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Woensdag 1 februari 2017 - Brussel Herziene uitgave

15. De situatie in Zuid-Sudan (debat)
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  Preşedintele. – Următorul punct de pe ordinea de zi este dezbaterea privind Declarația Vicepreședintelui Comisiei/Înaltului Reprezentant al Uniunii pentru afaceri externe și politica de securitate referitoare la situația din Sudanul de Sud (2016/2509(RSP)).

 
  
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  Neven Mimica, Member of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Mr President, honourable Members, when South Sudan became independent in 2011 there were high hopes for the future of the world’s newest state. Six years later, those hopes lie in tatters. Although 18 months of brutal civil war were formally brought to an end by a peace agreement in August 2015, fighting continues throughout much of the country. Hundreds, perhaps thousands, continue to die each month.

On 1 December last year, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan noted that a steady process of ethnic cleansing was underway in the country, using starvation, gang rape and the burning of villages. The United Nations Secretary-General warned in November that South Sudan stood on the edge of the abyss, with a catastrophe imminent. Around one-and-a-half million refugees have fled to neighbouring countries, while almost two million persons are internally displaced. Some four million persons are short of food, with more than one million children under the age of five acutely malnourished. There is a danger of widespread famine later this year.

Faced with this bleak situation, the European Union is very much engaged in addressing these immense challenges. The European Union, as a witness to the 2015 peace agreement, is working vigorously to support its implementation. The European Union is an active member of the peace monitoring institutions established by the agreement and is providing financial assistance for implementation of parts of the agreement. The European Union works as closely as possible with the countries of the region and with the Intergovernmental Authority on Development and the African Union collectively to encourage implementation of the peace agreement. Although South Sudan, much to our regret, has not yet acceded to the Cotonou Agreement and is therefore not eligible for the full range of development support, the European Union remains committed to help. In 2016, the European Union provided EUR 143 million for humanitarian assistance to South Sudan, as well as for supporting the provision of basic services. We fear that this year’s needs maybe even greater.

The European Union is also providing financial assistance to neighbouring countries to assist them to deal with the enormous influx of refugees. Let me take this opportunity to commend Uganda, in particular, for its compassion and efficiency in sheltering over 650 000 refugees.

The European Union has imposed an arms embargo against South Sudan and is lobbying – so far without success – for the United Nations Security Council to follow suit.

The European Union is particularly shocked at the gross violation of international human rights and international humanitarian law that have been perpetrated by all parties with complete impunity. An individual who orders or commits criminal acts of violence must be brought to justice. To this end, the European Union stands ready to support the African Union in establishing as rapidly as possible the hybrid court for South Sudan envisaged in the peace agreement.

Let us seize the opportunity today to send a number of clear messages to all parties in South Sudan. There can be no military solution to the divisions of South Sudan. All parties must observe the ceasefire in full and repudiate any speech inciting ethnic hatred. The United Nations mission in South Sudan must be allowed to exercise its mandate in full, and without hindrance. The regional protection force that was mandated by the UN Security Council last year to reinforce the United Nations mission in South Sudan must be deployed swiftly. The South Sudanese authorities must allow unrestricted humanitarian access to those in need. All parties must be brought into an inclusive political process based on the 2015 peace agreement, which remains a blueprint, if properly implemented, for establishing a functional institutional framework for the state of South Sudan.

We welcome the national dialogue announced by President Salva Kiir in December last year. Any step to foster dialogue and reconciliation between many groups in South Sudan is welcome. A political dialogue and consultation should be representative of, and trusted by, the entire population of South Sudan. Such a process should be initiated without delay and without obstacles. There is no shortcut to full and fair representation. I urge President Salva Kiir and the transitional government to look again at the structure of the national dialogue, with a view to ensuring that it is a generally inclusive process. In particular, we hope that a way can be found, and should be found, to allow the South Sudanese Council of Churches, which is widely seen as an impartial interlocutor, to play a central role in the national dialogue.

Let me also mention the Cotonou Agreement again. As mentioned, the development needs of South Sudan are evidently vast, yet we cannot release all the funds potentially available as long as South Sudan has not acceded to the Agreement. We urge the transitional government to move forward rapidly with accession. South Sudan is, sadly, a country which has known more war than peace.

The European Union will continue, in close coordination with the United Nations, the African Union, the United States and the countries of the region, to do everything it can to support the South Sudanese leadership to take decisive steps to embrace peace and to build a state that serves the interests of its citizens. Thank you very much for your attention. I look forward to our discussion.

 
  
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  Bogdan Brunon Wenta, w imieniu grupy PPE. – Panie Przewodniczący! Panie Komisarzu! Pomimo dużych bogactw naturalnych Sudan Południowy – najmłodsze i jedno z najsłabiej rozwiniętych państw świata – staje w obliczu narastającego kryzysu humanitarnego i niestabilności. Spór polityczny między byłym i obecnym prezydentem przerodził się w brutalny konflikt. Odbywają się wewnętrzne przesiedlenia etniczne na masową skalę: ponad milion mieszkańców tego kraju szuka schronienia w krajach ościennych. Sudan Południowy na mapie świata określającej wysokość zagrożenia kryzysem humanitarnym znajduje się w samej czołówce.

Dlatego bardzo miło było usłyszeć od Pana o działaniach, które zostaną podjęte. Mam nadzieję, że będą bardzo szybko wprowadzane w życie, bo w przeciwnym wypadku będziemy mieli do czynienia z następną katastrofą humanitarną na międzynarodową skalę. Należy podjąć kroki mające na celu natychmiastowe zaprzestanie działań wojennych, któremu muszą towarzyszyć pokojowe konsultacje polityczne. W tym kontekście ważne jest zaangażowanie Unii Afrykańskiej, ale również Unia Europejska powinna działać na rzecz wzmocnienia współpracy międzynarodowej w celu wsparcia procesu pokojowego w Sudanie Południowym, aby uniknąć kryzysu humanitarnego.

 
  
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  Cécile Kashetu Kyenge, au nom du groupe S&D. – Monsieur le Président, quatre ans de guerre civile, des dizaines de milliers de morts, trois millions de déplacés, des violences à caractère ethnique: un génocide est imminent. Tortures, assassinats, viols collectifs, enrôlement d’enfants soldats: les atrocités se multiplient.

Je condamne le désintérêt total de la communauté internationale face à la situation catastrophique au Sud-Soudan, dont témoigne le rejet d’une résolution imposant un embargo sur les armes et des sanctions par le Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies. Cela est absolument aberrant.

Depuis plusieurs semaines, les organisations humanitaires et les experts des Nations unies ont sonné l’alarme sur la situation pré-génocidaire. Un nettoyage ethnique est en cours depuis début décembre dans plusieurs régions du pays. Les Casques bleus ne parviennent plus à assurer la sécurité de la population et doivent se replier. Il s’agit d’une situation parmi les plus horribles du monde en matière de droits de l’homme.

Je rappelle la responsabilité des dirigeants politiques du Sud-Soudan, aussi bien celle du président, Salva Kiir, que de l’ancien vice-président, Riek Machar, de protéger leur population. Ils sont tous deux responsables d’atrocités effroyables et de massacres.

Il est urgent d’entreprendre un parcours de dialogue pour mettre en œuvre l’accord de paix et un cessez-le-feu.

Monsieur le Commissaire, je termine en vous demandant ce que peut faire l’Union européenne, avec tous ces instruments à sa disposition, dans la diplomatie et dans le respect de l’accord de Cotonou, pour stopper le regain du conflit et les violations des droits de l’homme au Sud-Soudan?

 
  
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  Charles Tannock, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Mr President, as an enthusiastic supporter of South Sudan’s independence, it is very sad for me that there is so little to celebrate in its first five years in existence as an independent state. It has been plunged into civil war, and there have been widespread war crimes and atrocities committed ever since 2013. I naturally welcome the recent joint calls from IGAD, the UN and the African Union for a cessation of hostilities, and it is an encouraging sign today that rebel leader Riek Machar has indeed backed this call, but the fighting sadly goes on. I note that the King of Morocco is on an official visit today to South Sudan, and this coincides with Morocco rejoining the African Union after 35 years of absence. Dare I say, at a time when the European Union is shrinking thanks to Brexit, it is encouraging to see that the African Union is actually expanding.

A further source of expansion for the African Union could come from the re-recognition of Somaliland, a promise that was made to me in person by a South Sudanese leader prior to independence. We must now hope that the talks in South Sudan can return under the national dialogue format, reminding President Salva Kiir that it is only with peace that South Sudan and its people will be able to see the benefits of its abundant natural resources.

 
  
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  Marietje Schaake, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, the Commissioner has spoken of the immense challenges and the need to end the suffering of the people in South Sudan. Meanwhile, the UN Human Rights Committee has warned that South Sudan is on the brink of genocide, starvation, gang rape and fighting between militias escalating to levels that seem to amount to ethnic cleansing. The gravity of these crimes and the extraordinary violence, while there is impunity for the perpetrators, has to end.

Besides these atrocities, we see a crackdown on civil society and the media, preventing accountability and documentation. So it is very urgent that we act now as the European Union, as well as in context of cooperation with the African Union and the United Nations. We have to be aware that already hundreds of thousands have been killed since 2013 and over three million people have been displaced, and they in turn face starvation. It is crucial that the atrocities stop, a peace process is set up, and this cycle of violence, revenge, violence, revenge, must end.

I welcome the fact that there is an arms embargo in place, but we must be vigilant also on the export of systems that allow for the tracking and tracing of people – surveillance, hacking and exfiltrating information. There are known cases where, despite sanctions, systems from the EU have still been exported, including to South Sudan. So it is important that we ensure accountability and ensure that the EU takes a leading role in this terrible conflict.

 
  
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  João Pimenta Lopes, em nome do Grupo GUE/NGL. – Senhor Presidente, o caso do Sudão do Sul não é o único na África de hoje. Na estratégia de dominação dos povos e pilhagem das suas riquezas, as grandes potências dividem Estados, fomentam guerras, se necessário intervêm militarmente, como na Líbia ou no Mali.

Não podemos desligar a situação atual do processo agraciado e promovido pelos Estados Unidos, União Europeia, Israel e seus aliados, aproveitando e exacerbando diferenças internas, a pobreza, injustiças sociais e diferenças étnicas, para alimentar um prolongado conflito que levaria à sua independência em 2011, num processo em tudo semelhante ao Kosovo.

Tudo em nome do controlo geoestratégico e do aproveitamento das consideráveis reservas de petróleo e de vários minérios da região do sul, que também hoje norteiam os interesses internacionais na região.

É necessário um apelo ao cessar-fogo e que se ponha termo imediato ao financiamento e venda de armas às diversas partes do conflito.

É necessária a defesa de uma solução pacífica e política para o conflito, livre de qualquer ingerência e intervenção militar externa.

 
  
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  Mario Borghezio, a nome del gruppo ENF. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la situazione delle popolazioni del Sud Sudan è drammatica: su circa 12 milioni di abitanti, quattro e mezzo combattono tutti i giorni contro la fame, due milioni sono profughi interni e oltre 1,3 milioni sono rifugiati nei paesi confinanti, in primis l'Uganda.

Nel recente passato, una certa vulgata ci ha descritto il successo dell'autodeterminazione, il superamento dei vecchi assetti coloniali e la creazione di un governo di unità nazionale. È un quadro ottimistico, ma la realtà ha smentito questi fragili assetti perché, nonostante negli anni vi sia stata una massiccia iniezione di risorse per aiuti allo sviluppo e alla creazione di un sistema amministrativo, i rappresentanti delle due principali fazioni, il presidente Kiir e il vicepresidente Machar, hanno rotto la coabitazione governativa spinti da antiche spaccature etniche accentuate dagli interessi petroliferi in gioco.

La missione ONU si è rivelata impotente nel ristabilire lo Stato di diritto ed è unicamente riuscita a creare dei siti per la protezione dei civili che fuggono dalle violenze, mentre la Forza di protezione regionale autorizzata dal Consiglio di sicurezza è ancora lontana dal concretizzarsi. Ad oggi si fa più concreto lo spettro di un nuovo Ruanda. Per evitare questa tragica eventualità non bastano le iniziative umanitarie dell'ONU e quelle di singoli paesi come l'Uganda…

(Il Presidente interrompe l'oratore)

 
  
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  Eduard Kukan (PPE). – Mr President, the situation in South Sudan has been significantly deteriorating in the past months. Massacres, gang rapes and destruction, combined with hunger, are leading to the population fleeing the country. There needs to be a political solution to the civil war. This involves advances on the proposed national dialogue and a return to the 2015 agreement. The EU should contribute to the South Sudan peace process, especially in the area of justice, where our assistance can be instrumental. I would therefore like to support the earlier call by the Vice-President/High Representative to establish a hybrid court that will investigate the atrocities committed. This is why our political and diplomatic influence can bring actual tangible results for the South Sudanese population, who deserve much more than the current international community is offering to them.

 
  
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  Enrique Guerrero Salom (S&D). – Señor presidente, señor comisario, la crisis de Sudán del Sur es una de esas crisis que aparece y desaparece en los medios de comunicación pero que lleva con nosotros cerca de cuarenta años: Todo tipo de guerras destructivas por razones étnicas, por razones religiosas, por lucha por los recursos naturales.

Es un país relativamente joven, pero su población ha vivido estas décadas de guerra en torno y en el entorno. Y tengo que señalar que es el momento de que tomemos decisiones para apoyar a quienes han emprendido un éxodo a los países vecinos, a quienes se han desplazado dentro del propio territorio de Sudán del Sur, a quienes están en necesidad de ayuda humanitaria, que es prácticamente el conjunto de la población del país.

El 30 % del Fondo Fiduciario para África debe ser empleado en la asistencia humanitaria en el continente. Tenemos que proporcionar vivienda, tenemos que proporcionar alimentos y sanidad a aquellos desplazados, también ayuda financiera. Pero sobre todo quiero subrayar algo que ha dicho el señor comisario: tenemos que ser activos, no solo como testigos sino también como actores principales, en garantizar el proceso de paz. Tenemos que ser más activos en garantizar el embargo de armas y tenemos que ser más activos en perseguir a aquellos que están obstruyendo la consecución de la paz en el país.

 
  
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  Bas Belder (ECR). – Precies een week geleden verscheen er in de Nederlandse pers, in het Reformatorisch Dagblad, een indringend en indrukwekkend artikel over een opvanghuis voor straatkinderen in Juba, de hoofdstad van Zuid-Soedan. De titel van het artikel was al veelzeggend: “Bij schoten plat op de grond en zingen en bidden”. Het artikel typeerde ook raak de schrijnende situatie in Zuid-Soedan. De straatkinderen hebben allemaal één belangrijke les geleerd. Als er ooit soldaten aan de poort verschijnen met de vraag wie tot welk volk behoort, luidt het antwoord simpelweg: “Wij zijn allemaal Zuid-Soedanezen”. Dat is in de realiteit ver weg, maar het is de toekomst, hopen we. De toekomst van deze straatkinderen ziet er evenwel somber uit omdat zowel de Afrikaanse Unie als de Verenigde Naties waarschuwen voor een ophanden zijnde genocide in Zuid-Soedan. Beide organisaties hebben daarom recentelijk de noodklok geluid en pleiten voor een directe internationale interventie. Ik wil dat hier onderstrepen want het gaat echt fout.

 
  
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  Jaromír Štětina (PPE). – Pane předsedající, občanská válka v Súdánu je válkou na pokračování. Čtyřicet let trvala osvobozující válka jihosúdánských černých křesťanů proti chartúmskému režimu. Žil jsem tehdy v Jižním Súdánu. Zkoumal jsem symbiózu války a hladomoru, která se vyvinula v humanitární katastrofu, tři sta tisíc lidí zemřelo, více než milion skončilo jako uprchlíci.

Křesťanský Súdán se osamostatnil. Vzápětí v roce 2013 vypukla nová válka, tentokrát mezi samotnými obyvateli Jižního Súdánu. Chartúmský režim se se ztrátou Jižního Súdánu nesmířil. Důkazem jsou pokračující útoky na křesťany.

Připomeňme si, že koncem ledna byl k 20 letům vězení odsouzen český občan, křesťanský misionář Petr Jašek a spolu s ním súdánský pastor Hassan Abduraheem Taour a Abdulmon Abdumaw. Věřím, že chartúmská reprezentace pochopí, jak zničující je konfesní spor a poskytne odsouzeným milost.

 
  
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  Neena Gill (S&D). – Mr President, we have heard already that over the past three years in the conflict in South Sudan tens of thousands of lives have been lost, three million displaced and 70% of women in camps raped. This cycle of violence must be broken. We have an arms embargo, but what are we doing to enforce it internationally? Companies in Ukraine have been fuelling violence through the sale of more helicopters; this cannot remain without consequences, Commissioner. This conflict is the result of the failure by us and others to invest in inclusiveness at the point of independence, leaving ethnic divisions vulnerable to those vying for power internally. By mid-2017, five million in the country will be in need of food aid. We have to ensure long-term international commitment to food security and work with the region to re-open trade routes. I have a couple of issues, Commissioner. What steps have been taken to push for full implementation of the 2015 peace agreement? What are we doing to promote social cohesion so that South Sudan’s children are not a lost generation? And how will we be coordinating a development and recovery programme, with an effective emergency response over the years to come?

(Interruption by the President)

After the Rwandan genocide we said ‘never again’. Let us hold to this.

 
  
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  Joachim Zeller (PPE). – Herr Präsident! Ich konnte vor sechs Jahren dabei sein, als unter großem Jubel der Bevölkerung der Südsudan seine Unabhängigkeit in einem Referendum erlangte. Nur hat diese Unabhängigkeit den Menschen keinen Frieden, keine Demokratie, keinen Wohlstand gebracht, weil diejenigen, die für die Führung des Landes zuständig sind, das Land im Bürgerkrieg versinken lassen und unsägliches Leid über die Menschen bringen.

Gleichzeitig ist aber der Südsudan auch ein Beispiel für das Versagen der internationalen Gemeinschaft. Weder die Ostafrikanische Gemeinschaft oder die Afrikanische Union noch die Vereinten Nationen sind in der Lage, dem Sterben und Leiden im Südsudan ein Ende zu bereiten. Eklatant ist, dass im Dezember auf Vorschlag der Vereinigten Staaten im Sicherheitsrat ein Antrag eingebracht wurde, ein Waffenembargo gegen den Südsudan zu verhängen. Dieser Antrag ist gescheitert. Nur sieben der 15 Ratsmitglieder stimmten für einen entsprechenden Resolutionsentwurf. Acht Länder, darunter die beiden Vetomächte Russland und China sowie die drei afrikanischen Staaten Angola, Ägypten und Senegal, enthielten sich. Für eine Verabschiedung der Resolution hätte es mindestens neun Ja-Stimmen gebraucht. Das ist eine Schande. Ich denke, hier helfen nur noch Sanktionen gegen diejenigen, die im Südsudan dafür verantwortlich sind, dass dort Menschen sterben müssen.

 
  
 

Intervenții la cerere

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la situazione nel Sud Sudan è davvero drammatica. Si registrano violazioni diffuse e sistematiche dei diritti umani. Il governo continua a reprimere libertà fondamentali con arresti arbitrari di giornalisti e di leader politici e alle violenze si aggiunge una drammatica carestia. Nel Sud Sudan, secondo quanto denunciano gli organismi dell'ONU (la FAO, l'Unicef e il World Food Program), più di 30 000 persone rischiano di morire di fame e decine di migliaia sono le persone a rischio carestia.

Se non si vuole che la situazione precipiti ulteriormente è necessario che l'Europa e la comunità internazionale si mobilitino, anche in collaborazione con l'Unione africana, per favorire la riconciliazione nazionale e per sostenere un processo di ricostruzione politica ed istituzionale del paese. È necessaria una transizione politica del Sud Sudan verso forme di governo democratiche, transizione che potrebbe aiutare la popolazione sudanese e anche quella del Darfur ad uscire dall'attuale stato di sottosviluppo, di sofferenza e di morte.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η κρίση στο Νότιο Σουδάν έχει διαφύγει από το ραντάρ της παγκόσμιας δημοσιότητας. Αφού πέρασε μια περίοδο σχετικής ηρεμίας μετά το τέλος του εμφυλίου πολέμου που είχε ξεσπάσει το Δεκέμβριο του 2013, το Νότιο Σουδάν έρχεται πλέον αντιμέτωπο με την κατάρρευση της ειρηνευτικής διαδικασίας και την επιστροφή στη βία, σε τέτοιο βαθμό που υπάρχουν φόβοι για γενοκτονία. Περίπου εξήντα χιλιάδες άνθρωποι έχουν διαφύγει από τη χώρα, καθώς οι συγκρούσεις κλιμακώνονται το τελευταίο διάστημα. Οι βιαιότητες εντείνονται μετά την κατάρρευση της ειρηνευτικής διαδικασίας και βρίσκονται ήδη σε εξέλιξη πρακτικές εθνοκάθαρσης, με γνωρίσματα τον ακραίο λιμό, τους ομαδικούς βιασμούς και την καταστροφή χωριών. Επιπλέον, εκατομμύρια άνθρωποι που αντιστοιχούν στα τρία τέταρτα του πληθυσμού της χώρας δεν έχουν πρόσβαση σε βασικά αγαθά όπως είναι η τροφή, το νερό και τα φάρμακα. Η διεθνής κοινότητα έχει υποχρέωση να εμποδίσει αυτή την κατάσταση ώστε να μην επαναληφθεί ό,τι έγινε στη Ρουάντα.

 
  
 

(Încheierea intervențiilor la cerere)

 
  
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  Neven Mimica, Member of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Mr President, this has been a very useful exchange and I thank the honourable Members for their contributions and interventions. The people of South Sudan have suffered immensely over the past six years. The lives of much of the population continue to hang in the balance, threatened by brutal violence, famine and destitution. The European Union will continue to deploy all the instruments available – political pressure, sanctions, humanitarian relief, development assistance, support for international justice – with a view to encouraging the parties to replace conflict with dialogue, in the hope of securing a better future for South Sudan.

 
  
 

Preşedintele. – Dezbaterea a fost închisă.

 
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