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Procedūra : 2016/2225(INI)
Dokumenta lietošanas cikls sēdē
Dokumenta lietošanas cikls : A8-0044/2017

Iesniegtie teksti :

A8-0044/2017

Debates :

PV 13/03/2017 - 15
CRE 13/03/2017 - 15

Balsojumi :

PV 14/03/2017 - 6.12
Balsojumu skaidrojumi

Pieņemtie teksti :

P8_TA(2017)0076

Debates
Pirmdiena, 2017. gada 13. marts - Strasbūra Pārskatītā redakcija

15. Lielo datu ietekme uz pamattiesībām (īss izklāsts)
Visu runu video
PV
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  Der Präsident. – Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die kurze Darstellung des Berichts von Ana Gomes über die Folgen von Massendaten für die Grundrechte: Privatsphäre, Datenschutz, Nichtdiskriminierung, Sicherheit und Rechtsdurchsetzung (2016/2225(INI)) (A8-0044/2017).

 
  
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  Ana Gomes, relatora. – Senhor Presidente, o Parlamento Europeu vai votar o relatório que redigi sobre as implicações dos grandes volumes de dados, ou “big data”, nos direitos fundamentais: privacidade, proteção de dados, não discriminação, segurança e aplicação da lei. Agradeço a contribuição de todos os relatores-sombra, funcionários, assistentes e peritos que colaboraram na redação deste relatório.

Reconhecemos que a revolução dos dados aí está, impulsionada pelo progresso das tecnologias da comunicação e pela omnipresença de dispositivos eletrónicos que permitem o armazenamento de dados sobre as nossas vidas, recolhidos em massa, em constante crescimento e usados sem controlo por entidades públicas e privadas.

Como ainda ontem alertava o cientista Tim Berners-Lee, os riscos mais prementes associados ao processamento em massa de dados e à tomada de decisões por algoritmos são muitos e incluem violações de segurança, acesso não autorizado, vigilância ilegal, discriminação e diferenciação de preços, assim como tomadas de decisões e adoção de políticas públicas com base em dados erróneos pouco representativos.

Propomos, por isso, soluções: investimento na literacia digital, criação de padrões de ética e transparência na utilização de algoritmos, cooperação entre os setores público, privado e não governamental, aposta em tecnologias que privilegiem a privacidade e a segurança dos dados, mecanismos de proteção de contas e de compensação, para referir apenas algumas.

Mais premente que nunca é também a proteção de fontes fidedignas e rigorosas de informação, numa altura em que algoritmos têm um impacto cada vez maior na informação disponibilizada aos cidadãos, o que pode perverter, pôr em perigo, os direitos fundamentais à informação, bem como a liberdade dos meios de comunicação social e o pluralismo.

Temos, na União Europeia, o quadro legal mais avançado do mundo no que respeita à proteção de dados e à privacidade, plasmado no Regulamento Geral para a proteção de dados – um padrão de certeza jurídica, que é benéfico e é útil ao setor privado na União Europeia e globalmente. Tudo depende agora da seriedade com que levamos a sua aplicação e o seu cumprimento.

Este relatório dá o contributo do Parlamento e aponta um caminho de equilíbrio entre os interesses e os direitos fundamentais dos cidadãos e as necessidades das empresas. O debate público e jurídico certamente vai prosseguir.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye-Verfahren

 
  
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  Anna Záborská (PPE). – Vážený pán predsedajúci. Po nedávnych amerických voľbách sa objavila séria článkov upozorňujúcich na riziká, ktoré pre demokratický proces predstavuje technologický pokrok v oblasti spracovania veľkých dát. Kritickými prvkami tohto ohrozenia je masové rozšírenie smartfónov a ním podporovaný rast angažovanosti ľudí na sociálnych sieťach na internete.

Dáta zdieľané cez sociálne siete na internete umožňujú vytváranie stále presnejších osobnostných profilov jednotlivých občanov. Výsledkom je stieranie hranice medzi poskytovaním informácie a cielenou manipulatívnou propagandou.

Je preto najvyšší čas hovoriť o týchto rizikách a hľadať aj legislatívne nástroje, ktoré by zvýšili ochranu európskych občanov pred virtuálnymi aj skutočnými ohrozeniami.

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, le opportunità offerte dai big data trovano fondamento solo previa tutela dei diritti fondamentali, della conformità alla legislazione sulla produzione dei dati e della certezza del diritto. Questi principi hanno informato numerose mie interrogazioni, con le quali ho chiesto innanzitutto la tutela dei diritti fondamentali nei servizi pubblici e dei disabili e di ridurre le disparità di trattamento.

A mio avviso già un anno fa le sfide qui al Parlamento europeo correvano su tre direttrici fondamentali: primo, gli interrogativi etici e morali connessi alla scienza medica per l'utilizzo dei big data con consapevolezza e cautela, posto che sia in grado di creare intelligenza artificiale e applicata alle neuroscienze. Secondo, la regolamentazione del flusso connessa all'utilizzo dei device che sfruttano i big data con aspetti di privacy realmente a rischio. Terzo, la security contro il sarebbe i cyber crime, che gioca sulla poco chiara distinzione tra dati sensibili e non e fa sponda sulla non intenzionalità del rilascio dei dati.

Approvo quindi la relazione che esprime uno stato di grande prudenza e cautela.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Kύριε Πρόεδρε, οι προοπτικές και ευκαιρίες που προσφέρουν τα μαζικά δεδομένα μπορούν να αξιοποιηθούν πλήρως από τους πολίτες, τις εταιρείες, τις κυβερνήσεις και τα θεσμικά όργανα, μόνο υπό την προϋπόθεση ότι η εμπιστοσύνη των πολιτών στις εν λόγω τεχνολογίες διασφαλίζεται μέσω του αυστηρού σεβασμού των θεμελιωδών δικαιωμάτων και της ασφάλειας δικαίου για όλους τους συμμετέχοντες φορείς. H ελευθερία πρέπει να μην υποτάσσεται στο κέρδος των επιχειρήσεων, να μην υποτάσσεται στον βωμό των ασφαλιστικών εταιρειών, να μην υποτάσσεται στα συμφέροντα των τραπεζών.

Βλέπουμε ότι οι εταιρείες κατέχουν δεδομένα καταναλωτών και τα αξιοποιούν για κερδοσκοπία. Μερικές εταιρείες δημιουργούν προφίλ καταναλωτή, προφίλ δανειολήπτη, προφίλ ασφαλισμένου, προφίλ εργαζομένου. Η διαφάνεια, η αντικειμενικότητα και η λογοδοσία αλλά και ο έλεγχος των δεδομένων προσωπικού χαρακτήρα αποτελούν βασικές αξίες από τις οποίες απορρέουν συγκεκριμένα δικαιώματα και υποχρεώσεις. Η προστασία προσωπικών πληροφοριών αποτελεί θεμελιώδες δικαίωμα και οποιαδήποτε επεξεργασία προσωπικών δεδομένων απαγορεύεται...

(Ο Πρόεδρος διακόπτει τον ομιλητή.)

 
  
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  Jan Philipp Albrecht (Verts/ALE). – Herr Präsident! Big Data bringt uns viele Vorteile, aber es muss ebenso klar sein, dass eine große Masse an Daten eben auch viele personenbezogene Daten bedeuten kann und dass in diesen Fällen immer klar ist: Der Datenschutz muss beachtet werden, auch wenn es um Big-Data-Anwendungen geht. Da haben wir mit der Datenschutzgrundverordnung klare Linien festgelegt. Und auf diesem Weg müssen wir weitergehen, denn das ist die Voraussetzung für Vertrauen in solche neue Anwendungen.

Gleiches brauchen wir auch bei der Sicherheit. Es muss klar sein, dass, wenn solche Anwendungen entworfen und auf den Markt gebracht werden, dort auch Haftungsregeln gelten, etwa für Sicherheitslücken, die auftreten. Und es muss am Ende auch Grenzen geben. Es kann nicht sein, dass zum Beispiel bei der Polizei allein ein Big-Data-Algorithmus bestimmt, ob ich ein Verdächtiger bin oder nicht. Wir können nicht Personen und ihre Handlungen vorhersehen, sondern wir können einschätzen, wie zum Beispiel Örtlichkeiten sich gestalten oder wie bestimmte Vorgänge vonstattengehen, aber nicht Personen.

 
  
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  Jean-Luc Schaffhauser (ENF). – Monsieur le Président, ce rapport ne me satisfait pas. La protection des données, cela voudrait dire que la donnée appartient à celui qui l'émet. Cela veut dire sortir du modèle économique actuel, dans lequel la donnée est exploitée et celui qui la fournit n'est pas associé aux résultats et ne contrôle pas son processus.

Il faut aussi localiser la donnée en Europe – vous ne l'avez pas précisé –, sinon la donnée ne nous appartient plus, selon les règles que l'Amérique s'est données. Il faut maîtriser la chaîne du software et du hardware, parce que, sinon, la donnée nous échappera également par la technologie.

Enfin, vous ne parlez pas des données des entreprises, du pillage qui est fait, y compris dans tout ce qui concerne l'open science. Ce rapport n'est donc pas satisfaisant.

 
  
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  Γεώργιος Επιτήδειος ( NI). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η ραγδαία εξέλιξη της τεχνολογίας των επικοινωνιών και η εκτεταμένη χρησιμοποίηση ηλεκτρονικών συσκευών παρέχουν τη δυνατότητα σε διαφόρους φορείς να συλλέγουν και να επεξεργάζονται προσωπικά δεδομένα, πράγμα που κάνουν χωρίς τη συγκατάθεση των ενδιαφερομένων. Άλλωστε είναι πρόσφατες οι αποκαλύψεις, που προήλθαν μέσω διαρροής από τα Wikileaks, των μεθόδων που χρησιμοποίησε η CΙΑ για να συλλέγει πληροφορίες. Ουδείς έχει το δικαίωμα να παραβιάζει την προσωπική ζωή κάποιου ατόμου και να συλλέγει στοιχεία τα οποία θα χρησιμοποιήσει εις βάρος του είτε για να το εκβιάσει, είτε για να ασκήσει βία, είτε, ακόμη περισσότερο, για να τα δώσει σε διάφορες πολυεθνικές εταιρείες, συμβάλλοντας έτσι στην καθιέρωση μονοπωλίων. Αυτό είναι ένα απαράδεκτο φαινόμενο. Πρέπει να το αντιμετωπίσει η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση και πρέπει να προστατευθούν τα δικαιώματα των πολιτών των χωρών της Ευρώπης.

 
  
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  Csaba Sógor (PPE). – Mr President, the positive effects and the opportunities brought by data analytics are already visible in areas where there is energy efficiency, fight against climate change, transport or health care. It can help optimise businesses, improve public services and enhance the quality of our lives.

When browsing or making online purchases, most people are not aware to whom they give away their data. No wonder that according to Eurostat, 81% of Europeans are concerned about the control of information they provide about themselves. As is the case with every new technology, the effects of big data analytics depends on the purpose it is put to serve. In order to maintain trust, it is essential to make sure that it is not misused, for example to deny health insurance or bank loans for certain categories of people based on their online search history.

As the report clearly points out, it is up to us to guarantee transparency, due process and legal certainty in the processing of personal data.

 
  
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  Victor Negrescu (S&D). – Domnule președinte, economia bazată pe date a Uniunii Europene a fost estimată la aproape trei sute de miliarde de euro. Ea poate să ajute la crearea a peste șapte milioane de locuri de muncă până în 2020, dacă ritmul de peste 5% a creșterii anuale se va menține și pe viitor. De aceea, este important să ne ajustăm politicile în așa fel încât să asigurăm echilibrul între nevoia de dezvoltare a acestui sector, pe de o parte, și protecția datelor utilizatorilor, pe de altă parte. În acest sens, gestiunea megadatelor trebuie corelată cu cele cinci drepturi fundamentale reliefate în acest raport: dreptul la viața privată, protecția datelor, principiile nediscriminării, securitatea și impunerea respectării legii.

Dezvoltarea sectorului nu trebuie, însă, împiedicată din cauza abuzurilor comise de anumite persoane, companii sau instituții, iar dacă aceste situații se produc, ele trebuie aspru pedepsite, conform unui set de reguli comune la nivel european. Totuși, trebuie ca și în acest domeniu să domine prezumția de nevinovăție pentru cei care prelucrează datele. De aceea, soluția cea mai bună rămâne să investim în educația digitală și a gestiunii datelor de la o vârstă cât mai fragedă.

 
  
 

(Ende des Catch-the-eye-Verfahrens)

 
  
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  Věra Jourová, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, honourable Members, today’s debate on big data and its fundamental rights implications, in particular on data protection, non-discrimination and law enforcement is very timely and important. I would like to thank the rapporteur, Ms Gomes, and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs for having dedicated their time and energy to this topic.

We are facing a new technological revolution driven by big data, artificial intelligence and robotics. Big data and artificial intelligence holds huge potential for our strong industrial base and for the public sector and can help solve societal challenges, whether it is better health care, combating climate change and protecting the environment, more efficient transport, agricultural productivity – and the list can go on.

As with any major technological development, there are significant challenges that we must deal with. I fully share the focus of the Parliament on the need to ensure trust. Big data needs a high level of personal data protection and strong security. In this regard the EU data protection reform the Parliament and Council adopted last year sets the highest data protection standards in the world. For example, the regulation reinforces the tools allowing people to keep control over the use of their personal data. It will be easier for citizens to obtain the rectification or deletion of personal data. The regulation also introduces the right to portability and clarifies the notions of consent, profiling and transparency. Data protection by design and data protection by default become essential principles. This helps businesses to develop new methods for security and protection of personal data.

For the use of big data analytics, anonymisation and pseudonymisation are very important. The General Data Protection Regulation promotes the use of such measures, rendering impossible the identification of the individual and disguising the identity of the person while keeping the data retraceable. Data security measures such as encryption are also a useful tool to adequately protect personal data.

As regards law enforcement, the data protection police directive stresses that where decisions with legal effects are taken on individuals, they are given the right to obtain human intervention. The principles of data processing, such as purpose limitation, no excessive collection, data security must be fully respected. In order to ensure that the legal framework is properly applied from its entry into application in May 2018, the Commission’s focus is to work with Member States – with the data protection authorities as well as with businesses and civil society – to ensure that the rules are well understood and that they will be applied in a uniform way all over the European Union. We will also develop awareness-raising activities for citizens. The new rules also require that an appropriate level of security for personal data processing is ensured, depending on the risks and type of processing. And this is also a fundamental data protection principle.

Overall, cyber security is also important to ensure confidence, and the EU Network and Information Security Directive is also due for implementation next year. Furthermore, the Commission looks forward to the discussions and adoption of the e-privacy Regulation, which will increase trust in electronic communications services – trust and protection, which must go hand in hand.

Finally, the Commission is currently looking at how to ensure the free flow of non-personal data across sectors and across borders within the EU. The Communication entitled Building a European Data Economy was adopted on 10 January this year, and an online public consultation has been launched and is running until 26 April. In the near future, most economic activity will depend on data, but if data cannot move freely, our growth potential is limited. The Communication looks at unjustified data location restrictions, access to data and how more data can become available for use and reuse. The more we have data availability and the more data is used, the better the data economy will develop. It is clear that alongside an adequate legal framework it is essential to take into consideration the ethical dimension of such activities. This is a shared concern across the world, and as politicians we have to remain vigilant on all these aspects.

 
  
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  Der Präsident. – Die Aussprache ist geschlossen.

Die Abstimmung findet morgen, Dienstag, 14. März 2017, statt.

 
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