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Trečiadienis, 2016 m. spalio 26 d. - Strasbūras Atnaujinta informacija

10. ES politika ir veiksmai, siekiant apsaugoti vaikus migracijos aplinkybėmis (diskusijos)
Kalbų vaizdo įrašas
PV
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  Preşedinte. – Următorul punct de pe ordinea de zi este dezbaterea privind întrebarea cu solicitare de răspuns oral referitoare la politicile și acțiunile UE pentru protejarea copiilor în contextul migrației, adresată Comisiei (O-000126/2016 - B8-1804/2016) (2016/2954(RSP)).

 
  
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  Gianni Pittella, Autore. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, Osarugue, di sedici anni, è una ragazza giovane che ha lasciato la sua famiglia in Nigeria alla ricerca di una vita migliore in Europa. Un contrabbandiere nigeriano le ha organizzato il viaggio per arrivare in Europa e le ha imposto di fare lavori forzati per recuperare i soldi per pagare il viaggio. Per molte settimane questa ragazza, lavorando in Libia, per di raggiungere la somma pattuita, è stata costretta a essere abusata sessualmente e sfruttata fino a quando non ha potuto finalmente salire su questa barca per raggiungere l'isola di Lampedusa. Senza acqua per ore e ore, incapace di muoversi, lei e molti altri ragazzi sono stati ammassati in una stiva buia in fondo la barca. Ci sono volute più di 12 ore prima di essere messi in salvo dalla Guardia costiera italiana.

Colleghi, la storia di questa ragazza non è una storia isolata. Purtroppo, è la storia di circa 50 milioni di bambine e di bambini che hanno attraversato i confini del mondo. Tra questi, più della metà sono ragazze e ragazzi fuggiti dalla violenza e dalla insicurezza. Questi bambini sono rifugiati, sfollati o migranti interni, ma non importa da dove provengano o chi essi siano, sono prima di tutto dei bambini! Noi Socialisti democratici abbiamo presentato una richiesta formale di aiuto alla Commissione europea affinché i minori non accompagnati, vittime della crisi migratoria siano adeguatamente protetti. E io mi aspetto una risposta positiva da parte del Commissario, che stimo tanto.

Sulla base del piano d'azione esistente per la protezione dei minori non accompagnati richiediamo un approccio che includa misure concrete per tutti i bambini e non limitate solo ai richiedenti asilo, un approccio fondato sul principio della non discriminazione, come sancito dalla Convenzione delle Nazioni Unite. Molto altro deve essere fatto soprattutto per tutelare e dare priorità ai bambini in base di reinsediamento e proibire la detenzione arbitraria dei bambini. Voglio concludere con una frase di un uomo che sta nel cuore di tutti noi, Nelson Mandela, che ha detto "non ci può essere più acuta rivelazione dell'anima di una società che il modo in cui essa tratta i bambini".

 
  
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  Nathalie Griesbeck, auteure. – Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, notre débat porte sur les enfants dans le contexte de la migration et je souhaite revenir sur la situation des enfants non accompagnés, c'est-à-dire ceux qui arrivent ou se trouvent seuls sur notre territoire européen.

En septembre 2013, le Parlement a adopté un rapport sur la situation de ces mineurs non accompagnés. Il y a plus de trois ans déjà, en tant que rapporteure, je proposai et demandai l'adoption d'une vraie stratégie, de vraies mesures et de normes communes minimales dont je soulignai la nécessité pour protéger ces enfants comme il se doit.

Depuis, rien n'a été fait ou presque. À l'époque, il y avait 13 000 mineurs non accompagnés et nous dénoncions déjà l'urgence de la situation. Aujourd'hui, 96 000 enfants non accompagnés sont arrivés en Europe et, naturellement, nous n'avons pas plus de stratégie et pas plus de réponses adaptées.

Rendez-vous compte, Monsieur le Commissaire, que les images de ces enfants seuls et apeurés qui sont la proie de réseaux participent au risque de désastre collectif qui menace notre Europe.

Je tiens à souligner trois points. Premièrement, Monsieur le Commissaire, il faut une stratégie globale pour les enfants non accompagnés. Or, dans l'agenda européen en matière de migration, le mot "enfants" n'apparaît qu'une seule fois pour indiquer qu'un suivi du plan d'action est en cours. Je vous demande où en est ce suivi.

Deuxième point, la relocalisation. Je lance ici un appel aux États membres de l'Union qui se sont engagés à relocaliser 160 000 réfugiés depuis l'Italie ou la Grèce. Nous savons tous que ce n'est clairement pas la priorité des États puisqu'aujourd'hui, seules 6 000 personnes ont été relocalisées depuis l'an dernier. Parmi elles, seuls 75 mineurs non accompagnés ont été relocalisés. C'est une honte! Je ne comprends même pas comment cela peut être possible.

Troisièmement, Dublin. On ne peut pas passer sous silence la révision actuelle du règlement de Dublin, révision malheureuse non pas en elle-même, mais par les éléments qui y sont envisagés. Votre proposition concernant les mineurs non accompagnés, c'est l'exact opposé de la jurisprudence pourtant claire de la Cour qui interdit de balloter les enfants d'un pays à l'autre.

En conclusion, face au courage de ces enfants qui ont traversé une partie de la planète, nous répondons par une sorte d'incapacité à les accueillir comme il se doit. Les solutions existent. Il s'agit simplement d'avoir une volonté politique à la hauteur des valeurs que porte normalement notre Union.

 
  
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  Cornelia Ernst, Verfasserin. – Herr Präsident! Im letzten Jahr war unsere Fraktion in mehreren Ländern zu Flüchtlingen unterwegs. Fast immer waren das mehrheitlich Kinder. Die meisten haben nie oder jahrelang keine Schule von innen gesehen. Sie leben in Camps, auf Straßen, in abgerissenen Häusern, in Elendsquartieren, aber auch in Abschiebeknästen wie in der Türkei.

Seit 2014 bis Juli 2016 sind nach Schätzungen von IOM 15 000 Kinder verlorengegangen. Verlorengegangen – das heißt vermisst, tot, ertrunken im Mittelmeer, verdurstet in der jordanischen Wüste, verlorengegangen auf der Balkanroute, verkauft an Da’esh, verwurstet von Organhändlern im Kosovo.

Es gibt keinerlei Schutz, keinerlei Hilfen für Kinder auf der Flucht. Und wenn sie gar unbegleitet sind, dann sind sie völlig auf sich allein gestellt. Das trifft auf 100 000 Kinder im Jahr 2015 zu. Und die Tatsache, dass es eben keine legalen Wege nach Europa gibt, setzt diese Kinder existenziellen Gefahren für Leib und Leben aus. Die EU, die sich immer so vollmundig des Friedensnobelpreises rühmt, versagt hier jämmerlich.

Und egal, wie man sonst zur Flüchtlingspolitik steht, wie man darüber denkt, es ist völlig egal: Man darf diese Kinder nicht hängen lassen. Wir haben eine humanitäre Pflicht, diesen Kindern zu helfen.

Wir als Vereinigte Linksfraktion verlangen die Schaffung eines humanitären Korridors, der es Kindern ermöglicht, auf legalem Weg in die EU zu kommen. Kein Kind gehört in ein Abschiebegefängnis, kein Kind darf einfach abgeschoben werden. Wir verlangen einen Rechtsanspruch dieser Kinder auf eine zügige Familienzusammenführung. Wir verlangen, dass unbegleitete Kinder kostenlose anwaltliche Begleitung erhalten. Wir verlangen, dass Flüchtlingskinder in allen Rechten den Kindern in den Mitgliedstaaten gleichgestellt werden.

Ich sage es abschließend: Diese Kinder können nicht warten, zumal der Winter vor der Tür steht. Es muss jetzt gehandelt werden, und ich erwarte das auch von der Kommission.

 
  
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  Anna Maria Corazza Bildt, author. – Mr President, Commissioner: Europe should mean safety for migrant children. There are more and more children coming to Europe, and they are younger and younger: 80 000 only this year, out of which 70 000, according to UNHCR, are accompanied minors. Behind every number there is a tragedy. There is a heart-breaking story. Children are now trafficked, abused, exploited and exposed to terrible suffering. It is happening in Europe today. We have an emergency of more than tens of thousands of children that are going missing. They are running away from reception centres and becoming victims of organised crime. The police, the judiciary, law enforcement authorities have to prioritise children.

We need better rules for cross-border cooperation, better cooperation with Europol, better interoperability of the databases, and yes, welcome to the Commission proposal to reduce the age of fingerprinting from 14 to 6, because it is a way to bring the children and to keep the children into the protection system. And that is our duty: to make sure they enter the protection system and to build the trust, to make sure that they remain in the protection system, not by detaining them. Arbitrary detention of children should not have a place in Europe.

Still we do not have zero tolerance for impunity for abuse of children in Europe, and it is about time that we build this policy. Children should be identified, registered and given the right to ask for asylum. Member States should accelerate the procedures for granting asylum for children. Fast-tracking, relocation and resettlement programmes should be giving priority to children.

I want to conclude by saying that I met, in Sweden, Afghan children, in an organisation they have themselves built, helping each other. Let us start to change the rhetoric. They can be an asset and a benefit to our society if we give them access to education, to health care, to psychological support and to dignified shelter. They are an opportunity for our societies.

 
  
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  Jean Lambert, author. – Mr President, at the last Parliament session here we picked up on the issue about what was happening in Calais, and I want to use that as the basis for what I say this afternoon. We saw some of the first children brought from Calais to the UK only in the last few days, where they were greeted by the press saying: ‘My God, these do not look like children’. So you think, well, how do you expect a child who spent two years walking from Afghanistan to get to the border of France to look? Not exactly like the 13-year-olds, for example, that we might see in our own classrooms and our own streets.

What we have seen at Calais, and I think we have seen in a number of other places, has been a deliberate foot-dragging by the authorities, even to work with the Dublin system to reunite those with families. We see a lack of dedicated staff for dealing with under-18s. We see children who are identified by NGOs such as Safe Passage, who are then lost by the authorities because they have really got no system to deal with them. We see a lack of support to local authorities who are willing to accept unaccompanied minors, to provide them with school places and foster care. We see a lack of support for family members who may, for example, be not in a good situation to take on their young family members themselves.

How do you feel as a 24-year-old living alone when you are suddenly asked to look after your 14-year old brother that you last saw 10 years ago? We know that there are significant issues around guardianship and child protection. We have known that for years in this House. We know it for children from Europe themselves, as well as for those coming in. So is the Commission satisfied that the new asylum proposals provide a genuine framework for looking after those children from the moment of their arrival to determination of status and beyond? Or are we once again looking at the words, not the reality?

 
  
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  Dimitris Avramopoulos, Membro della Commissione. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli deputati, io vorrei ringraziare il presidente Gianni Pittella e gli altri membri del Parlamento per quello che avete detto. Le vostre parole parlano al nostro cuore e ora vi comunicherò quello che penso.

Thank you for scheduling this very timely debate, because it is really very timely. Let me assure you that the protection of children in the context of migration and the current refugee crisis is central to our overall migration policy, both for their short-term as well as their long-term needs.

The Commission, as you will remember, announced in its communication of 10 February 2016 a comprehensive approach to the protection of all children in migration, including unaccompanied minors. These actions are geared towards strengthening child protection systems in the Member States and are now being implemented. The Commission will also evaluate and report by the end of this year on the implementation of the 2010-2014 Action Plan on Unaccompanied Minors.

All our efforts are concerted to address the complex and urgent issues that need to be resolved to ensure the adequate protection of migrant children arriving in Europe. Member States must ensure that they are capable of respecting the rights and meeting the needs of children in migration and addressing several gaps. These gaps include: providing adequate reception conditions, including psycho-social care; prevention of children going missing, and ensuring adequate responses in case they do; effective guardianship; access to information; access to legal counsel and assistance and other procedural safeguards and procedures, such as Dublin transfers and family reunification; and the use of arbitrary administrative detention and inappropriate detention conditions. Let me remind you that detention is never the objective, but can only be a last resort. The Commission is acting to address all these gaps.

The recent legislative proposals to reform the Common European Asylum System include stronger provisions on the protection, care and procedural safeguards for children. These new proposals aim at strengthening the protection of children, including those who are unaccompanied. They address key areas such as ensuring adequate reception conditions, ensuring access to specialised services and education for migrant children, ensuring psycho—social support for victims of trauma, and speeding up family reunification procedures. Nevertheless, more needs to be done to ensure that alternatives to detention are available and used, and to ensure the expansion of family-based care, such as foster care, for unaccompanied children.

With regard to family reunification, our Dublin proposal provides for clear and precise rules and will enhance the efficiency of the system significantly without compromising any essential safeguards. The procedures will be shorter, and current shifts of responsibility between Member States will no longer be possible. It also broadens the concept of ‘family members’ to include the applicant’s siblings. One of the main gaps has been on effective guardianship, where we have seen long delays in appointment and guardians being assigned unworkable caseloads of up to 1 000 children. Our asylum reform proposals address this issue. I count on your support and that of the Member States to agree on these reforms, so we can ensure these safeguards in reality as soon as possible.

In addition, the recent Action Plan on Integration Actions addresses education for children in migration. For children in reception centres our asylum reform proposals aim at further strengthening a child’s right to access to education, including if they are in detention. Under the Emergency Support Instrument, targeted funding is allocated to additional education activities for children. Outside the European Union, EU funding has been made available to programmes for vulnerable Syrian refugees and host community children and adolescents.

According to the Council decisions on relocation, applications made by unaccompanied children and vulnerable persons shall be prioritised. Despite this, so far very few unaccompanied children have been relocated from Greece and very few Member States have made places available for them. To date, no children have been relocated from Italy. In our recent report we have also raised this issue. As you know, the Commission is monitoring the situation in Greece and Italy very closely and is in continuous dialogue with Member States, urging them to make pledges to relocate unaccompanied children.

Finally, to foster a discussion between those working in asylum and migration and those working in child protection, the Commission is dedicating the 10th European Forum on the Rights of the Child on 29 November 2016 to the protection of children in migration, where there will also be a dedicated side meeting on the guardianship of unaccompanied children.

As I said at the beginning, protecting the most sensitive and the most vulnerable in this refugee crisis – and those are indeed children – is of paramount importance to the Commission. It is one of our priorities. But it needs many more stakeholders and actors involved to make this happen. The Commission counts on the European Parliament as its partner on this. I would like to close by saying that this is not an issue that should in fact be debated. It is an issue that should simply be addressed, urgently and jointly.

 
  
  

IN THE CHAIR: ANNELI JÄÄTTEENMÄKI
Vice-President

 
  
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  Roberta Metsola, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Madam President, in this House we have listened to every single side of the migration debate. I am convinced that we can have a situation where we are humane with those in need of protection, but firm with those who are not eligible. This careful balance must be the basis of any policy and I am happy to debate this at any time. But when it comes to children, politicians do not have the luxury of time.

The anguish of parents who pack a little plastic bag and send their children, often alone, on rickety boats, to Europe, knowing the dangers – but who do it anyway because even a small chance of a better life for their child is better than the certainty that awaits them if they stay behind – is almost unimaginable. The truth is that often those children who survive the journey find themselves in no man’s land, alone, vulnerable and easily exploited. The statistics are heart-breaking; thousands of children have gone missing, but only 46 unaccompanied minors have been relocated – forty-six. Yes, we need to make sure that no one abuses loopholes in our system; and yes, we need to ensure that proper age determination is carried out; but states cannot turn their backs.

We need our responses to improve, and we are calling for a series of measures to protect children, including quicker processing times, improving guardianship and access to education, ending arbitrary detention, and getting children reunited with their families. We can do better, and we must do better, because it is true that, as one famous poet put it, no one puts their child in a boat unless the water is safer than the land.

 
  
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  Enrique Guerrero Salom, en nombre del Grupo S&D. – Señora Presidenta, en todas las crisis humanitarias —sea por causas naturales, sea por conflictos—, el eslabón más débil son siempre los niños: por una parte, pierden sus condiciones de vida y, por otra, se están poniendo en riesgo las que vayan a tener en el futuro.

Apenas uno de cada seis niños emigrantes o desplazados en el mundo viven en la Unión Europea, pero es un número muy importante. El año pasado, más de 300 000 pidieron asilo; fue el doble que el año anterior.

La Unión Europea tiene que comprometerse a varias cuestiones. En primer lugar, respetar escrupulosamente la Declaración de los Derechos del Niño.

En segundo lugar, proveer a los centros de recepción con medios materiales y con asesoramiento cualificado, y ofrecer alternativas humanas –¡humanas!– a lo que hoy son centros de detención o de retención.

Finalmente, proporcionarles educación. Sin educación, no hay futuro para nadie, tampoco para los niños.

 
  
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  Cecilia Wikström, för ALDE-gruppen. – Fru talman! De barn som flyr ensamma utan något vuxet stöd är de mest utsatta personerna på europeisk mark. Vi ser deras utsatthet och hur de riskerar att utnyttjas och utsättas för våld och utnyttjande av skrupelfria vuxna.

Många försvinner, och vi vet att Europol beskriver hur 10 000 har försvunnit det senaste året. Allra mest chockerande och sorgligt är det att se de ensamma barn som levt i den så kallade djungeln i Calais, trots att de har rätt att återförenas med sina familjer i Storbritannien.

Detta är en skam för Europeiska unionen, för bakom de anonyma ansiktena med tomma blickar som vänds mot tv-kameror som kommer på besök så finns det ett namn, ett levnadsöde, en berättelse. I mitt arbete som föredragande för Dublin-förordningens revision så ska vi försöka finna särskilda sätt att skapa säkerhet och trygghet för de här barnen.

Inget barn ska leva på soptippar i Europa, ensamma i kyla och regn, potentiella offer för skrupelfria vuxna. Ingen på jorden har rätt att ta ifrån dem deras barndom på detta sätt. Vårt uppdrag är att ge dem barndomen tillbaka. Att ge dem liv, hopp och framtid. Inte mer och inte mindre.

 
  
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  Malin Björk, för GUE/NGL-gruppen. – Fru talman! Jag tror att det är dags att sluta prata med dubbla tungor. Man kan inte samtidigt ställa sig bakom murarnas politik, som vi håller på att utveckla här, och samtidigt säga att man står för barns rättigheter.

De nya asylförslag som nu förhandlas är barnfientliga. Hur kan man säga att det är barns bästa att ta ifrån dem den bästa chansen de har till trygghet, nämligen att göra som i förslaget, omöjliggöra de permanenta uppehållstillstånden? Hur kan man sätta barn i förvar, försvara det och säga att det är i barns bästa? Att deportera barn är barnfientligt. Att sluta avtal med tredje länder för att skicka tillbaka så många som möjligt är också barnfientligt.

Medan vi pratar här så pågår rivningen av ”the jungle” i Calais, där vi får rapporter om polisvåld mot barn. Hur svårt kan det vara för Storbritannien att ta emot 1 000 barn? Det är dessutom deras rätt att komma dit; de har familj där. I Grekland sitter barn och familjer strandsatta för att medlemsländer inte får till den omfördelning som de har rätt till.

Jo, det är så här: Om vi ska leva upp till barnkonventionen, då får vi ställa om flyktingpolitiken. Då ska vi sätta barns säkerhet och trygghet i centrum och då måste vi också göra upp och sätta stopp för murarnas politik.

 
  
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  Laura Ferrara, a nome del gruppo EFDD. – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, tra le categorie vulnerabili i minori stranieri non accompagnati sono maggiormente vittime dell'assenza di un sistema di accoglienza uniforme a livello europeo, in grado di garantire sia la protezione e la tutela dei diritti, sia strumenti adeguati a chi deve farsi carico dell'accoglienza. In Italia, su oltre 14.000 minori stranieri censiti più di 6.000 risultano irreperibili. La Calabria e la Sicilia sono in Italia le regioni di prima linea che ospitano il più alto numero di minori stranieri. Nella prima fase di accoglienza sono spesso i sindaci dei comuni ad avere per legge la responsabilità maggiore nel far fronte ai bisogni dei minori, svolgendo tale compito tra mille difficoltà, in termini di risorse economiche e di risorse umane e di risorse logistiche. Al fine di ridurre l'esposizione ai rischi che riguardano la salute e l'integrità psicofisica e soddisfare al meglio i bisogni e le opportunità di sviluppo e di educazione, occorre proporre strumenti o misure legislative specifiche, basate sulle migliori pratiche dell'accoglienza ai minori che agevolino e chiariscano soprattutto i compiti, le funzioni e le competenze dei tutori.

 
  
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  Janice Atkinson, on behalf of the ENF Group. – The UK is about to leave the sinking Titanic and I worry there aren’t enough lifeboats left for your children and citizens. There are 65 million migrants in the world looking for a new home, and they all want to land on the mother ship. Let’s take a reasonable assumption that a quarter of them are children. Where are the millions going to go? It’s interesting to note the changing language. Until today every migrant was a refugee; now they are migrants. Is this a change in policy? Or are you at last being honest with your real aims to destroy our Western civilisation? My country has taken hundreds of children from Calais, and some man-boys pretending to be children. Where were the French social services for these children? The French lecture us but they abandoned their responsibilities. I believe charity begins at home; but in the UK we cannot even help out own children in need. We need an extra 8 400 foster families; 80 000 are children in care; our social workers are at breaking point. We can’t do any more, so please don’t lecture the UK. Finally when the Titanic sinks along with Western civilisation you will have achieved your goal and genuine child refugees will have been cast adrift, and that’s a real shame.

 
  
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  Λάμπρος Φουντούλης ( NI). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, οι ανήλικοι που εισέρχονται στην Ευρώπη ανήκουν σε δύο κατηγορίες, στους πρόσφυγες και στους μετανάστες. Η πρώτη κατηγορία είναι αυτή που χρήζει πραγματικής βοήθειας, μιας και εγκαταλείπουν τη χώρα τους παρά τη θέλησή τους, με μέτρα που θα διασφαλίζουν περίθαλψη και ανθρώπινη διαβίωση. Η εκπαίδευσή τους πρέπει να γίνεται στη γλώσσα της χώρας καταγωγής τους και ακολουθώντας όσο το δυνατόν το εκπαιδευτικό σύστημά της. Επιπλέον πρέπει να καταβάλουμε κάθε προσπάθεια για να τερματιστεί η κατάσταση που τους ανάγκασε να γίνουν πρόσφυγες, ώστε να επιστρέψουν μια ώρα αρχύτερα πίσω στις χώρες τους.

Στη δεύτερη κατηγορία ανηλίκων, και με την προϋπόθεση πως η μετανάστευσή τους έχει γίνει μέσω νομίμων οδών, είναι ευθύνη του γονέα, που επέλεξε να σύρει το παιδί του σε αυτή την περιπέτεια, να μεριμνήσει και για την καλή διαβίωσή του. Δεν θα έπρεπε να επιτρέπεται η μετανάστευση ανηλίκων, καθώς η αλλαγή χώρας διαβίωσης είναι μια πολύ σοβαρή επιλογή που δεν θα έπρεπε κανείς να την επιβάλλει. Στους ανήλικους λαθρομετανάστες πρέπει να διασφαλίζεται ανθρώπινη και αξιοπρεπής διαβίωση μέχρι την ταχύτερη επαναπροώθησή τους στις χώρες καταγωγής, ώστε να επανενωθούν με τις οικογένειές τους. Πρέπει να επιβάλλονται αυστηρές ποινές σε όσους χρησιμοποιούν ανήλικα παιδιά, δικά τους ή ασυνόδευτα, σαν μέσο για να περάσουν τα σύνορα της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης εκθέτοντάς τα σε κίνδυνο.

 
  
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  Jiří Pospíšil (PPE). – Já jsem velmi rád, že tento bod byl zařazen zde na jednání a že se bavíme vysloveně o dětech jako o zranitelných osobách. Poslouchal jsem vyjádření pana komisaře, že plán je připraven a že se nyní implementuje. Doufejme tedy, že bude také realizován a naplněn, nejen že o něm budeme pouze debatovat, a dovolte mi několik poznámek.

Z toho, co tu říkal pan komisař, já si myslím, že by měla Komise více akcentovat boj s organizovaným zločinem, kdy právě děti jsou oběťmi organizovaného zločinu. Padlo to tady několikrát, tisíce dětí se ztratily, bohužel smutná statistika, a je třeba udělat více, aby evropské orgány, justiční orgány a jednotlivé členské země více bojovaly proti této mimořádně nebezpečné trestné činnosti, aby se ministři vnitra zemí EU o tomto více bavili na svých radách, aby toto téma nezapadalo.

Dále zde bylo zmiňováno téma azylového řízení. Já osobně se domnívám, že u dětí je třeba mít specifické podmínky. Zkrátka a dobře, návratová politika dětí do původních zemí je podle mého názoru eticky velmi obtížná, zvláště pokud to dítě stráví několik měsíců nebo let v Evropě a najednou by mělo být vráceno zpátky.

Evropská komise by spíše než debatovat o centralizovaném azylovém řízení měla podle mě řešit, jak dětem, které po určitou dobu jsou v Evropě, umožnit v Evropě zůstat, jak je integrovat do evropské společnosti a dát jim vzdělání. To si myslím, že je to nejvhodnější a nejlepší, co pro ně můžeme udělat.

(Řečník souhlasil s tím, že odpoví na otázku položenou zvednutím modré karty (čl. 162 odst. 8 jednacího řádu).)

 
  
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  Tibor Szanyi (S&D), Kékkártyás kérdés. – Köszönöm szépen a lehetőséget Elnök Asszony! Tisztelt Képviselő Úr! Ön helyesen, helyesen említette, hogy ezeknek a gyerekeknek speciális gondozásra és speciális kezelésre van igényük. Ugyanakkor van egy jellemző mozzanat, hogy többnyire azért itt tizenéves, sőt tizenöt, tizenhat, tizenhét éves gyerekekről van szó. Ezek egyik pillanatról a másikra 18 éves korukba lépnek, és akkor már teljesen más szabályok vonatkoznak rájuk. Miközben ugyanarról az emberről van szó, aki alig van itt esetleg egy-két éve Európában. Ezt a küszöböt Ön hogyan gondolja átugrani ezekkel a speciális szabályokkal? A 18. életévet, mert utána már felnőtt.

 
  
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  Jiří Pospíšil (PPE), odpověď na otázku položenou zvednutím modré karty. – Tak to je samozřejmě velmi závažná, palčivá otázka analogie v trestním právu. Když někomu je 17 let a spáchá trestný čin a pak je mu 19 let, tak páchá trestný čin za jiných podmínek. Je třeba, aby pro věk blízký věku plnoletosti zkrátka byla nastavena přechodná pravidla, tak aby opravdu v 18 letech nenastal úplný zlom a pro ty lidi platila úplně jiná pravidla.

Jak už jsem řekl, je-li někdo v mladém věku v Evropě, tak pokud zde nejsou úplně jednoznačné závažné důvody, pak by měl být integrován, nikoliv vracen, a je na Komisi, aby tato pravidla nastavila.

 
  
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  Juan Fernando López Aguilar (S&D). – Señora Presidenta, señor Comisario, todos en esta sesión hemos hablado y hablamos de los más vulnerables en esta crisis migratoria —mal llamada de los refugiados— y en su dimensión más trágica, que es la que afecta a los menores porque, efectivamente, son los más vulnerables.

Pero lo más estremecedor es que crecen en número de forma exponencial: 350 000 llegaron en los últimos dos años; 96 000 de ellos, no acompañados, es decir, sin ningún padre o madre ni persona que asegure su guardia, su custodia y su tutela; un 40 % en los puntos más calientes —Italia y Grecia—; 1 500 ahogados en el Mediterráneo: no solamente el niño Aylan, que efectivamente rompió trágicamente la barrera de la comunicación, sino muchos más «Aylanes» desconocidos.

Y para ello, para hacer frente a esta situación, no basta sencillamente con que invoquemos aquí la Agenda Europea de Migración 2010-2014, ni nuestro propio Derecho en vigor, ni las Resoluciones parlamentarias, ni la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño.

Hacen falta acciones concretas, acciones en materia de reunificación familiar, de procedimientos de acogida y recepción; prohibición de la detención arbitraria de menores y, en su caso, asistencia jurídica y tutela judicial; apoyo a la salud, a la educación y al desarrollo psicológico de los menores; y, por supuesto, programas de reubicación y de reasentamiento adecuados para asegurar la guardia y custodia de los menores no acompañados. Porque si Europa es una civilización fundada en el Derecho, se retrata exactamente en el modo en que trata a las personas más vulnerables: los menores en el contexto de la crisis migratoria.

 
  
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  Hilde Vautmans (ALDE). – Dit debat komt eigenlijk veel te laat, vind ik. Het is goed dat het gevoerd wordt, maar op dit eigenste moment, vandaag, wordt het kamp in Calais ontruimd. Ik was daar een week geleden, 1022 kinderen, slapend in een erbarmelijk iglotentje terwijl het buiten tegen het vriespunt is. Dat is het beeld van hoe wij in Europa met asielzoekers, met kinderen, omgaan.

Dus, collega's, laten we nu eens echt met de vuist op tafel slaan. Laten we ons nu eens echt samen met de Commissie inspannen om dat actieplan nieuw leven in te blazen. 10 000 kinderen zijn er vermist in Europa. Europol waarschuwt en zegt dat ze in de prostitutie zitten en gedood worden voor hun organen, en wij? Wij doen niets!

Dus twee dingen. Laten we ten eerste een degelijk actieplan maken: hoe vangen we hen op? Hoe zorgen wij dat zij niet opnieuw in handen van mensensmokkelaars vallen? Ten tweede, mijnheer de commissaris, wat gaan we doen om die 10 000 kinderen terug te vinden? Want als wij denken dat zij niet in kelders kunnen zitten, bij mensen zoals wij in België gekend hebben, de zogenaamde Dutroux, dan dromen we. Laten we ze opsporen en redden. Dat is onze plicht.

[De spreker gaat in op een “blauwe kaart”-vraag overeenkomstig artikel 162, lid 8, van het Reglement.]

 
  
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  Doru-Claudian Frunzulică (S&D), blue-card question. – Ms Vautmans, do you not think that we ought to call immediately on the Commission to adopt a clearly defined and measurable policy framework, a clear mechanism – I might even call it a special mechanism – with a view to employing a comprehensive approach to prevent violence, exploitation and abuse, and strengthen protection systems for the most vulnerable, especially for children?

 
  
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  Hilde Vautmans (ALDE), "blauwe kaart"-antwoord. – Ja, uiteraard, collega. Daar kan ik niet tegen zijn. Uiteraard kunnen we dat doen en ik ga zelfs verder. Ik heb heel wat asielcentra bezocht in België en daar bestaan heel goede werkwijzen waardoor we kunnen voorkomen dat kinderen opnieuw verdwijnen in Europa. Laat ons gewoon die goede werkwijzen uitwisselen. Laten we het ook onmiddellijk aan de politie melden en affiches verspreiden als een kind uit een asielzoekerscentrum verdwijnt. En dat niet, zoals nu, pas na een week melden en dan elk spoor bijster zijn. Dus uiteraard akkoord; u zult onze steun hebben.

 
  
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  Ignazio Corrao (EFDD). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, Commissario, sono circa 20.000 i minori non accompagnati arrivati in Europa attraverso l'Italia quest'anno, mentre circa 12.000 erano arrivati nel 2015. Un significativo aumento che trova però il sistema di accoglienza italiano inadeguato a rispondere ai loro bisogni, anche quelli più basilari ed essenziali. Solo quest'anno, più di 5.000 minori sono stati dichiarati scomparsi dai centri di accoglienza. Stiamo parlando di 28 ragazzi al giorno che diventano così invisibili e, conseguentemente, ancora più vulnerabili a fenomeni di abuso, violenza e sfruttamento. Molti di loro si ritrovano confinati per un tempo indeterminato in centri da cui non possono uscire, costretti a vivere in alloggi inadeguati e insicuri, senza informazioni sui loro diritti e nella totale incertezza riguardo al loro destino. La Sicilia ad oggi ospita circa 5.000 minori stranieri, cifra ben più elevata rispetto a quelle di altre regioni italiane. Come se non bastasse 400 comunità per minori stranieri non accompagnati dell'isola sono al totale collasso, con operatori senza stipendio da un anno e pronte ad aprire le porte in uscita. Mi sembra ovvio che, a fronte di questa situazione, l'Unione europea deve intervenire con decisione e senza alcun ritardo.

 
  
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  Georg Mayer (ENF). – Frau Präsidentin! Kinder – wo auch immer auf dieser Welt sie sind – brauchen besonderen Schutz. Das hat man nur im dunklen Mittelalter anders gesehen. Im Idealfall – und der sollte im Fokus unseres Interesses liegen – bekommen sie diesen besonderen Schutz in ihren Familien und in ihren Heimatländern. Und wenn ein Kind ein Recht auf Asyl hat – ich glaube, das können wir außer Streit stellen –, dann hat es auch ein Recht auf besonderen Schutz in dem Land, wo dieses Asylrecht gewährt wird.

Eine besondere Situation ist – das wurde heute schon mehrfach angesprochen – die Flucht. Die Flucht von einem Kind ist natürlich eine besondere Ausnahmesituation. Wir wissen etwa von flüchtenden Mädchen, dass diese missbraucht werden, in Lagern aufgehalten werden, teilweise schweren Freiheitsentzügen erliegen, und dass das etwa durch den IS geschieht, aber auch durch andere islamische Gruppen.

Das erinnert auch sehr stark an das Mittelalter. Und das ist wohl auch ein Grund, warum 86 % der Minderjährigen, die in Europa um Asyl ansuchen, männlich sind. Das ist eine Frage, der wir auch besondere Bedeutung schenken sollten.

 
  
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  Stanislav Polčák (PPE). – Já považuji ten problém 65 milionů dětí, které jsou tedy ohroženy, za mimořádně závažný. Chci zdůraznit, že to číslo je neuvěřitelně obrovské. Já se téměř zdráhám věřit tomu, že to číslo je reálné, ale pevně věřím, že ten podklad je správný.

Podle mého soudu musíme souhlasit s tím, že samozřejmě děti jsou nejzranitelnější. Na druhou stranu bychom měli klást největší důraz právě na preventivní opatření, aby k těmto situacím nedocházelo, aby se skutečně takto obrovské číslo nezletilých bez doprovodu nevydávalo na nebezpečnou cestu. Ta opatření, o nich se už bavíme mnohokráte a de facto se neustále opakují.

Měli bychom přispět i k tomu, že problém, který bude narůstat, ta migrace bude nepochybně dále ještě narůstat, tak by měly řešit i další politiky EU, než jenom pouze přílišné omezení se na migraci. Měli bychom zapojit naše další nástroje, které máme k řešení tohoto problému, protože bez skutečných preventivních opatření a potom následných opatření, která budeme realizovat při řešení problému dětí, se neposuneme skutečně ani o milimetr dál.

 
  
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  Julie Ward (S&D). – Madam President, the number of what we call unaccompanied minors reached a record of more than 95 000 last year. Those children – and this is the proper word to use, because we are dealing here with human beings, not legal entities – are at serious risk of abuse, trafficking and exploitation. They experience traumatic situations on a daily basis.

I have visited the Calais and Dunkirk camp several times and I have seen hundreds of desperate children stuck in limbo. Only last weekend I talked to Yazidi children in a camp in Kurdistan where the Turkish authorities are doing nothing. I am particularly concerned today by the situation that will result from the clearance of the Calais Jungle taking place as we speak.

Beyond the issues of relocation and identification procedure, which must be ethical and compassionate, we must ensure access to education and put in place mechanisms to support and heal children who are very often experiencing immense suffering and trauma, often resulting in serious mental health issues. This must be done by taking into account the special needs of children with disabilities and young women and girls.

I also want to highlight the role of non-formal and informal learning, including sport, volunteering, arts and culture, which by providing safe spaces for intercultural dialogue and exchange not only facilitate the social inclusion of refugee children into their new communities, but also address stereotypes, prejudices and discrimination in the host countries. We must act in a concerted way at European level to offer protection to children in the context of migration. A whole generation of children, especially girls and young women, face a bleak future without education. The eight-year-old Yazidi girl I talked to on Saturday is desperate to go to school. We need to invest in her future and the future of all displaced children.

 
  
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  Caterina Chinnici (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, grazie signor Commissario per la sua presenza e per la sua sensibilità, ma troppe volte nel dibattito sulla migrazione ci siamo soffermati sulla situazione drammatica dei minori e, in particolare, dei minori non accompagnati che spesso spariscono nel nulla e, senza essere registrati né seguiti, continuano a muoversi, a fari spenti, attraverso l'Europa, così andando incontro al rischio di violenze e sfruttamento. Signor Commissario, lei stesso lo ha detto, serve ormai una strategia europea specifica, dedicata ai minori migranti e a quelli non accompagnati. E l'intergruppo sui diritti dei minori, che presiedo, lo chiede e lo ripete da tempo.

Servono procedure semplificate che permettano con rapidità il riconoscimento e il ricollocamento. Serve che i minori stiano il più breve tempo possibile negli hotspot e che i centri di accoglienza rispettino le norme minime di protezione per i bambini. Serve che le regioni più esposte ai flussi migratori possano usare dei fondi strutturali da investire in strutture e servizi per l'accoglienza dei minori e servono vie sicure e legali d'accesso all'Europa adatte ai minori e alle loro famiglie. Serve, in sostanza, che sia l'interesse superiore del minore a guidare le politiche europee e le azioni specifiche a tutela dei minori migranti.

 
  
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  Elly Schlein (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, bruciano ancora negli occhi le immagini di Calais, dove centinaia di minori vivono in condizioni disperate, provando a saltare sui camion per raggiungere i propri familiari nel Regno Unito. Succede anche alla stazione di Como, dove per tutta l'estate si sono accampate centinaia di persone che ogni notte provavano a passare il confine con la Svizzera e venivano costantemente respinte, impedendo loro di chiedere l'asilo quando molti di questi minori avrebbero avuto diritto al ricongiungimento familiare. In Italia e Grecia le strutture per l'accoglienza dei minori sono del tutto insufficienti, causando promiscuità e condizioni d'accoglienza inadeguate. I tutori spesso non vengono nominati e manca ancora una definizione europea di questa figura e del suo delicato ruolo.

La proposta di riforma di Dublino rischia di peggiorare la situazione dei minori, prevedendo doppi trasferimenti e la possibilità di rimandarli nel primo paese dove hanno fatto richiesta, dimenticando la sentenza della Corte di giustizia 648 del 2013 sull'interesse supremo del minore. Bisogna porre fine alla detenzione dei minori, assicurare la continuità alla loro istruzione e bisogna garantire procedure rapide e prioritarie per i minori nel ricollocamento e nel ricongiungimento familiare. Solo dando loro una prospettiva chiara e certa sul proprio futuro possiamo evitare che scappino, che si nascondano o finiscano nelle mani della criminalità organizzata. Non possono pagare loro la lentezza e l'inefficienza del nostro sistema di accoglienza! Caro Commissario, abbiamo una grande responsabilità.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes (S&D). – Senhor Presidente, relatos que ouvi em Lesbos, Atenas, Indomeni, Roma, Calais, Malmö e outros locais de chegada de refugiados imigrantes são desoladores, revoltantes, incómodos, principalmente quando vêm de crianças a quem falta tudo, incluindo acesso ao ensino, aconselhamento legal especializado, apoio psicológico, tantas vezes pais e familiares, com os riscos que gerações perdidas representam quer para os países de origem quer para a Europa.

Há ainda os mais vulneráveis entre os vulneráveis: crianças desacompanhadas, portadoras de deficiências, de minorias e milhares delas dadas como desaparecidas pela Europol. Em Malmö, polícias disseram-nos que se uma criança sueca desaparecesse revolviam o país à procura dela e dos responsáveis pelo desaparecimento, mas se fosse migrante ou refugiada não havia meios suficientes.

E os nossos governos europeus têm o desplante de invocar razões de segurança quando entregam, assim, crianças a predadores de todo o tipo, associados às redes de traficantes e, portanto, à criminalidade organizada a eles associada, que deixam impunes e cujo negócio, de facto, alimentam.

Comecemos por algum lado contra esta Europa desnaturada, desumanizada. Senhor Comissário, olhemos ao menos pelas crianças.

 
  
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  Cécile Kashetu Kyenge (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, grazie Commissario. L'approccio globale al fenomeno migratorio deve garantire politiche di tutela per il sostegno e la protezione ai minori. Ci siamo già espressi lo scorso aprile, dando delle indicazioni chiare alla Commissione e agli Stati membri sulla via da seguire. Abbiamo scelto, abbiamo chiesto l'accesso per i minori all'assistenza legale, sanitaria, psicologica, all'alloggio, all'istruzione, alla missione umanitaria, al ricongiungimento familiare. I minori sono una risorsa e non un fardello. Non possiamo scaricare le nostre responsabilità sulle spalle di volontari e ONG che lavorano incessantemente mostrando all'Europa intera il vero volto della solidarietà. Non vogliamo giungle, non vogliamo muri, non vogliamo barriere, non vogliamo i blocchi stradali contro l'accoglienza di 12 donne e 8 bambini, 8 bambini colpevoli di credere in un mondo migliore. L'Europa, quest'Aula si è già espressa, la sua voce non può restare inascoltata.

 
  
 

Pyynnöstä myönnettävät puheenvuorot

 
  
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  Teresa Jiménez-Becerril Barrio (PPE). – Señora Presidenta, tengo un minuto para defender la necesidad de adoptar medidas urgentes para defender a los niños migrantes y refugiados que están llegando a Europa de manera masiva.

En esta Europa de niños perdidos se calcula que muchísimos de estos niños están en paradero desconocido. Estos niños y niñas son víctimas de abusos sexuales y de trabajos forzados. Estos son niños invisibles. Se les ha robado su dignidad.

Necesitamos que la Comisión, con el apoyo de este Parlamento y del Consejo, adopte un marco político claro y eficaz que sea capaz de defender al menos tres de los derechos fundamentales de los niños, como son el derecho a la educación, el derecho a la protección y el más importante de todos los derechos, el derecho a la vida.

Estoy de acuerdo con usted, señor Comisario, no deberíamos estar debatiendo esto, deberíamos estar todos de acuerdo y avergonzados por lo que estamos viendo que pasa con los menores no acompañados.

 
  
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  Soraya Post (S&D). – Fru talman! 2015 sökte 35 369 barn asyl i Sverige. Av dessa försvann 300 flickor och pojkar. Och det är inte första gången. Enligt Migrationsverket försvinner cirka 300 ensamkommande barn om året i Sverige. Det här är – som betänkandet visar – ett problem över hela Europa. Enligt Europol har 10 000 barn försvunnit. Många tros ha hamnat i sexindustrin, och mörkertalen är mycket stora.

I Skåne, i södra Sverige, har samordnaren mot människohandel dokumenterat ett 40-tal fall av försvunna, asylsökande barn. De flesta misstänks utnyttjas för sexuella ändamål. Dessa försvinnanden har polisanmälts. Svaret blev att polisen inte har resurser att utreda. Det gör mig väldigt upprörd. Det är vår plikt att prioritera barnen i migrationsfrågan.

 
  
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  Helga Stevens (ECR). – Kinderen lopen grote risico’s als gevolg van de nooit eerder geziene migratie naar Europa. Afgelopen zomer bezocht ik de Griekse vluchtelingenkampen, waaronder het kamp in Moria, waar migranten gisteren tijdens rellen het EASO-kantoor in brand staken. De Griekse autoriteiten moeten beter de orde handhaven en voorkomen dat kinderen worden verkocht of in de prostitutie worden gedwongen, zoals we afgelopen zomer in Griekenland zagen.

Maar we moeten ook niet naïef zijn. De huidige wetgeving moedigt misleiding aan. Volwassenen doen zich voor als minderjarigen. Foto's van zogezegde kinderen die het kamp in Calais deze week verlaten, laten zien dat het om jongeren ouder dan 18 gaat. Laat ons eerst de kinderen beschermen die onze bescherming nodig hebben, en diegenen die hiervan misbruik maken door te liegen vervolgens straffen.

 
  
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  Beatriz Becerra Basterrechea (ALDE). – Señora Presidenta, señor Comisario Avramopoulos, he escuchado muy atentamente su intervención. Ha repasado todo lo que la Unión Europea tiene que hacer para proteger a los niños en el contexto de la migración y no voy a repetirlo, pero me ha gustado especialmente cómo ha concluido: «Deberíamos simplemente hacerlo». Y así es.

Quiero suscribir la preocupación que han expresado mis colegas, la que tiene este Parlamento, y quiero compartir una pequeña reflexión con ustedes.

Son menores los refugiados sirios objeto de esclavitud laboral en Turquía, como la BBC ha denunciado hace poco. ¿Qué porcentaje de los 6 000 millones que destinamos a Turquía para la migración dedicaremos a acabar con ello?

Son menores los centenares de niños en Skaramagas, en Dunkerque, en Calais, con los que los Gobiernos no saben bien qué hacer, cómo proceder, superados y bloqueados. ¿Podemos dar herramientas legales y financieras a los ayuntamientos para que actúen en coordinación con una ciudadanía dispuesta?

Y por último, son menores los últimos instrumentos de los ataques terroristas en Francia, Alemania, y también los imanes de Ibiza querían que lo fueran en España. ¿Entendemos la importancia de una política común para prevenir, detectar e intervenir en los procesos de radicalización en los jóvenes?

 
  
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  Νεοκλής Συλικιώτης ( GUE/NGL). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, η Europol εκτιμά πως άνω των 10.000 ασυνόδευτων παιδιών προσφύγων χάθηκαν στην Ευρώπη λόγω των ελλιπών πολιτικών της Ένωσης και της άρνησής της να τους παράσχει ασφάλεια και καταφύγιο. Την ίδια ώρα το σύμβολο ντροπής και αποτυχίας των ευρωπαϊκών πολιτικών για την αποδοχή των προσφύγων, ο καταυλισμός στο Καλαί, κατεδαφίζεται χωρίς να ληφθούν τα κατάλληλα μέτρα για διασφάλιση της ασφάλειας των ασυνόδευτων ανηλίκων. Όσα από αυτά τα παιδιά δεν πρόλαβαν να μεταφερθούν στο Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο και όσα δεν θα στριμωχτούν στα λεωφορεία για μεταφορά τους σε άλλα μέρη της Γαλλίας είναι πολύ πιθανό να πέσουν θύματα λαθρεμπόρων και διακινητών. Ακόμα και σήμερα η τύχη περίπου 1.300 ασυνόδευτων ανηλίκων παραμένει αβέβαιη. Επίσης, χιλιάδες παιδιά προσφύγων είναι θύματα στυγνής εκμετάλλευσης στην Τουρκία.

Κύριε Επίτροπε, η διασφάλιση της ασφάλειας και της ομαλής εγκατάστασης ασυνόδευτων ανηλίκων αποτελεί υποχρέωση της Ένωσης που απορρέει από τη Χάρτα των Θεμελιωδών Δικαιωμάτων, από τη Χάρτα των Δικαιωμάτων του Παιδιού και τη Σύμβαση των Ηνωμένων Εθνών για τα Δικαιώματα του Παιδιού.

 
  
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  Igor Šoltes (Verts/ALE). – Petnajst milijonov ljudi z otroci beži s področja vojn. Med njimi seveda so tudi otroci, tisti s spremstvom in tudi tisti brez, in te otroke je treba ustrezno zaščititi. Tistim, ki so brez spremstva, je treba nuditi dodatno varnost, treba jim je priskrbeti tudi skrbništvo in ustrezno pravno zastopstvo.

Mnogi od njih nikoli ne pridejo do cilja. 15 tisoč otrok se na tej poti izgubi in končajo v suženjstvu ali pa celo brez življenja. Ti otroci so izčrpani, brez vsega in res potrebujejo našo pomoč. Kakšna družba smo, če jim pri tem ne bomo stali ob strani. In starostna meja se je od leta 2009 – teh otrok – začela znatno spuščati. Sedaj se med otroci najdejo zelo zelo mladi in tudi majhni in ne smemo jim nikoli odvzeti prihodnosti.

 
  
 

(Pyynnöstä myönnettävät puheenvuorot päättyvät)

 
  
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  Dimitris Avramopoulos, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, let me start by expressing my thanks for your interventions. This only confirms how important the issue is for all of us and I am glad that we share this determination. As you know, the Commission is employing a comprehensive approach to the protection of all children in migration, including, as I said in the beginning, unaccompanied minors. Actions announced in February are being implemented and new actions have been and will continue to be identified as part of an ongoing process.

We are now working in order to complete the implementation of the Action Plan on Unaccompanied Minors for the period 2010 to 2014, and we will evaluate and report on this by the end of the year.

Let me reiterate that the Commission is committed to improving the situation of unaccompanied minors on the ground, and is acting on this commitment. Operationally, including by fighting smugglers, but also legally through our proposed reforms. Right now in Greece and in Italy we are offering financial and logistical support for improving the reception conditions for the children.

We are also offering support to relocate unaccompanied children from Greece and Italy to other Member States. In addition, we are monitoring compliance with EU law in terms of the reception conditions and standards offered to minors, as well as with the procedural safeguards stipulated for the benefit of children. Our asylum reform is aimed at improving the conditions and protection safeguards for children – not lowering their standards.

I count on Parliament to support our proposals in the upcoming negotiations with the Member States. Our debate today proves what I said earlier: we are not debating or questioning the issue of protection of migrant children. We all agree on its necessity and the urgency to act.

 
  
 

Puhemies. – Keskustelu on päättynyt.

 
  
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  Kinga Gál (PPE), írásban. – Minden gyermeket megillet a biztonság és a védelem, ezért az ő jogaikért minden esetben fel kell lépnünk! A kiskorúak közül is az Európába igyekvő migráns gyermekek vannak leginkább kitéve a zaklatás és a kizsákmányolás veszélyeinek, valamint ők esnek a leghamarabb az emberkereskedők áldozatául.

Ezért is nagyon fontos, hogy a gyermekeket a hazájukhoz közeli táborok életkörülményeinek javítása által segítsük, ezáltal elkerülve azt, hogy életüket kockáztatva és számtalan veszélynek kitéve magukat útra kelljenek Európa felé. Ennek egyik legfontosabb eleme a megfelelő oktatáshoz való hozzáférés biztosítása, ugyanis ez elengedhetetlen a gyermekek egészséges fejlődéséhez, de saját közösségük jövője szempontjából is – nem eshetnek ki egész generációk az oktatásból. Az oktatás és a munkalehetőség biztosítása ezekben a táborokban járul hozzá ahhoz, hogy a fiatalok ne radikalizálódjanak. Magyarország is ezért támogatja a libanoni, jordániai, iraki menekülttáborokban az oktatás biztosítását, szorgalmazza kórház építését.

 
  
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  Michela Giuffrida (S&D), per iscritto. – I numeri della crisi umanitaria che stiamo vivendo sono drammatici. E, come sempre, il prezzo più grande lo pagano i bambini. Autorevolissime fonti, come l'UNHCR, l'Unicef, l'Oxfam, ci consegnano una situazione tragica. Più del 50% dei profughi sono bambini o ragazzi sotto i 18 anni, nei primi 7 mesi del 2016 erano ben 13.705 i minori non accompagnati sbarcati in Italia e poi, il più drammatico, nei primi sei mesi del 2016, 5.222 minori non accompagnati sono stati dichiarati "scomparsi". L'accoglienza dei minori non può seguire le regole, i tempi, le procedure di quella degli adulti. I bambini hanno bisogno di cure, di attenzioni, hanno bisogno di sostegno psicologico, hanno bisogno di rassicurazioni, hanno bisogno di sentirsi al sicuro. L'Europa è ancora la terra dell'accoglienza, abbiamo tutti nella memoria la foto di Emilia Kamvisi, la "nonna" di Lesbo che dava il latte al neonato arrivato sulle coste dell'Isola. L'Europa è orgogliosa delle sue "nonne", dei suoi "pescatori" di tutti gli eroi improvvisati che salvano la vita di migliaia di persone. Ma ai bambini come quello in braccio a Emilia l'Europa non deve solo salvare la vita, deve offrirgli un futuro.

 
  
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  Josu Juaristi Abaunz (GUE/NGL), por escrito. –Demoler la «Jungla» sin haber tenido en cuenta antes la protección de las personas más vulnerables es un crimen. Al igual que Save the Children y otras ONG, insto a las autoridades francesas a detener el desmantelamiento de la «Jungla» hasta que se encuentre un lugar seguro para todos los niños. Muchos de los 1 300 menores de la «Jungla» siguen en peligro y la situación es cada vez más inestable y tensa. Por otra parte, este Parlamento debería exigir a la Comisión y a los Estados miembros de la Unión que no expulsen a menores no acompañados en virtud de inciertos acuerdos suscritos con terceros países nada seguros, como, por ejemplo, Afganistán. Por último, el bienestar y la dignidad de las 60 000 personas atrapadas desde hace seis meses en Grecia, muchas de ellas niñas y niños, es también responsabilidad de la Unión, toda vez que dio luz verde al cierre de la Ruta de los Balcanes. Y ni estamos ayudando como es debido a Grecia, ni estamos preparados para un eventual colapso, no descartable, del infame acuerdo con Turquía. Ya es hora de que la Unión asuma su responsabilidad y de soluciones concretas para proteger de verdad a los niños en el contexto de la migración. Muchas gracias.

 
  
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  Afzal Khan (S&D), in writing. – Even as the process of dismantling the Calais jungle began, the fate of about 1 300 unaccompanied child migrants is uncertain. Both the British and French authorities haven’t done enough to re-unite children and offer them protection. Now many of them are at risk of disappearing into the hands of smugglers and people-traffickers, adding to the 10 000 children who have already gone missing in Europe. The camp has become a symbol of Europe’s failure to respond to the migration crisis, as Member States fight over who should take in those fleeing war and poverty. The refugee crisis hasn’t been met with anything close to equitable responsibility-sharing. While developing countries host 86% of the world’s refugees, the developed states turn their backs on the world’s most vulnerable people, adopting policies aimed at preventing refugees to enter their territory. There’s a chronic shortage of facilities and professional care available for child refugees. Many will spend years waiting to be resettled, lacking access to education, healthcare and protective services, which feeds into longer-term issues. With the today’s oral question we ask the Commission to adopt a clearly defined policy framework with a view to employing a comprehensive approach for the most vulnerable.

 
  
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  Christine Revault D’Allonnes Bonnefoy (S&D), par écrit. – La moitié des 65,3 millions de personnes déracinées dans le monde sont des enfants, seuls ou accompagnés de leur famille. Ces mineurs se retrouvent dans des situations de forte vulnérabilité, face aux risques de manipulations psychologiques, de violences physiques ou sexuelles, mais aussi d’exploitation par les groupes criminels. L’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant devrait toujours prévaloir sur d’autres considérations, comme le contrôle de l’immigration. Pourtant, les mineurs migrants et réfugiés ne se voient pas accorder l’assistance et la protection spécifiques dont ils auraient besoin. L’Union européenne et ses États membres ont la responsabilité de développer des politiques adaptées pour remédier à ce manquement, en renforçant également la coordination des efforts menés sur le terrain, entre la société civile, les autorités nationales et européennes. Cela passe notamment par des procédures d’asile plus efficaces pour les enfants, la facilitation des procédures de regroupement familial, l’interdiction de la rétention administrative pour les mineurs, mais aussi des conditions d’accueil et d’intégration dignes. Il est aussi indispensable de désigner un tuteur pour chaque mineur non-accompagné. Cette urgence humanitaire ne peut plus attendre. L’Europe doit arrêter de fermer les yeux devant les droits de ces enfants, dont le seul crime est d’être nés sur un autre continent.

 
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