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Čtvrtek, 15. prosince 2016 - Štrasburk Revidované vydání

4.2. Situace rohingyjské menšiny v Myanmaru
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  Elnök asszony. – A következő napirendi pont vita hét, a rohingya kisebbség helyzete Mianmarban c. állásfoglalásra irányuló indítványról (2016/3027(RSP))

 
  
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  Amjad Bashir, author. – Madam President, let me start by expressing my gratitude to my colleagues for their help in giving the plight of the Rohingya people the attention they deserve. Their situation is a shocking reminder that, though Westerners live in a time of unsurpassed wealth and prosperity, for some human beings even living in Third World conditions would be an improvement over how they are forced to live now. Recent reports go so far as to refer to instances of ethnic cleansing. This is spine—chilling when one thinks of what happened just a stone’s throw away from here, in Bosnia 20 years ago.

It is high time for the Government of Myanmar to stop hiding behind excuses to gloss over the unspeakable abuses taking place. They range from the deliberate destruction of property to rape and outright murder. If it wants to be a respected member of the international community, Myanmar must play its part in ending the violence. It must end social discrimination and take steps to ensure that the universal rights of the Rohingya people are fully guaranteed. In addition, international observers must also be given the access needed to monitor living conditions. Ultimately, citizenship must be restored to the Rohingya, giving them access to health care, education, property, marriage rights and jobs. Immediate action must be taken to end the oppression and prevent more children from being born into the miserable conditions they are forced to live in today.

 
  
  

PRESIDENZA DELL'ON. DAVID-MARIA SASSOLI
Vicepresidente

 
  
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  Molly Scott Cato, author. – Mr President, as my colleague has already mentioned, the Rohingya community have suffered discrimination and violence in the country of Burma for many years, and so I welcome the fact that we are able today to agree this urgency resolution in this House. The current wave of violence and repression has been described as ethnic cleansing, a term that should fill us all with dread in this continent as we have experienced it all too recently, and it has also been described as involving crimes against humanity.

In our resolution we urge the country of Bangladesh, which has already provided refuge to many thousands of Rohingya who are fleeing Burma, to keep their border open and we call on the international community to support the Government of Bangladesh in offering refuge. We also call upon the Government of Myanmar, which must stop the repression, condemn violence against the Rohingya and allow international observers into the area. We call too on the EU governments to always view their relationship with Myanmar through the lens of human rights.

 
  
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  Marie-Christine Vergiat, auteur. – Monsieur le Président, les trois attaques au poste frontière près du Bangladesh ont servi de prétexte à l’armée birmane pour lancer une nouvelle vague de répression contre les Rohingyas. Les ONG parlent de destructions massives de maisons, d’autres bâtiments et même de villages entiers, poussant la population rohingya à fuir une nouvelle fois. On fait état de 25 000 Rohingyas arrivés au Bangladesh et de 30 000 déplacés.

Ces événements mettent une nouvelle fois en lumière les discriminations récurrentes dont sont victimes les Rohingyas et rappellent les violences de 2012 et de 2015. Dans son rapport de juin 2016, le haut-commissaire aux droits de l’homme de l’ONU est sévère. Il dénonce, à juste titre, la privation arbitraire de nationalité, les menaces sur leur vie et leur sécurité, les dénis des droits les plus fondamentaux, comme la santé et l’éducation, le travail forcé, les violences sexuelles et les limitations de leurs droits politiques. Depuis mars 2015, les Rohingyas sont privés de leur white card (carte d’identité provisoire), et les enfants de certificat de naissance depuis 2012, ce qui en fait des apatrides institutionnels.

L’arrivée au pouvoir de la Ligue nationale pour la démocratie et la nomination de Aung San Suu Kyi, prix Nobel de la paix, comme conseillère spéciale – elle n’a pu être nommée Premier ministre du fait de son mariage à un étranger –, n’ont rien changé. L’attitude des pays voisins aggrave la situation. Le Bangladesh refoule de plus en plus systématiquement les Rohingyas, la Thaïlande instrumentalise la situation, parle de génocide, alors que les Rohingyas y sont tout autant persécutés. On se rappelle les charniers découverts en 2015 en Thaïlande et, surtout, en Malaisie.

La mise en place d’une commission de travail, sous la houlette de Kofi Annan, sur les enjeux du développement dans l’État de Rakhine peut être une source d’espoir, à condition que cette commission puisse se pencher sur les violations des droits de l’homme. Il en va de même des pourparlers de paix qui doivent avoir lieu en février 2017, si les Rohingyas en sont partie prenante et donc considérés comme une partie du peuple birman.

Il y a urgence à mettre en place une commission d’enquête indépendante sur ce qui s’est passé en octobre 2015. Le dialogue UE-droits de l’homme doit être utilisé pour faire pression sur les autorités birmanes, pour faire modifier la loi de 1982 sur la nationalité, tout comme les lois dites de protection des races et les religions – tout un programme – qui ont été adoptées en septembre 2015. Le SGP, tout comme la négociation de l’accord d’investissement, sont d’autres instruments à la disposition de l’UE, au même titre que le dialogue avec les parlementaires birmans.

Oui, la situation est difficile. Oui, quelques progrès ont été réalisés, mais le pouvoir militaire reste omniprésent. Nous ne pouvons nous taire. Il appartient aux institutions européennes d’agir en utilisant tous les moyens à leur disposition pour faire cesser les discriminations et les massacres de Rohingyas.

 
  
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  Jeroen Lenaers, author. – Mr President, let me also take this opportunity to welcome the Ambassador of Myanmar, who was present here today, and also thank the delegation of the Parliament of Myanmar for their visit to Brussels last week. I think this is a showing of willingness to engage in a constructive dialogue with us, and constructive dialogue is exactly what we need at the moment.

We are, as all our colleagues have said, extremely worried about the discrimination and the repression of the Rohingya minority in Myanmar who suffer, in the words of the UN High Commissioner Al-Hussein, from: deprivation of nationality which renders them stateless; severe restrictions on freedom of movement; threats to life and security; denial of the rights to health and education; forced labour; sexual violence; and limitation on their political rights.

Last year we hailed the elections in Myanmar as a historic moment and an important step towards an inclusive democracy. That was one year ago; we now urgently need to see a commitment from the Myanmar Government, a commitment to the basic human rights of all its citizens.

 
  
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  Urmas Paet, author. – Mr President, we had the resolution on the Rohingyas in July this year. There has been no improvement in their situation; it has actually got much worse. The Rohingyas are facing serious human rights abuses, indiscriminate reprisal attacks, security forces firing at villages, the torching of entire villages and people carrying out arbitrary arrests and raping women and girls.

We do not have all the information because Myanmar does not allow international observers into the region, but we have satellite images, pictures and videos of burned bodies, and testimonies from abused people. With all of this going on in Myanmar, people are frantically fleeing to Bangladesh, only to be pushed back, which is a violation of international humanitarian law.

We must acknowledge that the Myanmar Government has not done much to help the situation of the Rohingyas. Also, Aung San Suu Kyi, a Sakharov and Nobel Prize winner, has not been helpful in her capacity. We cannot just watch these atrocities happen; the EU must use all the influence and means it has to bring an end to the abuse of the Rohingyas and those responsible for the attacks must be brought to justice.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes, Autora. – Senhor Presidente, se o Governo saído de eleições em Mianmar quisesse construir a democracia no país, teria de ter um plano de combate à discriminação dos Rohingya e de outras minorias étnicas e religiosas.

Mas a estigmatização e a violação sistemática dos direitos humanos das minorias e, em particular, dos Rohingya no Estado de Rakhine agravou-se com execuções arbitrárias, aldeias incendiadas e violações em massa – enfim, uma verdadeira limpeza étnica.

O Governo anuncia uma comissão de inquérito, mas tem de permitir acesso e investigação independente e internacional.

Lamento profundamente ter de o dizer, mas a laureada Sakharov e Nobel Aung San Suu Kyi tem acrescidas responsabilidades enquanto membro deste governo. Depois de tanto tempo e de tanta violência, continuamos à espera de que atue para proteger os Rohingya, facilite o acesso das organizações internacionais ao Estado do Rakhine e proponha as reformas legislativas e outras necessárias, nomeadamente a restauração da cidadania para os Rohingya.

A União Europeia tem de pressionar o Governo de Mianmar a acabar com a violência contra as minorias e a criar condições para uma genuína reconciliação nacional. Tem também de pressionar o governo do Bangladeche a parar de retornar forçadamente os Rohingya quando se refugiam no seu território.

 
  
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  Tomáš Zdechovský, za skupinu PPE. – Pane předsedající, v Evropské unii je pro nás samozřejmostí, že děláme všechno pro to, aby nebyly menšiny žijící na našem území diskriminovány, natož pronásledovány či stíhány.

To vše se ale neděje ve všech částech tohoto světa, jako například v Barmě nebo chcete-li Myanmaru. Je naprosto nepřípustné, jak je se zdejší muslimskou menšinou Rohingyů zacházeno. Její členové jsou bezdůvodně zabíjeni a jejich práva jsou naprosto omezována.

Jsem tedy rád, že máme tuto rezoluci, která je apelem na barmskou vládu, aby nejen posílila dodržování lidských práv ve své zemi, ale také zamezila jakémukoliv vyjadřování náboženské či rasové nenávisti, především vůči menšině Rohingyů. Evropská unie považuje Barmu za svého partnera a do budoucnosti s ním chce určitě spolupracovat. Ale takováto spolupráce není možná v případě, že budeme přehlížet toto porušování lidských práv.

 
  
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  Afzal Khan, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, I am glad that the concerns of human rights violations are finally finding space on the agenda of Myanmar’s Government. However, harassment, killings, religious persecution and other discrimination against Rohingyas continue. The establishment of a commission of inquiry into the cases of these violent attacks is welcomed, but we expect more concrete actions from the Burmese authorities, and especially from Mrs Suu Kyi. Security forces need to be brought under control and held to account. Otherwise, the democratic gains made in the country risk being rolled back again.

It is time to speak of a political solution for this community. Rohingyas must be recognized as an official ethnic group and granted full rights as Burmese citizens. The European Union must also push neighbouring countries to address the condition of Rohingya refugees to ensure that they are not turned back and are integrated into society. The situation of the Rohingya population is a major test for the new democratic Government of Myanmar.

 
  
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  Dita Charanzová, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, this is not the first time we have discussed the plight of the Rohingya in this House. What more can I say, other than that we need to continue demanding that the Burmese Government do its duty and protect – instead of persecute – these people? Whether or not you view them as your citizens, you have a duty: a duty to protect the lives and livelihoods of people who reside on your territory. These people are not foreigners. The vast majority are people who were born and raised in Myanmar, as were their fathers and mothers before them. Sadly, if the Burmese Government does not do its duty, they are likely to perish not peacefully, as all humans should, but instead at the hands of their fellow countrymen and the military. The Rakhine State is, and always will be, part of Myanmar. It is time the Rohingya can truly feel that they are part of that State.

 
  
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  Edouard Ferrand, au nom du groupe ENF. – Monsieur le Président, chers collègues, chacun est sensible au sort de cette population persécutée en raison de son identité, mais il faut également être particulièrement vigilant sur les initiatives d’instrumentalisation de leur sort. Ainsi en est-il de l’Organisation de la coopération islamique, dont on connaît le rôle nocif dans la radicalisation des sociétés musulmanes, sous la coupe de l’Arabie saoudite. Mais le prédicateur islamiste al-Zawahiri s’était également emparé de la question en appelant au djihad en leur faveur.

C’est pourquoi, vu ce que nous avons observé en Bosnie-Herzégovine ou ailleurs, j’invite le Parlement européen, sur cette question, comme sur bien d’autres, à davantage de circonspection.

 
  
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  Doru-Claudian Frunzulică (S&D). – Mr President, the Rohingya continue to suffer persecution, arbitrary detention, torture, forced displacement, abuse and severe legal, economic, social and religious discrimination in Myanmar. They continue to be arbitrarily deprived of their citizenship and therefore remain stateless. Their inhumane conditions must come to an end. Undoubtedly, human rights abuses against the Rohingya communities and refugees constitute a threat to regional security in South—East Asia, and a lasting solution to their extremely vulnerable situation can only be found in a regional framework with the participation of all countries concerned.

At the same time, we have to address this issue in a very balanced way, considering outside extremist influences. I therefore support the call on the Government of Myanmar to investigate and, through concrete steps, to counter all forms of persecution, arbitrary detention, torture, forced displacement, abuse and discrimination against the Rohingya, to fulfil its responsibility to protect them against violent attacks, intimidation and harassment, and to solve the problem of their legal citizenship status.

 
  
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  Dominique Bilde (ENF). – Monsieur le Président, État souverain, la Birmanie est aussi un pays mosaïque composé de diverses minorités religieuses, dont les musulmans dits rohingyas, mais aussi les chrétiens du peuple Karen qui n'ont jamais intéressé les moralistes que vous êtes.

Prix Nobel de la paix et prix Sakharov, Aung San Suu Kyi est la personne idoine pour apaiser les tensions en Birmanie.

Il serait temps que l'Union européenne tire les leçons de ses erreurs passées.

Dès que nous intervenons quelque part, au nom de notre conception des droits de l'homme, les drames s'accumulent. Dernièrement, la Syrie et la Libye ont sombré, accélérant la crise démographique qui menace nos nations d'une invasion migratoire.

En outre, le cas des Birmans dits Rohingyas est révélateur d'une réalité méconnue ou plutôt occultée: la vitalité de l'oumma. Des islamistes radicaux des banlieues françaises partent aider ces populations uniquement en raison de leur appartenance religieuse. L'association BarakaCity intervient aussi en Syrie; certains de ses membres sont soupçonnés de sympathie profonde pour l'État islamique.

Pour toutes ces raisons, je demande au Parlement de respecter la souveraineté de la Birmanie.

 
  
 

Procedura catch-the-eye

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, έχουμε συζητήσει αρκετές φορές για την καταπίεση της μειονότητας των Ροχίνγκια στη Μιανμάρ, όπου γίνεται πλέον ανοιχτά παραβίαση των ανθρωπίνων δικαιωμάτων και υφίσταται διώξεις η συγκεκριμένη μειονότητα. Βασικοί νόμοι της χώρας παραβιάζουν πλέον τις διεθνείς συμβάσεις: ο ποινικός κώδικας, ο νόμος που απαγορεύει τις ειρηνικές συναθροίσεις και τις ειρηνικές διαδηλώσεις, ο νόμος για τις τηλεπικοινωνίες, ο νόμος για τα μέσα μαζικής ενημέρωσης. Επιπλέον, πάνω από 130.000 εκτοπισμένοι Ροχίνγκια παραμένουν στα στρατόπεδα σε άλλες περιοχές, ενώ οι αρχές της Μιανμάρ έχουν καταστήσει ανεπαρκή την πρόσβαση της ανθρωπιστικής βοήθειας στις περιοχές. Απέναντι στη συνεχή παραβίαση των ανθρωπίνων δικαιωμάτων των Ροχίνγκια οι αρχές της Μιανμάρ θα πρέπει επιτέλους να δώσουν ένα τέλος στη μορφή θρησκευτικού και φυλετικού μίσους, ενώ η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση θα πρέπει να καταδικάσει κάθε μορφή διάκρισης σε βάρος τους.

 
  
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  Jiří Pospíšil (PPE). – Pane předsedající, já chci podpořit toto usnesení a i to, jak vystupují moji kolegové. Na druhou stranu chci vyjádřit určitou skepsi. Já jsem k tématu Rohingyů vystupoval na půdě tohoto parlamentu před několika měsíci. My jsme přijímali podobné usnesení, které jasně vyjadřovalo a vyjadřuje to, jak jsou Rohingyové diskriminováni ve své zemi, v Barmě. Po několika měsících je situace stejná a naopak ještě horší.

Po incidentu 9. října se situace této menšiny výrazně zhoršila a oblast, kde tito lidé žijí, je vládními vojsky uzavřena. V zásadě máme pouze přenesené informace. Já jsem připraven toto usnesení opět podpořit, ale musím zde otevřeně říci, že jsem velmi zklamán z toho, jak se vláda Barmy v tuto chvíli chová. Jsem velmi zklamán z toho, že nositelka Sacharovovy ceny, paní Su Ťij, v zásadě nedělá nic pro zlepšení situace této menšiny a obávám se, že toto usnesení asi velký posun nepřinese. Takže je třeba vyvinout mnohem větší mezinárodní tlak na Barmu, aby se začala situací této menšiny aktivně zabývat.

 
  
 

(Fine della procedura catch-the-eye)

 
  
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  Vytenis Povilas Andriukaitis, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, the current upsurge of violence in northern Rakhine State, resulting in the loss of lives, population displacement, interruption to humanitarian aid, and reports of grave human rights violations are a deeply worrying development. The European Union has consistently called on the Government of Myanmar to guarantee respect for human rights and pursue durable solutions, including on the status of the Rohingya.

The EU Ambassador was part of the first diplomatic mission which, in early November, visited the affected areas after the outbreak of violence. On 20 and 24 November 2016, EU Special Representative for Human Rights, Stavros Lambrinidis, travelled to Myanmar for the Third EU—Myanmar Human Rights Dialogue. He also met with State Chancellor, Aung San Suu Kyi and the Commander—in—Chief of the Myanmar armed forces.

With these interlocutors, the European Union Special Representative called for the urgent resumption of humanitarian assistance in northern Rakhine State and the setting up of an independent, credible investigation into the 9 October assaults and subsequent operations. He underlined the need for transparency to address allegations of severe human rights violations and emphasised the continuity of initiatives launched by the State Chancellor to tackle the underlying issues in Rakhine State.

With the Commander—in—Chief, Mr Lambrinidis urged a proportionate response to violence, a requirement under international humanitarian law. ECHO Director Androulla Kaminara visited Myanmar during the same period. In her meeting she strongly called for full humanitarian access to northern Rakhine State, where the suspension of activities has deprived some 130 000 vulnerable people of life-saving assistance for over two months now.

On 2 December, the EU issued a statement reiterating the call for the immediate resumption of humanitarian activities in the area. While the formation of an investigation commission is a welcome step, its objectivity remains to be seen. It is equally important that those fleeing violence in Myanmar are not deported or turned back by Bangladesh, but are provided with assistance and protection until the situation in Myanmar allows for their safe return.

In response to regional pressure, Myanmar has called for an extraordinary meeting of ASEAN Foreign Ministers on 19 December to discuss Rakhine State. Steadfast EU advocacy has contributed to the resumption of humanitarian activities, albeit limited, and we will continue to reach out to Myanmar. We stand ready to consider further humanitarian assistance for northern Rakhine State, based on the independent needs assessment of our partners. The EU will also continue our human rights cooperation with Myanmar, including in the United Nations Human Rights Council.

 
  
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  Presidente. – La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà giovedì 15 dicembre 2016

 
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