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Procedura : 2016/2637(RSP)
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O-000105/2016 (B8-1801/2016)

Discussioni :

PV 25/10/2016 - 19
CRE 25/10/2016 - 19

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PV 26/10/2016 - 6.8
CRE 26/10/2016 - 6.8

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Martedì 25 ottobre 2016 - Strasburgo Edizione rivista

19. Acidi grassi trans (discussione)
Video degli interventi
PV
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  President. – The next item is the debate on

– the oral question to the Council on trans fats (TFAs) by Renate Sommer, Daciana Octavia Sârbu, Nikolay Barekov, Anneli Jäätteenmäki, Lynn Boylan, Martin Häusling, Piernicola Pedicini, and Mireille D'Ornano, on behalf of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (O-000105/2016 - B8-1801/2016),

– the oral question to the Commission on trans fats (TFAs) by Renate Sommer, Daciana Octavia Sârbu, Nikolay Barekov, Anneli Jäätteenmäki, Lynn Boylan, Martin Häusling, Piernicola Pedicini, and Mireille D'Ornano, on behalf of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (O-000106/2016 - B8-1802/2016).

Before I give the floor to our speakers, may I just say that time is not on our side. I would ask every speaker to respect their speaking time, because it is an important debate and we want to make sure you have your point.

 
  
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  Giovanni La Via, Autore. – Signora Presidente, Commissario Andriukaitis, onorevoli colleghi, signor ministro, prendo la parola a nome dei 7 cofirmatari della risoluzione presentata a seguito di due interrogazioni con richiesta di risposta scritta. Gli acidi grassi trans, trans fat acid, sono grassi insaturi presenti in molti oli vegetali parzialmente idrogenati prodotti industrialmente. La legislazione sui TFA rappresenta una delle priorità per il Parlamento europeo, che ribadisce in questa sede la sua preoccupazione in merito ai rischi posti dai TFA per la salute umana. Il consumo di tali oli è associato infatti a un aumento del rischio di malattie cardiovascolari. Recentemente, infatti, è stato pubblicato uno studio in cui si mostra una correlazione significativa fra il consumo degli acidi grassi trans e gli eventi ischemici cerebrali. Esistono, inoltre, forti sospetti che tali acidi possano contribuire in larga misura a processi di arteriosclerosi e aumentare così i rischi di infarto del miocardio.

Il WHO e la FAO raccomandano di ridurre l'assunzione sotto all'1% dell'apporto calorico giornaliero attraverso la dieta, mentre l'EFSA, l'Autorità europea per la sicurezza alimentare, raccomanda che se ne assuma il meno possibile. Il Parlamento ritiene, pertanto, che non sia opportuno agire solo a livello nazionale e che sia necessaria un'azione da parte dell'Unione europea al fine di ridurre l'assunzione media degli acidi trans in modo significativo. Gli acidi grassi trans sono utilizzati dall'industria alimentare per le loro caratteristiche, conferendo ai prodotti la consistenza desiderata e garantendo una lunga durata del periodo di conservazione, ma rappresentano soprattutto un fattore produttivo poco costoso.

Gli alimenti attualmente prodotti con questi acidi sono principalmente alimenti consumati largamente tra i giovani. È proprio la mancanza di consapevolezza da parte dei consumatori in merito agli effetti negativi dei TFA sulla salute che rende l'etichettatura obbligatoria per tali acidi uno strumento importante, seppur incompleto. Invitiamo la Commissione europea a introdurre quanto prima un limite legale nell'Unione europea relativo al tenore di TFA industriali, sia come ingredienti, sia come prodotti finali in tutti i prodotti alimentari, al fine di ridurre l'assunzione da parte dell'intera popolazione.

Chiediamo, inoltre, che tale proposta sia accompagnata da una valutazione d'impatto che esamini i costi di riformulazione industriale da sostenere in caso di introduzione di un limite obbligatorio e il potenziale riversamento di tali costi sui consumatori. Infine, invitiamo la Commissione a collaborare con gli Stati membri per migliorare l'alfabetizzazione nutrizionale, incoraggiando i consumatori e consentendo loro di compiere scelte alimentari più salutari e impegnare l'industria per favorire una riformulazione in chiave salutare dei prodotti. Come rappresentanti dei cittadini, abbiamo l'obbligo di chiedere l'adozione di strumenti utili al fine di consentire ai consumatori di operare scelte più sane in merito agli alimenti che consumano e alla dieta in generale e che potrebbero promuovere l'offerta di opzioni alimentari più sane ai consumatori, compresa, in questo caso, la fornitura di informazione sui grassi trans o le restrizioni relative al loro uso.

 
  
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  Ivan Korčok, President-in-Office of the Council. – Madam President, honourable Members, let me thank Parliament for the interest it has shown in this issue. You have been involved in highlighting all the scientific, practical and political aspects, and the consequences of an excessive consumption of trans-fatty acids or trans fats in the Union. The Council fully agrees that the risks entailed by excessive consumption of trans fats in the Union, and in particular the increased risk of coronary heart disease among the population, raises a serious public health problem. Preventive measures aimed at avoiding chronic diseases and at promoting healthy lifestyles, including incentives to healthier diets and processed food reformulation, are topics that have been the subject of many discussions by the Union health ministers in recent years. Again, a few days ago at the meeting organised by the Presidency in Bratislava and in the presence of Commissioner Andriukaitis, ministers had an opportunity to highlight their concerns related to an excessive consumption of trans-fatty acids in the Union.

I would like to remind you that, as early as 2011, during the negotiations on the Regulation on food information for consumers, the issue of informing consumers about the presence and levels of trans fats in foods was raised. At that time, however, we were faced with a technical obstacle: the absence of a calculation method that would allow us to determine the amounts of natural or ruminant and industrial trans fats in foods. Against that background, there was a risk of condemning foods that are an essential part of a balanced diet. On the other hand, certain Member States have indicated their preference for other measures to reduce the consumption of trans fats, namely the introduction of a legal limit for the presence of industrial trans fats in food. In that context, the legislator felt the need for a more thorough analysis which would enable us to find the most appropriate method to achieve the intended purpose, namely reducing the consumption of industrial trans fats. The Commission was therefore asked to prepare a report on the presence of trans fats in foods and in the overall diet of the Union population. In this report, the Commission concluded in December last year the need to continue and expedite work in this area by collecting more information and by developing a fuller analysis of the magnitude of the problem to be addressed and the different possible solutions, in particular the option of legal limits for industrial trans fats.

Another issue raised was the effectiveness of labelling and the appropriate nutrition literacy of consumers. The Commission stated that it intended to launch a public consultation and carry out a fully-fledged impact assessment, which would allow an informed policy decision in the near future. On 7 December 2015, the Council agreed with the report’s conclusions, in particular as regards the need for further research aimed at finding a more adequate solution to attain the desired objective. Based on the results of the impact assessment it is currently conducting, it will be up to the Commission to determine which measures would be the most appropriate in order to reduce the consumption of industrial trans fats. It should, in particular, consider the opportunity to propose any necessary amendments to legal provisions in force.

To answer your question, the Council will only be able to assess how best to reduce the consumption of industrial trans fats once the impact assessment has been finalised and the Commission has submitted concrete proposals to achieve the intended objective.

 
  
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  Vytenis Povilas Andriukaitis, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, trans fats are a particular type of unsaturated fatty acids that are present in foods. It is undisputed that they have a negative effect on human health. Their consumption increases the risk of heart diseases more than any other nutrients. Given that heart diseases are the leading cause of death in the EU, it is no surprise that trans fats generate deep concerns not least here in the European Parliament, and I share these concerns.

Let me briefly recollect the content of the report on trans fats adopted last year by the Commission. Trans fats can be produced industrially and their primary source is partly hydrogenated oils. They can also be naturally present in foods derived from animals, in dairy or meat products for example. Industrial trans fats are present at levels of concern in certain foods, and their intake is excessive in certain Member States and for particular population groups such as low-income citizens or students.

Our report reviewed different policy options to reduce trans fats intake in the EU. A limit applied to industrial trans fats in foods emerged as the most promising solution. In that same report, however, the Commission acknowledged that further investigation was required to implement the better regulation principle.

I am sure you would criticise the Commission if it proposed an initiative without looking at its impact. Similarly, honourable Members would raise concern if actions on partly hydrogenated oils pushed operators towards alternatives that are not environmentally sustainable. This is why we are carrying out an impact assessment on trans fats. Only at the end of this process will I be in a position to tell you exactly how the Commission intends to proceed. But please be reassured: the impact assessment will now finally start, and we can build on all the data already collected for last year’s report.

Earlier this month the Commission published an inception impact assessment on its Better Regulation portal and in invited feedback from stakeholders. This document is a preliminary version of the impact assessment. It contains a first analysis of the policy options under consideration. I can confirm that one of these options is indeed the establishment of a limit on industrial trans fats in food. The other options are: mandatory trans fats labelling; a ban on partly hydrogenated oils; and self-regulatory instruments.

In the coming weeks we will launch an external study on the impact of these policy options on operators, consumers and the environment. Special attention will be paid to small and medium enterprises. In addition, in the coming months, we will open a public consultation, giving the opportunity for everyone to provide their views.

I am fully aware of the need for urgent action on trans fats and I am grateful to the European Parliament keeping this topic high on the agenda. I trust I can count on your cooperation and support in order to advance this file as quickly as possible.

 
  
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  Renate Sommer, im Namen der PPE-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin! Der Gehalt an Transfettsäuren in Lebensmitteln er wurde in den vergangenen Jahren auf freiwilliger Basis bereits deutlich reduziert – aber leider nicht überall.

Auch dort, wo er reduziert wurde, ist der Verzehr in einigen Bevölkerungsgruppen – es wurde bereits gesagt – zum Beispiel bei Jugendlichen oder auch bei Menschen mit geringem Einkommen, nach wie vor viel zu hoch. Sinn unserer Entschließung ist es aber nicht, die Grundnahrungsmittel Milch und Fleisch schlecht zu reden. Es wurde gesagt, und das ist richtig: Auch Milch und Fleisch von Wiederkäuern enthalten natürliche Transfettsäuren, aber die kann man natürlich nicht verhindern. Der Verzehr dieser natürlichen Transfettsäuren ist so gering, dass er kein Gesundheitsrisiko darstellt.

Nein, wir wollen diese Grundnahrungsmittel nicht schlechtreden oder gar vor deren Verzehr warnen. Um das ganz klarzustellen, hat meine Fraktion den Änderungsantrag 1 zurückgezogen. Aber es ist mir wichtig festzustellen: Ees darf auch nicht darum gehen, die Lebensmittelwirtschaft schlechtzureden. Wir stellen mit der Entschließung schlichtweg fest, dass man heute die negativen Auswirkungen von Transfettsäuren kennt und dass es Zeit ist, zu handeln, und deshalb fordern wir diesen Grenzwert.

Im Übrigen ist das auch ein Erfordernis des Binnenmarktes, denn vier Mitgliedstaaten haben bereits diese Grenzwerte, und ich bin überzeugt davon, dass die Lebensmittelwirtschaft damit gut zurecht kommt, denn sie kommt mit den Grenzwerten in diesen vier Mitgliedstaaten bereits heute gut zurecht.

 
  
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  Christel Schaldemose, for S&D-Gruppen. – Fru formand! Industrielt fremstillet transfedtsyre er et utroligt farligt stof for hjertet. Det er videnskabeligt bevist. Transfedt øger risikoen for blodpropper markant. Der er derfor ingen god grund til at tilsætte dette til mad eller kager. Vi har i Den Socialdemokratiske Gruppe i Europa-Parlamentet i årevis krævet, at der blev grebet ind over for denne form for transfedt, og derfor er det også et skridt i den rigtige retning, når EU-Kommissionen nu langt om længe overvejer at skride til handling. Hvad skal der så gøres? I Den Socialdemokratiske Gruppe foreslår vi, at vi får lavet en EU-lovgivning, som markant reducerer den tilladte mængde af transfedt i vores fødevarer. Vi opfordrer til, at forbrugere overalt i Europa straks bliver beskyttet mod dette industrielt fremstillede transfedt, og vi opfordrer Kommissionen til at fremsætte et sådant lovforslag. Kan det så lade sig gøre? Ja! Jeg kommer fra Danmark, og vi har i mange år haft en lov, som har reduceret brugen af industrielt fremstillet transfedt, og det har reddet liv, og det har ikke haft nogen negativ effekt på erhvervslivet. Så vores opfordring er: kom i arbejdstøjet og få lavet denne lovgivning! Vi bliver nødt til at beskytte de europæiske forbrugere mod dette farlige stof.

 
  
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  Mark Demesmaeker, namens de ECR-Fractie. – Ik steun de voorliggende resolutie. U heeft gelijk, mijnheer de commissaris. Wetenschappelijk onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat te hoge innamen van transvetzuren het risico op hart- en vaatziekten aanzienlijk verhogen. Hoewel de inname van transvetzuren in de EU in het algemeen vrij laag is, treffen we een bijzonder hoge concentratie aan in bepaalde voedingssoorten. Een doordachte aanpak dringt zich dus op.

Ervaringen uit onder andere Denemarken, zoals we daarnet hoorden, tonen aan dat een bindende grenswaarde een doeltreffend instrument is. De Deense maatregel heeft een aantoonbaar positief effect op de volksgezondheid, zonder een negatieve impact op de voedingssector. Ik vind een grenswaarde ook een realistische maatregel. Het gaat immers niet om nultolerantie. Door een minimum toe te laten wordt vermeden dat natuurlijke transvetten volledig worden uitgesloten.

Ik wil ten slotte nog benadrukken dat een maatregel voor transvetten vanzelfsprekend deel moet uitmaken van een integrale aanpak voor gezonde voeding én compatibel kan zijn met andere afspraken, zoals vrijwillige convenanten. Ik ben er tevens van overtuigd dat een constructieve dialoog met de sector essentieel en nodig is om tot een goed resultaat te komen.

 
  
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  Ivan Jakovčić, u ime kluba ALDE. – Gospođo predsjednice, znanost je vrlo egzaktna. Znanost je dokazala da su transmasne kiseline opasne za zdravlje čovjeka, da pogoršavaju stanje zdravlja, a nažalost to je pogotovo prisutno kod mladih ljudi koji zbog svoje prehrane, često proizvodima iz brze prehrane, unose velike količine transmasnih kiselina što sigurno kasnije utječe na njihovo zdravlje.

Znanost je u tome potpuno jasna, međutim tržište je nešto drugo. Transmasne su kiseline jeftine, ali su štetne. Rekli bismo da transmasne kiseline mogu biti i ukusne jer daju proizvodu čvrstinu, ali su štetne. Mi, poštovani povjereniče, moramo poći od činjenice da su transmasne kiseline štetne. Kako ih zamijeniti? Palmino uljejedan je od mogućih izvora zasićenih kiselina. Međutim, znamo za problem palminog ulja i sve što se dešava u smislu štete za okoliš. Pitam se bismo li mogli uložiti dovoljno sredstava da iskoristimo maslinovo ulje za koje znamo da je vrlo zdravo i imamo ga jako puno danas u Europi i tržište je zasićeno i tim proizvodom. Mislim da bi Europska komisija trebala razmišljati u tom pravcu.

 
  
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  Lynn Boylan, on behalf of the GUE/NGL Group. – Madam President, I am pleased that we are debating this issue. What I am not pleased about is the fact that, despite the Commissioners accepting the urgency tonight, they have not come forward with legislative proposals to tackle these dangerous fats, in spite of the clear evidence which we are hearing tonight of the health risks that they pose, and especially for heart disease.

So not only did we have a year’s delay in coming forward with the legally required study into different policy options, but we have also failed to make the proposals which the Commission themselves acknowledge would be the most effective for public health. It is now well overdue that the Commission comes forward with legal mandatory limits as the best option for minimising trans fats in food, which we have seen been so successful in Denmark.

So I call on the Commissioner to listen to this motion, and indeed its own study which showed that mandatory limits were clearly the most effective measure in reducing the risk posed by trans fats to citizens, including those on lower incomes. We have to make it easier for consumers to make the healthier choice, and mandatory limits are the best way to do so for trans fats.

 
  
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  Martin Häusling im Namen der Verts/ALE-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin! Herr Kommissar, lieber Rat! Mich wundert etwas, dass wir uns zwar einig sind: Transfette – oder nennen wir sie lieber Industriefette – sind gesundheitsschädlich. Aber was machen Sie? Wir brauchen doch eine Folgenabschätzung. Ich finde das verantwortungslos. Für wen brauchen Sie eigentlich eine Folgenabschätzung? Ob die Industrie betroffen ist? Also hier ist es doch ganz klar, hier ist der Verbraucher zu schützen. Und da sind sich ausnahmsweise mal WHO und EFSA einig: Es muss gehandelt werden.

Deshalb verstehe ich nicht, warum wir jetzt noch mehr Zeit verstreichen lassen, um endlich eine effektive Regelung zu bekommen. Es reicht auch nicht, nur eine Kennzeichnung hinzubekommen, denn drei von vier Verbrauchern wissen gar nicht, was Transfette sind. Transfette sind nun mal die Billigmacher in Junk Food, das hat der Kollege eben ganz richtig gesagt. Wir können sie ohne große Probleme ersetzen.

Deshalb, wie gesagt: Erklären Sie mal, liebe Kommission und lieber Rat, warum Sie sich weigern, an dem Punkt zu handeln, und noch mehr Jahre verstreichen lassen.

Die USA machen es uns vor. Die haben nämlich 2015 beschlossen, in den nächsten Jahren das aus den Lebensmitteln zu verbannen. Warum ziehen wir da nicht endlich nach?

 
  
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  Piernicola Pedicini, a nome del gruppo EFDD. – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, Commissario, lei ha parlato della valutazione di impatto. Noi vi invitiamo a fare presto perché è scientificamente provato che l'assunzione di grasso trans aumenta il rischio cardiovascolare, l'obesità e anche il diabete. Quasi superfluo ricordare che queste tipologie di malattie non trasmissibili costituiscono la principale causa di morte al mondo. Eppure gli acidi grassi trans si trovano negli oli parzialmente idrogenati di produzione industriale utilizzati nei biscotti, nelle torte, nei popcorn, nei cracker e in moltissimi altri prodotti da supermercato. Tutti i cibi che per la maggior parte vengono mangiati dai bambini.

Allora, l'Organizzazione mondiale della sanità ha riportato che nell'Unione europea 1 bambino su 3 tra i 6 e i 9 anni è obeso e circa il 7 % della spesa sanitaria europea è impegnato nella cura di patologie connesse all'obesità, come il diabete e le patologie cardiovascolari. Per questo noi chiediamo alla Commissione di introdurre questo limite legale ai TFA per ridurre l'assunzione da parte dei cittadini dell'Unione europea. Chiediamo di intervenire affinché l'industria alimentare sia obbligata ad ottenere trattamenti dei grassi trans che rispettino le norme sanitarie. Chiediamo anche di sostituire TFA con oli di palma. Chiediamo, infine, di mettere i consumatori in condizioni di fare scelte alimentari più consapevoli informandoli sui rischi per la salute dei loro prodotti.

 
  
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  Mireille D'Ornano, au nom du groupe ENF. – Madame la Présidente, le risque de développer, notamment, des maladies cardiovasculaires ou certains cancers en raison de la surconsommation d'acides gras trans est avéré. Les catégories sociales modestes sont en première ligne, compte tenu de la concentration de ces substances dans certains aliments bon marché. Les États membres ne peuvent remédier à cette situation, exacerbée par la crise et l'austérité, par le contrôle des marchandises importées, eu égard au dogme de la libre circulation.

J'ai tenu à m'associer au travail du Parlement européen, car la limitation des acides gras trans constitue une urgence de santé publique. La réponse réglementaire doit cependant être mesurée et adaptée. Elle doit d'abord être adaptée aux habitudes de consommation et aux gastronomies nationales.

(La Présidente interrompt l'oratrice)

Elle doit ensuite être mesurée parce que, en gardant à l'esprit la distinction entre les acides gras trans d'origine naturelle et ceux d'origine industrielle, nous ne saurions pénaliser la filière laitière en proie à des difficultés chroniques.

Enfin, en période de stagnation économique, il serait inopportun d'alourdir les charges réglementaires et administratives incombant aux entreprises. C'est d'autant plus vrai que les mesures incitatives ont démontré leur efficacité là où elles ont été introduites.

Méfions-nous donc du tout répressif à l'heure où la responsabilité sociale des entreprises peut suffire à remplir nos objectifs ultimes.

 
  
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  Pilar Ayuso (PPE). – Señora Presidenta, señor Comisario, creo que es importante que debatamos sobre los ácidos grasos trans, porque tanto la EFSA como la OMS han hecho sendas recomendaciones para reducir su ingesta.

Es un hecho demostrado la asociación entre estos ácidos grasos trans y las enfermedades cardiovasculares, y debemos hacer lo posible por reducir su ingesta. Pero no podemos olvidar que determinados productos de origen animal contienen de manera natural estos ácidos grasos trans y que son productos necesarios en nuestra dieta diaria y, por lo tanto, no debemos prohibir en ningún caso estas grasas que son naturales y no añadidas. Lo importante es tener una alimentación variada y equilibrada.

En España, la Ley de seguridad alimentaria y nutrición ya exige a los operadores económicos la reducción de estos ácidos grasos en los procesos de producción. Sin embargo, es importante armonizar la legislación a nivel europeo. Lo que es fundamental es que se realicen campañas de sensibilización, información y educación nutricional sobre los ácidos grasos trans dentro de un marco que incentive dietas equilibradas y estilos de vida saludables.

La implicación de la industria agroalimentaria es necesaria para reformular y mejorar los productos con el objetivo final de la eliminación o la disminución del contenido de ácidos grasos trans añadidos en los alimentos.

Señor Comisario, sé que la Comisión es consciente de que es necesario actuar a nivel europeo para armonizar la legislación sobre ácidos grasos trans y creo que esta propuesta de Resolución es un buen medio para impulsarla.

 
  
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  Karin Kadenbach (S&D). – Frau Präsidentin, sehr geehrter Herr Kommissar! Auch in Österreich stürmen junge Menschen Fastfood-Restaurants, auch in Österreich gibt es Regale voll Backwaren. Aber wir haben eine Gesetzgebung, und trotzdem funktioniert auch die Industrie noch. Das heißt: Man kann Obergrenzen gesetzlich festlegen. Frau McGuinness und ich haben uns ja schon als Vertreterinnen der MEP Heart Group an Sie gewandt, genauso wie wir jetzt gemeinsam mit meinen Kolleginnen und Kollegen diese Entschließung verfasst haben. Wir glauben nämlich, dass vor allem die Frage des Nichthandelns, die Folgenabschätzung, wenn nicht gehandelt wird, eine ist, die es zu beantworten gilt.

Tagtäglich erkranken und sterben Menschen in der Europäischen Union, weil wir diesen Fleckerlteppich an Gesetzgebung haben, weil wir gerade einmal vier Länder haben, die Obergrenzen festgesetzt haben; einige andere Mitgliedstaaten haben freiwillige Verpflichtungen. Wir können es nicht auf die Bürgerinnen und Bürger abwälzen, selber die Entscheidung zu treffen, welches Öl ihrer Gesundheit zuträglich ist oder nicht. Wir brauchen hier Obergrenzen. Herr Kommissar, ich weiß, Sie sind in dieser Frage sehr engagiert. Ich hoffe, dass wir hier ehestmöglich eine Gesetzgebung vorgelegt bekommen.

 
  
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  Annie Schreijer-Pierik (PPE). – Ik spreek ook namens collega Werner Kuhn. Als politici is het onze taak om goed te zorgen voor de bevolking. Dat betekent dus ook dat we werken aan de gezondheid van de mensen. De meeste burgers eten veel te veel foute vetten, de zogenaamde industriële transvetzuren uit bijvoorbeeld koekjes. De gevolgen zijn te zien: zwaarlijvigheid, diabetes, hart- en vaatziekten.

De Europese Commissie en de levensmiddelenindustrie moeten dus snel aan de slag: een limiet van 2 procent. Ik wil nu waarschuwen voor de pogingen van sommige fracties in dit Parlement om ook natuurlijke, dierlijke transvetzuren uit normale producten, zoals roomboter en melk, in een kwaad daglicht te stellen. Onterecht. Recent onderzoek wees zelfs uit dat sommige transvetzuren in vlees en zuivel, net zoals in de menselijke moedermelk, positieve medische eigenschappen hebben. Amerikaanse voedingswetenschappers en de Wereldgezondheidsorganisatie bevestigden dit in 2015. Natuurlijk alles met mate en in natuurlijke verhoudingen, ook onze gezonde Europese kazen en vleeswaren. Gezonde voeding in een passend dieet met de kennis van nu en de ervaring van vroeger.

Daarom stem ik morgen, net als waarschijnlijk de hele CDA-fractie, tegen de paragrafen D en E, omdat daarin wordt gesteld dat de natuurlijke vetten net zo gevaarlijk zijn als de industriële vetten. En, commissaris, dat wilt u toch niet?

 
  
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  Damiano Zoffoli (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, voglio anch'io sottolineare l'urgenza di un'azione più incisiva a livello europeo volta a limitare la quantità di acidi grassi trans industriali presenti negli alimenti. Premesso che non esistono cibi buoni e cibi cattivi, ma solo diete buone e diete cattive e, quindi, l'informazione e l'educazione alimentare costituiscono un tema centrale per limitare i rischi alla salute umana e l'insorgere di gravi patologie, in primis quelle cardiovascolari, ritengo che nel caso specifico la scelta dell'etichettatura obbligatoria rappresenterebbe solo una risposta parziale. Intanto riguarderebbe solo gli alimenti preconfezionati, inoltre, la maggioranza dei cittadini europei non è in grado di distinguere fra grassi buoni e cattivi, ma basa le sue scelte principalmente sul prezzo e, infine, comporterebbe un onere eccessivo per i piccoli produttori. La soluzione, che è un invito alla Commissione, non può quindi che essere quella di fissare un limite unico armonizzato della quantità di TFA di origine industriale a livello di Unione europea, che eviti la frammentazione del mercato unico e faciliti gli scambi commerciali con i paesi extra UE.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye procedure

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, l'assunzione maggiore di acidi grassi trans, altamente dannosi per il nostro organismo, è legata essenzialmente al consumo di oli vegetali parzialmente idrogenati di produzione industriale. L'OMS ritiene che il consumo di tali acidi presenti in natura, in particolare nei prodotti lattiero-caseari e nella carne sia talmente modesta da rappresentare un improbabile rischio per la natura umana. Di contro, un'elevata assunzione di TFA industriali, presenti soprattutto in prodotti da forno, aggrava il rischio di sviluppare cardiopatie, diabete e obesità. Tale dato è tanto più allarmante se si pensa che i soggetti più inclini a consumare alimenti con un tenore di TFA elevato sono i bambini e i cittadini con status socioeconomico e istruzione inferiore.

In attesa dello studio d'impatto, auspico, anche alla luce della positiva esperienza danese, che si introducano limiti legali al tenore di acidi grassi trans industriali al fine di ridurne l'assunzione da parte dell'intera popolazione.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, η βιομηχανία τροφίμων χρησιμοποιεί πλέον όλο και περισσότερο τρανς λιπαρά οξέα δεδομένου ότι αποτελούν φτηνό συστατικό στη διαδικασία παραγωγής και η χρήση τους εγγυάται μεγάλη διάρκεια στα προϊόντα. Ωστόσο, η υψηλή κατανάλωση τρανς λιπαρών οξέων έχει συσχετιστεί με αυξημένο κίνδυνο καρδιοαγγειακών νοσημάτων και συνιστά παράγοντα κινδύνου για την ανάπτυξη στεφανιαίας νόσου η οποία ευθύνεται περίπου για εξακόσιες εξήντα χιλιάδες θανάτους ετησίως στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Παράλληλα, στα κράτη μέλη της Ένωσης, το μεγαλύτερο μέρος του πληθυσμού δεν έχει την κατάλληλη ενημέρωση για τα τρανς λιπαρά και τις επιπτώσεις τους στην υγεία ενώ, ταυτόχρονα, η δράση των ευρωπαϊκών χωρών για τη μείωση της κατανάλωσης των τρανς λιπαρών οξέων είναι περιορισμένη. Είναι επομένως αναγκαίο η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση να προτείνει υποχρεωτικά οριακές τιμές για τα τρανς λιπαρά οξέα προκειμένου να ενισχυθεί η υγεία των πολιτών της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης.

 
  
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  João Ferreira (GUE/NGL). – Senhora Presidente, Senhor Comissário, os ácidos gordos trans são utilizados na indústria alimentar por razões diversas, garantem um prazo de validade maior aos produtos, permitem manipular a sua consistência e, acima de tudo, são uma matéria-prima barata. Mas o consumo deste tipo de gorduras tem sido associado ao risco de doença cardiovascular, infertilidade, obesidade e alguns tipos de cancro.

Somos, por isso, favoráveis à limitação do uso e consumo de ácidos gordos trans, mas, atenção, a promoção de uma alimentação saudável e de produtos frescos, pouco processados, não se faz apenas legislando para melhorar a rotulagem, a informação ao consumidor ou mesmo limitando determinados ingredientes. Tudo isto é necessário mas não chega.

O consumo de alimentos processados está hoje associado a situações de insuficiência económica, que impede o acesso a produtos de qualidade e saudáveis. Os produtos mais baratos são normalmente aqueles mais processados industrialmente. Nenhuma estratégia de promoção de uma alimentação saudável deve ignorar este facto; pelo contrário, deve combatê-lo ativamente.

 
  
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  Clara Eugenia Aguilera García (S&D). – Señora Presidenta, quiero coincidir con prácticamente la totalidad de las personas que han intervenido en la necesidad de que tenemos que tener una armonización de la normativa para tomar medidas con respecto a los ácidos grasos hidrogenados —las grasas trans—, especialmente en los procesos industriales.

Está constatado por las organizaciones internacionales y la EFSA que hay que establecer limitaciones en el consumo. Por tanto, yo coincido con el señor Häusling. Tantos estudios de impacto ambiental no están mal, pero creo que está claro el resultado.

Por tanto, tomemos ya la iniciativa y tome la iniciativa la Comisión. Díganos un calendario, hoy, aquí, como respuesta a este debate y a la Resolución de mañana, díganos el calendario en el que la Comisión va a presentar ya una normativa como se requiere y como hemos demandado todos.

 
  
 

(End of catch-the-eye procedure)

 
  
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  Vytenis Povilas Andriukaitis, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, I would like to thank everyone who participated in this lively and stimulating debate. I am pleased to know that Parliament shares the Commission’s concerns, and that there is cross-party support for the European Union to act quickly to reduce intakes of industrial trans fats.

I have listened carefully to the discussions and have taken careful note of your specific views and concerns. First of all I would like to say once again the limits must be introduced only speaking about industrial trans fats, not about ruminants. Second, I think that some of you mentioned that the United States have just introduced some measures, but I would like to draw your attention once again to the fact that the Jean-Claude Juncker Commission has made a strong commitment to better regulation, which means evidence-based policy making. Today’s debate show that many aspects still need to be carefully considered before acting. Members of the European Parliament mentioned: the economic impact on small and medium enterprises; the environmental impact related to use of palm oil; the increased cost for consumers; and so on and so on. The impact assessment is aimed at taking all of these aspects into consideration.

It would be irresponsible to act before having systematically analysed all the evidence available. I fully agree with you that the quicker we act on trans fats the higher the benefit will be for European Union consumers. At the same time quick action should not come at the detriment of proportionate action.

And of course I can assure you that this will be considered in detail in the context of the impact assessment, and I agree that the quicker we act on trans fats the higher the benefits will be for European consumers. At the same time, however, I would like to say that we will do our best as we see possibilities – as you asked about the timetable – to conclude our impact assessment at the end of 2017 to help you sum up our legal proposals.

 
  
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  Ivan Korčok, President-in-Office of the Council. – Madam President, actually I have nothing to add to what the Commissioner has said. The honourable Member Mr Häusling has a point: there are obviously risks entailed by the excessive consumption of industrial trans fats in the European Union. That is true; I do not think anybody in this House, and the debate has clearly shown this, questions that.

At the same time the Commission is absolutely right, we are operating within a framework, but clearly we have to assess the impact of our regulation on the internal market, on SMEs, on everything – in other words on better regulation. So the Council can only say that we are waiting for a serious impact assessment and, once you come to the conclusion that we have to regulate here, the Council is ready to act.

 
  
 

President. I have received two motions for resolutions tabled in accordance with Rule 128(5) of the Rules of Procedure.

 
  
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  György Hölvényi (PPE), írásban. – Döntő mennyiségű tudományos tény bizonyítja az ipar által előállított transzzsírsavak egészségkárosító hatását. Túlzott fogyasztásuk nemcsak a szív-és érrendszeri megbetegedések kockázatát növeli, hanem összefüggésbe hozható a kóros elhízással, valamint a 2-es típusú cukorbetegséggel is. A kötelező címkézés, az ipar önkéntes vállalásai önmagukban nem nyújtanak elegendő védelmet a fogyasztók számára. Hasonló következtetésekre jutott az Európai Bizottság 2015 decemberében közzétett jelentése is: a megelőzés leghatékonyabb eszköze az ipari transzszsírok tartalmának jogszabályi korlátozása lehet.

Magyarország az elsők között cselekedett, amikor 2014-ben Dánia és Ausztria után rendeletben szabályozta az élelmiszerek transzzsírsav tartalmának legmagasabb elfogadható szintjét. Az előírás értelmében nem lehet olyan élelmiszert forgalomba hozni, amely összes zsírtartalmának 100 grammjában a transzzsírsavak mennyisége meghaladja a 2 grammot. A magyar példát azóta Lettország is követte.

A kötelező érvényű jogszabály bevezetése után az érintett országokban rövid időn belül jelentősen csökkent a jogszabályi határérték feletti mennyiségben transzzsírsavakat tartalmazó élelmiszerek aránya, ami jelentős népegészségügyi előnyökkel is jár.

Figyelemre méltó, hogy az élelmiszeripar – társadalmi felelősségét felismerve – egyre nagyobb szerepet vállal a transzzsírsavak csökkentésében. A konszenzusos helyzet nyújtotta előnyöket kihasználva ezért fontos, hogy az Európai Bizottság mielőbb javasoljon uniós határértékeket ezen mesterséges zsírok tekintetében. Mindezek alapján támogattam szavazatommal az állásfoglalást.

 
  
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  Pavel Poc (S&D), písemně. – Vítám iniciativu kolegů a podporuji omezování průmyslově vyráběných tuků s obsahem transmastných kyselin v potravinách. Od přijetí nařízení 1169/2011 se potvrdilo, že má takové omezení pozitivní vliv na zdraví obyvatel. Zpráva Komise z prosince 2015 navíc vyhodnotila, že se jedná o rychlý a efektivní způsob, jak toho dosáhnout. To je v situaci, kdy se příjem tuků s obsahem transmastných kyselin nadále řadí k hlavním rizikovým faktorům zejména z hlediska rozvoje ischemické choroby srdeční, jistě dobrá zpráva, je ale potřeba nadále zlepšovat prevenci. Jen toto onemocnění má podle odhadů v EU na svědomí přibližně 660 000 úmrtí ročně, asi 14 % z celkového počtu úmrtí. Na kardiovaskulární choroby umírají v EU 4 miliony lidí ročně, což nadále představuje skoro polovinu všech úmrtí. Je proto zarážející, že Komise v rámci svého mandátu nevyhodnotila potřebu předložit legislativní návrh, jehož cílem by bylo vyloučit v dlouhodobém horizontu tuky s obsahem transmastných kyselin z potravinového dodavatelského řetězce v EU tím, že by se zavedlo buď povinné uvádění obsahu těchto tuků, nebo unijní zákonná horní hranice průmyslově vyráběných tuků s obsahem transmastných kyselin pro všechny potraviny. Okamžité zavedení celounijní legislativy dlouhodobě podporují přední experti, především asociace evropských kardiologů, spotřebitelské organizace, shodují se na něm ale i výrobci.

 
  
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  Dubravka Šuica (PPE), napisan. – Transmasne kiseline se prirodno nalaze u hrani dobivenoj od preživača, u nekim biljkama te u ljudskom majčinom mlijeku. Međutim, većina konzumiranih transmasnih kiselina proizvedene su na industrijski način. Tako se unos transmasnih kiselina uglavnom povezuje i s konzumacijom industrijskih prehrambenih proizvoda.

Postoje podaci o zdravstvenim rizicima koji su posljedica konzumacije transmasnih kiselina te su uzrok pretilosti ljudi. Smatram da bi europske institucije trebale poduzimati određene mjere za zaštitu zdravlja europskih građana, što se prvenstveno odnosi na bolju informiranost kroz sustav obrazovanja. Također, smatram da je potrebno provoditi politiku čiji je cilj ograničiti udio transmasnih kiselina u prehrambenim proizvodima.

Ovaj prijedlog rezolucije vidim kao korak bliže ka učinkovitijem informiranju o štetnim posljedicama konzumiranja industrijskih transmasnih kiselina te kao započinjanje izrade strategije kojom se nastoji ograničiti njihova uporaba. Uvjerena sam da bi donošenje odluka o transmasnim kiselinama na razini Europske unije pozitivno utjecalo na javno zdravlje.

 
  
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  Claudiu Ciprian Tănăsescu (S&D), în scris. – Într-o economie a consumului și în secolul vitezei, consumul de produse de tip fast-food, de semi-preparate și de alimente procesate crește în ritm exponențial, ca atare este necesară o reglementare a AGT, armonizată la nivelul Uniunii Europene, ținând cont de toate reglementările existente în cadrul statelor membre, dar și de cele existente în SUA (la 16 iunie 2015, FDA, bazându-se pe dovezi științifice, interzice folosirea acizilor grași trans în alimentele transformate, cu termen de 3 ani pentru producători). În acest fel, cetățenii cu venituri reduse sau cei cu vârste între 18 și 30 de ani nu vor mai prezenta riscul depășirii pragului de 1% al OMS. Evident, etichetarea grăsimilor trans devine necesară în contextul în care specialiștii în medicină și nutriționiștii consider că grăsimile trans reprezintă cel mai periculos tip de grăsimi, deoarece cresc nivelul colesterolului rău (LDL) în organism și-l scad pe cel bun (HDL). Însă este nevoie și de un sistem de citire și interpretare a etichetelor alimentelor procesate, astfel încât, în cunoștință de cauză, cetățenii Europei să-și îmbunătățească alimentația prin realizarea de programe de nutriție și alimentație adecvate.

 
  
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  Marc Tarabella (S&D), par écrit. – Maladies cardiovasculaires, infertilité, maladie d'Alzheimer, diabète et obésité: voilà les risques que court le citoyen européen à consommer excessivement des acides gras trans dans son alimentation. Le problème, c’est que seulement 30 % des consommateurs savent ce qu’est un acide gras trans (AGT), ce qui expose les deux autres tiers des Européens à des problèmes médicaux potentiellement graves. C’est pour cela que, par le vote de ce midi, nous voulons un étiquetage clair, mais cela ne suffit pas: il faut également limiter la présence de ces acides. La consommation des AGT augmente le risque de maladie cardiovasculaire, en particulier les maladies coronariennes dont le nombre de victimes en Europe est estimé à quelques 660 000 décès chaque année, soit 14% de la mortalité européenne. À travers le texte voté aujourd’hui, nous nous prononçons donc en faveur de l’imposition de limites obligatoires sur les acides gras trans produits industriellement et exagérément présents dans l’alimentation. Nous ne pouvons accepter que les citoyens mettent plus longtemps leur santé en danger. Vu l’absence de législations nationales dans de nombreux pays, c’est à l’Europe de prendre la main.

 
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