante de ces politiques échappe au contrôle du Parlement. C'est pourquoi ce rapport propose notamment d'évaluer et de suivre tous les accords et fonds en ce domaine, en commençant par l'accord UE-Turquie et les processus de Khartoum et de Rabat.

Beaucoup d'autres sujets sont traités dans ce rapport, je ne peux les développer et je le regrette. Je terminerai, encore une fois, en remerciant tous ceux et, surtout, toutes celles – puisque la très grande majorité des rapporteurs fictifs étaient des femmes – qui y ont contribué.

 
  
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  Le Président. – Mme Vergiat, je vais répondre à la question que vous avez posée. Le problème de traduction était connu de tous, mais je vais informer aussi la présidence de votre demande, à savoir vérifier encore une fois ce qui s’est passé.

Interventions à la demande

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signor Presidente, l'eccezionale ondata migratoria che investe l'Europa richiede risposte urgenti, concrete e in linea con la gravità della situazione: è il momento che gli Stati membri dell'Unione lavorino per dare un orizzonte strategico all'Europa, favorendo una politica integrata europea sul fenomeno migratorio. La maggior parte di queste persone sono costrette a fuggire dal proprio paese a causa di conflitti, persecuzioni, violazioni dei diritti umani e situazioni di miseria e spesso sono costrette anche a subire, nel percorso migratorio verso i paesi di transito, violenze di vario genere. È indispensabile migliorare lo scambio di buone prassi con i paesi terzi fornendo formazione di operatori umanitari, affinché possano identificare in modo più efficace le peculiarità, i contesti di provenienza e le varie esperienze dei migranti, in particolare quelli più vulnerabili. Insomma, è necessario che l'Unione europea, se davvero vuole affrontare in modo adeguato e coerente il problema della migrazione, riesca a costruire una vera partnership comune con i paesi terzi.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, είναι δεδομένο ότι στο πρώτο μισό του αιώνα που διανύουμε θα γνωρίσουμε πρωτοφανείς μετακινήσεις πληθυσμών. Η δήθεν φιλανθρωπία που οδηγεί τους ανθρώπους να ζουν στοιβαγμένοι σε ακατάλληλους καταυλισμούς, όπως στα νησιά του Αιγαίου ή στη ζούγκλα του Καλαί, είναι στην πραγματικότητα απάνθρωπη και εξυπηρετεί μονάχα το κοινωνικό ντάμπινγκ που επιχειρούν οι πολυεθνικές. Για αυτό και πρέπει να αλλάξουν εδώ και τώρα οι αναποτελεσματικοί και άδικοι κανόνες του Δουβλίνου ΙΙΙ. Ειδικότερα, πρέπει να καταργηθούν άμεσα οι διατάξεις περί χώρας πρώτης εισόδου, που η γερμανική κυβέρνηση επιθυμεί να εφαρμόσει ξανά, τώρα που εισπράττει τον λογαριασμό της ανεύθυνης μεταναστευτικής της πολιτικής, μιας μεταναστευτικής πολιτικής της οποίας το βάρος επιχειρεί να φορτώσει στην Ελλάδα, επιστρέφοντας πίσω πρόσφυγες από τη Γερμανία. Έτσι σχεδιάζει, μια και στην Ελλάδα βρίσκει πάντα μια πρόθυμη κυβέρνηση του χεριού της, μια κυβέρνηση που τώρα μόλις κατάλαβε, έναν χρόνο μετά, ότι δεν εφαρμόζονται οι μετεγκαταστάσεις. Και όλα αυτά, ενώ κάποιοι προσπαθούν να δημιουργήσουν ένα κλίμα de facto ακύρωσης της γραπτής συμφωνίας για τις μετεγκαταστάσεις. Επομένως, πρέπει να απαιτήσουμε μετεγκαταστάσεις εδώ και τώρα για τους πρόσφυγες και τους μετανάστες και ισότιμη κατανομή μέσα στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Δεν θα πρέπει ο ελληνικός λαός να πληρώσει τις αντιπαραθέσεις και την κοντόφθαλμη πολιτική των κρατών μελών της Ένωσης.

 
  
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  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE). – Gospodine predsjedniče, ono što želim istaknuti iz ovog izvještaja je činjenica da uz migraciju i migrante imamo ključni problem odljeva mozgova iz siromašnih zemalja, zemalja u razvoju. To je trajno uništavanje znanja, uništavanje neke zemlje kada mladi ljudi i obrazovani ljudi, ne moraju biti samo mladi, odlaze iz tih zemalja i te reperkusije ćemo tek osjetiti. To će stvoriti dodatne probleme i dodatne jazove u tim zemljama.

Znam da izvještaj nije vezan za trenutnu situaciju oko migrantske politike Europske unije, ali želim naglasiti još jedno dobro iskustvo koje Hrvatska ima u odnosima i sa Srbijom i s ostalima na zapadnobalkanskoj ruti, ali želim prosvjedovati protiv ponovnog dizanja žice na granici između Hrvatske i Slovenije.

 
  
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  João Pimenta Lopes (GUE/NGL). – Senhor Presidente, a maioria deste Parlamento Europeu prossegue a sua ação de branqueamento das responsabilidades e consequências das políticas da União Europeia nos fenómenos das migrações.

Internamente, intensifica—se, fruto das vossas políticas de austeridade e empobrecimento, do exterior, a gravíssima crise humanitária com centenas de milhares de refugiados que fogem da fome, da miséria, da perseguição e da guerra.

Oculta o papel da UE, dos EUA e da NATO na desestabilização do Médio Oriente e do Norte de África, nomeadamente impondo a guerra e a destruição. Prosseguem a defesa da Europa Fortaleza, da militarização da resposta humanitária, da política de retorno e externalização de fronteiras, da criminosa política europeia de migração que faz levantar muros da vergonha e mantém aprisionados dezenas de milhares de refugiados nas condições mais deploráveis e que faz milhares de mortos no Mediterrâneo. Políticas racistas e xenófobas que alimentam na Europa a extrema-direita e o fascismo.

A União Europeia é, hoje, uma referência internacional, uma referência na violação do Direito Internacional e dos direitos humanos.

 
  
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  Heidi Hautala (Verts/ALE). – Mr President, for me the most important accent on the report of Madam Vergiat is that it is based on the human rights-based approach to migration: it sees migrants as rights holders, and it equally emphasises our needs to respect our international obligations.

The second most important – and timely – point is that development cooperation should not be conditional on cooperation on migration-related issues, and I believe that we are now witnessing a very dangerous tendency in the EU financing instruments, which more and more divert aid towards security and towards preventing migration. Unfortunately we are witnessing this in many EU funding instruments at the moment, and this has to be dealt with.

Lastly, I would like to say that Madam Vergiat also made a reference to another report which is coming from the Foreign Affairs Committee. I do not understand why we have to produce another report after this one.

 
  
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  Ignazio Corrao (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, in realtà io avevo chiesto la parola per il punto precedente, la relazione della collega Ferrara. Però, bene, approfitto che me l'ha data per fare i complimenti alla collega Vergiat per il buon lavoro fatto, che è un lavoro che si va ad aggiungere ad altri che sono usciti già alla commissione LIBE in tema d'immigrazione, lavori che sono stati approvati, lavori anche sostenuti dalla commissione che però, purtroppo, non si sono mai risolti in niente di concreto. E noi, ancora oggi, dopo tanti dibattiti e dopo tanti atti approvati ci ritroviamo sempre con lo stesso problema: con l'incapacità di avere delle decisioni univoche, come Unione europea, e subendo quindi le decisioni dei singoli Stati. Detto questo, io ringrazio la relatrice per l'ottimo lavoro svolto.

 
  
 

(Fine degli interventi su richiesta)

 
  
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  Miguel Arias Cañete, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, first of all, allow me to congratulate the rapporteur on this comprehensive, balanced and deep analysis of the issue of human rights and migration in third countries.

No state or organisation can escape from its obligations under international human rights law to protect and ensure respect for the human rights of migrants, irrespective of their status. We live in a world of seven billion people, with dramatic demographic imbalances, where inequalities are still growing. Migration is here to stay. Migration is the new normal and is now an integral part of our political dialogue with partners, very much in line with the global strategy.

It took a while before Europe accepted its responsibilities, but we are finally doing so. Since 2015 our vessels have saved hundreds of thousands of lives in the Mediterranean. Operation Sophia is disrupting the traffickers’ networks and bringing the smugglers to justice.

In Turkey, in Lebanon and in Jordan we are helping over half a million Syrian children go back to school. The protection of the most vulnerable – the women and children – is at the core of our action in each and every initiative we take. We remain the largest development donor and humanitarian actor. We are, despite criticism, leading by example.

Faced with so much human suffering, we need to respond and we are responding. But we know there is no quick fix to the issue of migration. Our new Partnership Framework (PF) approach reflects just this fact. It is an ambitious and innovative comprehensive approach, fully embedding migration in our overall foreign policy. It is not, as some wrongly believe, only about return or readmission. It is also about countering migrant smuggling and, not least, addressing the root causes of migration. The approach, being tailor-made and holistic, uses all our high-level instruments and leverage to achieve our goals. In fact it represents a new methodology based on genuine partnership.

The partnership addresses everything from security, return, readmission, resilience and job creation to infrastructure, investments and border management. First of all the PF approach, well received by our partners, has created a positive momentum in our dialogue with the countries in question. They do not see it either as us imposing a unilateral agenda; they do not see it as return becoming the only objective of our cooperation; and, rightly so, because the PF approach is indeed about mutually beneficial partnership and it marks a new way of engaging with our partner countries. The results we see are twofold, both in terms of better understanding European Union priorities and willingness to cooperate in practice and in terms of the specific tangible outcomes as you will have seen in the report of the EUCO.

Of course we do not operate in a political vacuum and European Union action must be seen as part of the bigger picture. The United Nations migration-related events during the UN General Assembly gave high visibility and great political momentum to the migration dossier. The New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, adopted at the United Nations Summit on 19 September 2016 by all 193 United Nations Member States, forms an important step in providing for a global political framework to address large movements of refugees and migrants in all aspects. We are pleased to see the notion of responsibility-sharing and the importance of international cooperation in response to migration and refugee flows reflected in the outcome.

The establishment of a global compact for refugees and a global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration in the coming two years will be an important next step in moving this important agenda forward. The outcome documents closely reflect the European Union priorities and policies. We reaffirm our commitment to ensuring effective implementation of the political declaration and reaffirm our engagement in the upcoming negotiation of the global compact for migration, to be concluded by 2018.

The European Union was able to transmit a positive narrative and show in New York that it has done more than anyone else to address migratory challenges, as well as to demonstrate its commitment towards the principle of global responsibility-sharing through the partnership framework approach, supported by the new innovative European External Investment Plan. We shall now capitalise on this positive momentum and continue to show a strong, united European Union position also in the follow-up and the shaping of the future two global United Nations compacts.

All Member States therein also expressed their intention to expand the number and ranges of legal powers available for refugees to be admitted to or resettled in their territory. The Union Resettlement Framework the Commission proposed could facilitate this. This is about developing a harmonised approach to resettlement at European Union level, to provide safe pathways to Europe for people in need of protection, replacing irregular and dangerous migrant crossings and preventing the smugglers from taking advantage of the most vulnerable.

The contributions of each Member State under the annual Union resettlement plan will depend on Member States’ contribution and engagement in the committee. We need the full support of Member States on this. We also need a robust asylum system that will be able to face, not only the challenges of today, but also those in the years to come. Keeping the status quo of our asylum system was not an option. The Commission has put all the elements on the table to reform it. Now it is time for the co-legislators to show their commitment to finding a long-term sustainable solution.

The inclusion of migration in the recently adopted 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda is therefore an important milestone. In this context the European Union continues to promote a development-oriented approach towards forced displacement. We want to increase the self-reliance and resilience of refugees in their host communities with the aim of ending dependence on humanitarian aid. Facilitating migration and improving migration policies, as called for in the 2013 Sustainable Development Goals, will allow livelihoods to be improved and will enhance access for refugees to education, job markets, health and housing.

As set out in the European Action Plan on Human Rights and Democracy 2015-2019 and in line with the global approach to migration and mobility in the European Agenda on Migration, the European Union and its Member States are committed to enhancing human rights safeguards in all migration and mobility dialogues and cooperation frameworks with third countries and migration-related agreements, processes and programmes.

In line with the European Union Action Plan, the European Union also continues to address the issue of statelessness in relations with priority countries, namely speaking out on situations of statelessness that manifest an immediate and human rights problem and supports the UNHCR’s mandate and activities. Migration and the fight against terrorism remain overwhelmingly the main priorities for European Union action, as confirmed at the informal GAC of 24-25 July this year.

The updated European Union Syria/Iraq regional strategy includes important projects in the fields of humanitarian aid, resilience and stabilisation. It calls for the respect of human rights and accountability, peace-building, gender and minority issues and condemns violations of international humanitarian law, the atrocities, killings and human rights abuses that Daesh is perpetrating.

Within the Gender Action Plan GAP II in European Union external relations for the period 2016-2020, gender is placed at the centre of all forms of European Union external relations. It commits the European Union to implementing actions ensuring girls’ and women’s physical and psychological integrity, promoting their economic and social rights. Together with like-minded partners, the European Union will work for the elimination of all forms of violence against women, including sexual and gender-based violence in conflict and for ending impunity. All perpetrators must be brought to justice.

As Ms Vergiat rightly pointed out, access to effective remedies for victims of migration-related human rights abuses is an issue on which further progress is still required. In this context, I would like to point out that the right to effective remedy is one of the issues dealt with in the new regulation on the European Border and Coast Guard. This regulation respects fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised by Articles 2 and 3 of the TEU and reflected in the Charter. In particular, it seeks to ensure full respect for human dignity, liberty and security. Return of irregular migrants who do not have the right to stay in the European Union to their home countries in full respect of the principle of non-refoulement is an essential part of the European Union’s comprehensive efforts to address migration.

In the implementation of the European Union Action Plan on return, the European Union seeks to be compliant with international human rights standards, in particular the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol.

A holistic approach to migration and the cross-cutting principle of non-discrimination are the conditions for the effective respect of the human rights of migrants. Our community needs to be based on integration and diversity and on the inclusion of social, cultural, linguistic and religious minorities. Xenophobia, discrimination, violence and hate speech have no place.

Let me thank the honourable Members once again for this important contribution to the debate on human rights and migration in third countries and for your excellent report.

 
  
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  Presidente. – La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà domani, martedì 25 ottobre, alle 12.00.

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 162)

 
  
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  Karol Karski (ECR), na piśmie. – Kryzys migracyjny cechuje się dynamizmem, wymaga elastyczności i umiejętności modyfikacji naszej polityki. Z satysfakcją obserwuję dzisiaj zmianę pierwotnego stanowiska Niemiec i pozostałych państw Europy Zachodniej, które dostrzegły naiwność swoich pierwszych fatalnych posunięć: bezkrytycznego przyjmowania dowolnej liczby migrantów i forsowania programu przymusowych relokacji uchodźców do wszystkich państw UE. Lepiej późno niż wcale – chociaż Polska, Czechy czy Węgry powinny usłyszeć dzisiaj przeprosiny od tych, którzy jeszcze rok temu nazywali nas „egoistami”, którzy „nie dojrzeli do Europy”. Na tym tle, przedłożone sprawozdanie zadziwia swoją nieaktualnością. Sprawozdawca nie rozróżnia między uchodźcami i migrantami zarobkowymi, domaga się dalekiej unijnej ingerencji w systemy prawne państw członkowskich, lansuje potrzebę tworzenia „legalnych szlaków migracyjnych” oraz krytykuje mechanizm readmisji na granicach UE, wzywając do „nadania pierwszeństwa powrotom dobrowolnym nad powrotami przymusowymi”. Tym samym sprawozdawca faktycznie apeluje, by UE zaprosiła na swoje terytoria tylu migrantów, ilu zechce tu przybyć, oraz by musiała zapewnić im opiekę socjalną, edukację i pracę.

Grupa ECR nie może podpisać się pod taką nieroztropnością. Wyrażamy solidarność z osobami, które są zmuszone do opuszczenia swojego państwa z powodu konfliktów, prześladowań czy skrajnego ubóstwa – jednakże rozwiązania trwającego kryzysu proponowane przez sprawozdawcę są krokiem wstecz i pokazują, że ostrzegawczy przykład „dżungli” w Calais niektórych niczego nie nauczył.

 
  
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  Kati Piri (S&D), schriftelijk. – Langzaam maar zeker zien we de laatste maanden dat de prioriteiten van het Europees buitenlandbeleid aan het verschuiven zijn. Waar de bescherming van mensenrechten en het versterken van de rechtsstaat belangrijke uitgangspunten zijn in onze samenwerking met derde landen, lijkt de focus zich nu steeds meer te verleggen naar het tegenhouden van migratie. Daarom roep ik de Commissie en onze ministers van Buitenlandse Zaken op om niet alleen met een anti-migratiebril naar ons buitenlandbeleid te kijken, maar om solidariteit te tonen met de landen in de regio die miljoenen vluchtelingen hebben opgevangen. Zo moet Europa haar humanitaire plicht nakomen door de meest kwetsbare vluchtelingen in die landen een veilige en legale route naar de EU te bieden door middel van grootschalige hervestiging. Niet als beloning voor het betreffende land, maar vanwege de bittere noodzaak.

 
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