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Procedura : 2016/2054(INI)
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Ciclo del documento : A8-0012/2017

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A8-0012/2017

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PV 02/03/2017 - 4
CRE 02/03/2017 - 4

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PV 02/03/2017 - 6.9
CRE 02/03/2017 - 6.9
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P8_TA(2017)0064

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Giovedì 2 marzo 2017 - Bruxelles Edizione rivista

4. Politica commerciale comune dell'UE nel contesto degli imperativi di sostenibilità delle specie selvatiche (breve presentazione)
Video degli interventi
PV
 

Der Präsident. – Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die kurze Darstelung des Berichts von Emma McClarkin über die gemeinsame Handelspolitik der EU im Rahmen der Gebote in Bezug auf den Schutz der wildlebenden Tier- und Pflanzenarten (2016/2054(INI)) (A8-0012/2017).

 
  
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  Emma McClarkin, rapporteur. – Mr President, the scale of recent trade flows in illegal wildlife and wildlife products is unprecedented, with recent data showing a sharp decline in the number of some species, many of them facing extinction. This presents a serious threat to our environment and may have a permanent consequence on our biodiversity. We must also concern ourselves with the impact illegal wildlife trade has on the global economy, good governance and the wider connections with other criminal activities.

It was with these considerations in mind that I proposed to the Committee on International Trade (INTA) to draft an own-initiative report on the EU common commercial policy in the context of wildlife sustainability, because trade policy can, and should, address wildlife conservation, support sustainable development and environmental protection. My report looks at the challenges we face and gives practical solutions on effective use of the resources available, with better implementation of our current policies giving tangible and comprehensive recommendations to the Commission on how trade and environmental policies can work together to tackle illegal wildlife trade inside the EU and globally.

However, the report strongly recommends that we do not overburden the existing framework with the creation of new rules and mechanisms. Instead, the priority should be the implementation of the present framework in the context of the global trade and environmental regimes, such as the WTO, CITES, the WCO, the UNDP and the OECD.

We must also seek further and deeper cooperation with the private sector and non-governmental organisations, ensuring that all stakeholders involved have a say and contribute to the fight against illegal wildlife trade. Initiatives such as the United for Wildlife Transport Taskforce should be widely promoted, as they draw upon the linkages between e-commerce, transportation and distribution to establish well-rounded and integrated approaches addressing both supply and demand, as well as focusing on breaking chains to tackle illegal trade in wildlife and wildlife products.

Sharing data and knowledge is imperative and this report stresses that there is still work to do at this level, both within the EU and with partner countries. Customs procedures must be assessed, and emphasis and resources should be put on strengthening compliance and law enforcement at national and regional levels. The EU must step up its efforts in the provision of training, information and capacity building, full customs in developing countries, and promote transparency and good governance.

To tackle illegal wildlife crime we must also tackle its enablers. Corruption is one of the main facilitators of this activity. This report strongly encourages the EU and Member States to increase their vigilance, to reinforce cross-border measures to identify and prevent money-laundering associated with wildlife trafficking. My report supports the inclusion of anti-corruption provisions in future trade agreements. And as part of the EU’s ongoing commitment to sustainable development, our trade policy must strive for solid and detailed sustainable development chapters in its future trade agreements, similar to the one included in the EU-Vietnam FTA. It is imperative that we lead on the negotiation and implementation of higher standards covering trade in wildlife in the EU and globally. Trade policy is an important tool at our disposal and we must make the best use of it to fight this crime, and to protect and promote wildlife and our natural resources. If we do nothing, they will be extinct.

Finally, I would like to thank my adviser Alex Boyd for his advice and support, and colleagues in INTA for their support and hard work on this file, proving that we are all committed to the fight against illegal wildlife crime and that we want to keep this fight a priority so that future generations to come will enjoy the magnificence of our precious wildlife.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye-Verfahren

 
  
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  Jiří Pospíšil (PPE). – Pane předsedající, já chci výrazně podpořit tuto zprávu, jsem velmi rád, že v rámci agendy Evropské unie nediskutujeme pouze o ochraně lidských práv kdekoliv na světě, ale řešíme taky ochranu práv volně žijících zvířat a planě rostoucích druhů rostlin. Toto je opravdu velmi důležité téma a já jsem velmi rád, že součástí naší obchodní politiky má být to, jak více chránit rostliny a živočichy. Já se v České republice zabývám tzv. psími množírnami, to je nelegální množení domácích mazlíčků, psů a koček, a zabývám se pašováním a vývozem těchto živočichů do jiných zemí Evropské unie. Musím konstatovat, že podle některých zpráv je tzv. zoo byznys, zoo mafie třetí nejvýnosnější druh organizovaného zločinu vedle prostituce a vedle pašování narkotik a drog. Tedy je to velmi závažný problém, obecně pašování druhů a rostlin, a je dobře, že se tím Evropská unie zabývá. Měli bychom vedle tohoto materiálu také řešit ovšem právě otázku psích množíren a problémů domácích mazlíčků, kteří jsou volně pašováni bez jasných pravidel po zemích Evropské unie.

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il traffico illegale di specie selvatiche è diventato di fatto una delle attività criminali più proficue a livello mondiale, per un valore complessivo stimato tra gli 8 e i 20 miliardi di euro all'anno.

L'azione dell'Unione deve concentrarsi innanzitutto sul problema della corruzione, che è uno dei principali motori del commercio illecito di specie selvatiche. I negoziati attuali e futuri sugli accordi commerciali devono considerare tutte le misure possibili connesse al commercio, sia legale sia illegale, di specie selvatiche, a cominciare dall'introduzione di disposizioni anticorruzione nei futuri accordi di libero scambio.

Occorre inoltre garantire lo stanziamento di fondi sufficienti per le misure di sviluppo delle capacità. L'Unione deve puntare a offrire sostegno alla formazione nei paesi produttori non solo delle autorità doganali e di contrasto al crimine, ma anche delle associazioni di produttori, delle cooperative e delle imprese sociali, che consentono alle comunità locali di usufruire del commercio sostenibile legale.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, σύμφωνα με εκτιμήσεις, τα έσοδα από το παράνομο εμπόριο άγριας χλωρίδας και πανίδας ανέρχονται σε περίπου 20 δισεκατομμύρια EUR, ενώ θεωρείται η τέταρτη πιο επικερδής εγκληματική δραστηριότητα παγκοσμίως. Δεδομένου ότι το παράνομο εμπόριο άγριας χλωρίδας και πανίδας καταστρέφει τα οικοσυστήματα και αποτελεί απειλή για την παγκόσμια βιοποικιλότητα, η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση είχε εγκρίνει από το Φεβρουάριο του 2016 ένα σχέδιο δράσης για την καταπολέμηση της παράνομης εμπορίας άγριων ειδών εντός της Ένωσης και για την ενίσχυση του ρόλου της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης στην παγκόσμια εκστρατεία για την καταπολέμηση αυτών των παράνομων δραστηριοτήτων. To σχέδιο δράσης της Ένωσης για να αντιμετωπιστεί η εμπορία άγριων ειδών οφείλει να συμβάλει στην πρόληψη της παράνομης εμπορίας, στη μείωση της προσφοράς και της ζήτησης των παράνομων ειδών, καθώς και στην ενίσχυση της εφαρμογής των υφιστάμενων κανόνων για την καταπολέμηση του οργανωμένου εγκλήματος.

 
  
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  Catherine Bearder (ALDE). – Mr President, my thanks go to Emma McClarkin for her well-reasoned and clear report with recommendations to protect wildlife in current and future EU trade agreements. My thanks to the Commission for the proposals to ban, in the EU, raw ivory exports.

Tomorrow is World Wildlife Day, so let’s celebrate this year’s progress in protecting wildlife against trafficking: China’s full ban and the near ban in the USA, stricter rules in France on hunting trophies and the burning of ivory by the Kenyan Government. However, this is just tackling illegal trade. The McClarkin report also tackles legal trade and, of course, we know the crossover is mostly complicated as plants, animals, birds, etc. move between the two: legal or illegal.

The Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) COP recently delivered tough new rules and more protection for over 500 species, but more needs to be done. Member States, politicians and the public have the power to protect and reduce demand. This report is a good step along the road, so thank you Emma.

 
  
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  Andreas Schwab (PPE). – Mr President, I would like to thank my colleague Ms McClarkin so much for her report. My congratulations to her. I do, however, want to stress here that we will miss the Brits negotiating on the basis of the report that Ms McClarkin has just outlined. I do not really understand how the Brits will continue to try to convince trading partners on the sustainability issue, because we can only convince our partners if we have the weight of the whole European Union with its 500 million people. The smaller you are, the less chance you have to convince your partners about these goals we have in common, and that I am sure we will have in common in the future also.

 
  
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  Ricardo Serrão Santos (S&D). – Senhor Presidente, parece muito preocupante que o tráfico ilegal de espécies selvagens continue a aumentar e quero aqui salientar que afeta também o domínio aquático: corais vermelhos, ovos de esturjão e alevins de enguia são alvo de tráfico dentro da Europa e para fora da Europa.

Atribuímos recomendações a países terceiros, tentando reverter os processos prejudiciais conhecidos por pescas INN. No entanto, parece-me fundamental dar o exemplo dentro de portas e impedir o tráfico ilegal que, nos casos citados, são pescas INN.

Congratulo-me, como é referido no relatório, pelos esforços promovidos pela União Europeia junto da Organização Mundial de Comércio para impedir os subsídios à pesca que seja prejudicial, que pode pôr em causa a gestão sustentável das pescas e ameaçar a conservação de espécies sensíveis.

Como referimos na Comissão das Pescas, parece-me importante reconhecer os campeões da luta contra o tráfico de espécies selvagens, atribuindo-lhes um reconhecimento de nível europeu.

 
  
 

(Ende des Catch-the-eye-Verfahrens)

 
  
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  Julian King, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, I would like to thank Members for this morning’s presentation, and the debate and comments that have been made on a subject which, I must say, is actually very close to my heart. In particular, I would like to thank the rapporteur, Emma McClarkin, for her excellent report. As has been pointed out, the scale of illegal wildlife trade and the impact on populations of vulnerable plant and animal species are extremely serious. Concerted international action is needed to prevent the loss of such species due to greed and ill-informed behaviour.

We are focusing today on trade-related aspects of this fight. At the same time, we should recall the importance of EU action in other policy areas as well, such as the provision of support to developing countries through our cooperation work. The report refers to the Trade for All communication, which underlines the importance of a values-based trade policy. I welcome the high degree of consensus that I understand exists between the political groups on the need for action to tackle this appalling phenomenon of illegal wildlife trade, an area of economic activity that is clearly contrary to our values.

The key multilateral instrument to address wildlife trade is, as we all know, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). CITES decisions apply to all CITES parties and, furthermore, it has the ability to take action if a party fails to follow the rules. Support for the effective implementation of CITES is a key feature of our trade policy. It is one of the international conventions that must be implemented effectively by beneficiaries of trade preferences under the EU’s GSP+ scheme. Commitments on effective implementation of CITES are included in the trade and sustainable development chapters of EU free trade agreements and the Commission does not hesitate to raise CITES issues directly in our dialogues with trade partners as necessary.

Today’s report also correctly identifies an important role for the private sector in tackling wildlife trafficking, including businesses in the aviation and shipping sectors. The concept of responsible business conduct is one that is strongly supported by the EU and is increasingly reflected in our various trade agreements.

A high—value illegal trade such as that of illegal wildlife creates the conditions for corruption, as has been noted. As announced in the Trade for All communication and referred to in today’s report, the Commission intends to include provisions to address corruption linked to international trade in future trade agreements. The EU also successfully proposed, at the last Conference of the Parties to CITES, a resolution which explicitly calls for dedicated action against corruption linked to wildlife trafficking.

I can assure you that the report will be considered very carefully by the Commission, including in the ongoing work on the implementation of the EU Action Plan against Wildlife Trafficking, and today’s timely debate has again highlighted this critical issue at the intersection of environmental and trade policy. As many of you have said, it is imperative that we take action to tackle the scourge of this trade. So thank you to the rapporteur and thank you to those who participated in this morning’s discussion.

 
  
 

Der Präsident. – Die Aussprache ist geschlossen.

 
  
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  Dominique Bilde (ENF), par écrit. – Il est impératif de lutter contre le trafic de certaines espèces sauvages dont des réseaux criminels et mafieux tirent profit : comme l’a souligné le rapporteur, le commerce illégal de la faune et de la flore sauvages est la quatrième activité criminelle la plus lucrative, avec un chiffre d’affaires pouvant atteindre 20 milliards d’euros. Ces bénéfices servent par ailleurs bien souvent à financer des activités terroristes auxquelles l’Europe est particulièrement vulnérable. Au-delà de notre conscience environnementale, c’est donc bel et bien un enjeu de sécurité ! Notons par ailleurs que nous avons le devoir de regarder au-delà des impératifs du marché puisque ce sujet s’inscrit également dans une perspective de codéveloppement durable des pays d’où proviennent ces espèces, bien souvent issues du continent africain. Or, certaines communautés sur le terrain sont bien souvent dépendantes, socialement et économiquement, du commerce durable de ces espèces, et c’est pourquoi il est essentiel de les soutenir afin d’arriver à un commerce soucieux de la biodiversité et qui conduise à préserver l’emploi et la croissance des communautés concernées. Il n’est pas nécessaire de mettre en place une énième législation : appliquons les normes déjà existantes en la matière !

 
  
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  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE), napisan. – Neprestani porast nezakonite trgovine divljom florom i faunom ugrožava biološku raznolikost, uništava ekosustav, te povećava broj životinja i biljaka koji izumire ili postaje ugroženo. Bogatstvo koje čine fauna i flora je sastavni dio čovječanstva i naše Planete, te se stoga ne smije podcjenjivati, već su potrebne konkretne mjere koje će omogućiti njihovo očuvanje i pametno gospodarenje njima.

Nažalost, Europska unija predstavlja veliko tržište za nezakonite proizvode od divlje flore i faune, ali i važno čvorište za tranzit. Stoga su potrebni zajednički napori kako bi se takve radnje spriječile, te je u tom kontekstu iznimno bitno uključiti privatni sektor, nevladine udruge, ali i društvene mreže. Siguran sam da su gospodarski razvoj i korištenje prirodnih resursa dvije stvari koje mogu i moraju zajedno!

 
  
 

(Die Sitzung wird um 11.10 Uhr unterbrochen und um 11.30 Uhr wieder aufgenommen.)

 
  
  

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