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Proċedura : 2016/2142(INI)
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Ċiklu relatat mad-dokument : A8-0252/2017

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A8-0252/2017

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It-Tnejn, 11 ta' Settembru 2017 - Strasburgu Edizzjoni riveduta

26. Edukazzjoni akkademika avvanzata u mill-bogħod bħala parti mill-istrateġija Ewropea għat-tagħlim tul il-ħajja (preżentazzjoni qasira)
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  La Présidente. – L’ordre du jour appelle le rapport de Milan Zver sur la formation universitaire continue et à distance dans le cadre de la stratégie européenne d’apprentissage tout au long de la vie (2016/2142(INI)) (A8-0252/2017).

 
  
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  Milan Zver, Poročevalec. – Julija je Odbor za kulturo s 24 glasovi za in samo enim proti sprejel poročilo z naslovom Academic further and distance education as part of the European lifelong learning strategy. Izpostavil bi rad plodno sodelovanje s skoraj vsemi političnimi skupinami. Očitno izobraževanje povezuje, še zlasti, če gre za tako dobre teme kot sta ti dve, ki ju združujem v poročilu.

Ni posebno posebej poudarjati, da je izobraževanje in usposabljanje ogledalo družbe. Prispeva ne le k dozorevanju posameznic in posameznikov, ampak tudi k oblikovanju človeškega kapitala in družbe nasploh. Edukacija je že vrsto let visoko na evropski agendi, čeprav je splošno znano, da spada v okvir suverenih politik članic.

Evropska unija že dolga leta spodbuja kakovost in učinkovitost šolskih sistemov v državah članicah. Zato je pripravila vrsto mehanizmov, ki delajo šolstvo bolj primerljivo in kvalitetnejše, ter vrsto programov, s katerimi finančno podpira izobraževanje in usposabljanje. Posebej naj opozorim na zgodbo o uspehu, ki ji rečemo Erasmus+, a o njem bomo na tej plenarki še govorili.

Koncept vseživljenjskega učenja je utemeljen na spoznanju, da je v sodobni dinamični, kompleksni in tehnološko vse bolj zahtevni družbi, polni tveganj sicer, nujno izobraževanje ves čas življenja, pa najsi gre za formalno, neformalno ali priložnostno.

V poročilu posebej izpostavljam nujnost nadaljnjega akademskega izobraževanja na področju poklicnega izobraževanja in usposabljanja. Vsem, ki so uspešno zaključili šolo, morajo biti na voljo dodatne izobraževalne poti, na katerih lahko udeleženci še izpolnijo svoje sposobnosti.

Kolegice in kolegi, slab dostop do izobraževalnih možnosti lahko povzroči manjše konkurenčnosti ljudi na trgu dela, težave v zasebnem življenju, lahko tudi trajno pasivnost, izključenost iz družbenega okolja in tudi, kakor je mogoče zaslediti v zadnjih letih, nasilno radikalizacijo, zlasti mladih, ki so ranljivi v rizičnih okoliščinah.

Dostop do izobraževanja je torej standard, ki mora biti uveljavljen povsod, v praksi pa ni tako. Mnogi imajo pri tem tovrstne težave, npr. mlade matere težko uskladijo svoje družinske, morda celo delovne, obveznosti z izobraževalnimi. Ljudje iz nižjih slojev si težko privoščijo želeni študij, še posebej, če je ta predrag. Nekdo iz obrobnih regij si prav tako težko privošči študij na želenih univerzitetnih destinacijah, ki niso dovolj blizu.

Tudi za posameznike, ki jih uvrščamo v skupino ljudi s posebnimi potrebami, je udeležba v klasičnem t. i. rezidenčnem načinu študija mnogokrat nemogoča.

Zato je učenje na daljavo tako pomembno pri zagotavljanju lažjega dostopa za vse, kar je eden od najpomembnejših ciljev izobraževanja in usposabljanja nasploh. Skratka, učenje na daljavo lahko izboljša dostopnost za vse, brez diskriminacije glede na državo, regijo, socialni položaj, starost ali spol. Učenje na daljavo pa bistveno zmanjša tudi stroške za ponudnika in udeleženca. Torej učenje na daljavo omogoča tudi večjo personalizacijo študija, saj je manj uniformno in bolj prilagojeno potrebam in potencialom študenta. S tem pa prispevamo k večji učinkovitosti in k zmanjšanju osipa, ki je v Evropi še vedno velik problem.

Proces digitalizacije je nezadržen tudi v edukaciji, še posebej pri učenju na daljavo. V tem kontekstu je zelo pomembna tudi pomoč Evropske unije pri razvoju enotne in prijazne digitalne platforme oz. digitalne učilnice. Danes v svetu obstajajo odprte univerze, ki združujejo takšne digitalne učilnice po sto tisoč udeležencev iz več deset držav sveta. Tudi v Uniji bi morali hitreje prevzemati dobre prakse, ki so že uveljavljene v svetu.

In še zadnji stavek. Pravzaprav govori to poročilo o prihodnosti edukacije z dveh pomembnih vidikov: če hočemo ekonomijo, ki temelji na znanju in posledično družbo znanja, se morajo šolski sistemi v državah članicah nujno odpreti za nove izzive.

 
  
 

Interventions à la demande

 
  
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  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE). – Paní předsedající, já bych chtěla poděkovat panu zpravodaji jednak za předložení zprávy a také za velmi podrobné a fundované zdůvodnění zde na plénu. Jak řekl, distanční a další vzdělávání je prostě příležitostí, kterou zatím nevyužíváme dostatečně.

Tato zpráva připomíná velmi rychlé změny na trhu práce, v podstatě od roku 2025 můžeme předpokládat, že téměř polovina všech pracovních míst v Evropské unii bude potřebovat vysokoškolské vzdělání, téměř čtyřicet procent bude vyžadovat střední vzdělání a pouze jedenáct procent bude s nízkým vzděláním nebo bez kvalifikace. Jde tedy o rozvoj lidského kapitálu, který bychom měli touto cestou podpořit. Je to také příležitost k rozvoji univerzit. Na úrovni Evropské unie navrhujeme lepší sdílení zkušeností a zvýšení srovnatelnosti kvalifikací, větší flexibilitu těchto programů a také přípravu a rozvoj učitelů.

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, per effetto della trasformazione digitale i sistemi d'istruzione si trovano a dover affrontare sfide significative, e la formazione accademica continua e a distanza apporta un contributo significativo alla formazione. Tale tipo di formazione deve diventare parte integrante della strategia europea per l'apprendimento permanente; di fatto rappresenta un possibile approccio nel contesto della formazione accademica continua, che può contribuire a garantire un equilibrio tra studio, vita professionale e vita privata.

Secondo recenti stime appena un quarto degli alunni, in Europa, ha insegnanti in possesso di un'adeguata familiarità con gli strumenti digitali. È evidente che ogni strategia in materia debba fare i conti innanzitutto con questo divario digitale. Né va però messo in secondo piano l'aspetto qualitativo dell'insegnamento: l'esigenza di garantire standard elevati nella formazione a distanza e l'importanza di sviluppare nuovi modelli d'insegnamento e di apprendimento devono essere considerati parte del processo di innovazione e della graduale digitalizzazione dell'istruzione.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, η εκπαίδευση και η κατάρτιση είναι πάρα πολύ σημαντικοί παράγοντες για την ίδια την κοινωνική και οικονομική αλλαγή. Ταυτόχρονα, στηρίζουν την ίδια την αναπτυξιακή διαδικασία. Μάλιστα, η δια βίου μάθηση, σε συνδυασμό με την εξ αποστάσεως κατάρτιση, αποτελούν σημαντικά εργαλεία προκειμένου να εφοδιαστούν οι γυναίκες με δεξιότητες και έτσι να έχουν την ευκαιρία να επιστρέψουν στην ίδια την απασχόληση και να βελτιώσουν τις δυνατότητές τους κατά τη διαδικασία της εργασίας. Μάλιστα, η εξ αποστάσεως εκπαίδευση είναι σημαντική και για τα άτομα με ειδικές ανάγκες, τα οποία δεν είναι εύκολο να μετακινηθούν. Ταυτόχρονα, η εκπαιδευτική διαδικασία, η οποία είναι προσαρμοσμένη στις ανάγκες των ίδιων των μαθητών, συμβάλλει στο να αντιμετωπιστεί το φαινόμενο της εγκατάλειψης του σχολείου. Επιπλέον, θα πρέπει να υπάρξουν διαδικασίες για τη στήριξη των δεξιοτήτων των ίδιων των εκπαιδευτών και, τέλος, θα πρέπει να βρούμε ένα σύστημα το οποίο να συμβάλλει στην αναγνώριση των επαγγελματικών προσόντων σε επίπεδο Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης.

 
  
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  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE). – Gospođo predsjednice, danas nam tehnologije omogućavaju gotovo sve, pogotovo kada govorimo o digitalnim tehnologijama, stvaranjem digitalnih platformi, što je jako dobro prepoznato u ovom izvješću gospodina Zvera, koji ide za tim da ukaže na sve što je važno za cjeloživotno učenje i učenje na daljinu. Pogotovo moram podržati činjenicu prepoznavanja osoba s osobnim potrebama.

Ono što bih htio istaknuti na jedan drugi način je upravo potreba povezivanja europskih sveučilišta. Imamo vrlo zanimljive, dobre programe povezivanja, ali mislim da su oni još uvijek nedovoljni. Istaknut ću dobar primjer povezivanja sveučilišta na Jadranu koje je poznato kao ADRION, gdje sveučilišta međusobno surađuju, razmjenjuju programe, profesore i studente, ali mislim da upravo stvaranjem konkretnih digitalnih platformi između raznih sveučilišta, suradnjom sveučilišta, možemo postići zajednički još veću kvalitetu.

 
  
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  Miguel Viegas (GUE/NGL). – Senhora Presidente, a digitalização representa um processo imparável na sociedade. Como é evidente, esta realidade representa um desafio crucial com o ensino universitário e a formação profissional. Neste sentido, importa, no entanto, sublinhar que, apesar destes avanços, uma parte significativa da população não tem ainda acesso a estas tecnologias.

Importa, também, referir que existem ainda barreiras económicas que condicionam o acesso à tecnologia, ou promovem um acesso diferenciado entre cidadãos. Mas, acima de tudo, queremos aqui sublinhar que, não obstante sermos favoráveis ao avanço tecnológico em geral e ao digital em particular, há que criar um modelo que coloque esses avanços ao serviço da humanidade e não ao serviço de uns poucos oligopólios.

Infelizmente, a realidade demonstra que a digitalização da economia tem alimentado a precariedade no trabalho. A digitalização do ensino pode ajudar, mas não pode substituir a presença do professor, nem alimentar despedimentos em massa e mais exploração e, sobretudo, não pode substituir o papel do Estado em garantir o acesso de todos os cidadãos ao ensino universitário em condições de igualdade.

 
  
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  Davor Škrlec (Verts/ALE). – Gospođo predsjednice, pozdravljam izvješće kolege Zvera i smatram da su u njemu dane sve ključne činjenice koje trebaju potaknuti i Komisiju i države članice na uspješno implementiranje novog moderniziranog sustava obrazovanja, sustava cjeloživotnog učenja i obrazovanja na daljinu. Globalna konkurentnost Europske unije neće se mjeriti samo u tome koliko će biti uspješno digitalizirana naša industrija, digitaliziran naš promet, digitalizirana energetika, nego kako će uspješno biti digitaliziran obrazovni sustav.

Ne samo što to treba biti na razini sveučilišta, to treba biti na razini struke, treba pomoći u tome da je obrazovanje prisutno u našim udaljenim planinskim krajevima, otocima, gdje ljudi često nemaju prilike putovati na kopno i sudjelovati u svojem cjeloživotnom obrazovanju koje je jako važno za njihovu prekvalifikaciju i nalaženje pozicije na tržište rada.

 
  
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  Seán Kelly (PPE). – Madam President, I think my colleague Mr Zver, the rapporteur, ticked all the boxes in relation to this very important topic. Indeed, I remember when I came here first as an MEP in 2009, I was struck by the emphasis, in the Committee on Culture and Education in particular, on lifelong learning. It is a concept that is well established now and recognised by almost everybody: you just have to keep on learning to keep up to speed. You could be an expert today, but should you not keep up to speed on what is happening in your chosen area, you could be out of date tomorrow. I think that distance learning and technological improvements, etc., are a major challenge, not just to individuals, but also to third-level institutions, to be able to provide the expertise that is needed to keep up with what is happening in the world. I also think it is very important that emphasis is put on people with disabilities and people from the lower socio-economic areas. Everybody is entitled to education, and everybody is entitled to have lifelong learning.

 
  
 

(Fin des interventions à la demande)

 
  
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  Miguel Arias Cañete, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, thank you for giving me the opportunity to comment on this draft resolution, which is very much in line with the Commission’s own policy and strategy.

On 30 May, we published an education package, which contains actions spanning from early childhood education and care to higher education, and which includes a strong focus on both digital and lifelong learning. The package takes account of developments and issues that have a direct impact on education – such as globalisation, digitalisation, diversity and exclusion – and considers how best to support people of all ages in developing the skills that they will need to thrive both personally and professionally. Many of the actions are very relevant to the recommendations in the draft resolution.

The Commission Communication on ‘School development and excellent teaching for a great start in life’ starts from the assumption that high-quality education for all will help Europe achieve its economic and social objectives while fostering the personal and professional developments of European citizens.

I would like to thank you for highlighting the importance of Erasmus+ and Horizon 2020 for enhancing lifelong learning, and for the call to bridge technological gaps between educational institutions across Europe and to connect schools to ultra-fast Internet, thus addressing the digital divide and ensuring equal opportunities for all students.

I would also like to thank you for your acknowledgment in your report of the work done through the eTwinning and School Education Gateway platforms. In order to improve learning outcomes, inclusiveness and equity in school education, the Commission plans to further promote participation in those online platforms.

Further actions planned of particular relevance include a digital capacity self-assessment tool based on the Digital Competence Framework and called ‘Selfie’, which enables schools in the European Union, on a voluntary basis, to self-evaluate where they stand in relation to common criteria on the effective use of technologies for digital age learning, and how they can further improve. In addition, through Erasmus+, we will support improvements in school-level education in science, technologies, engineering and maths by promoting best practice in developing links and cooperation between higher education, research, businesses and schools at European Union level.

I would also like to highlight three initiatives within our renewed European Union agenda for higher education that are relevant to your draft resolution.

We will develop and implement a digital readiness model to help higher education institutions, their staff and students to implement digital learning strategies and exploit the potential of technology.

We will provide support through Erasmus+ for higher education teachers, doctoral candidates and postdoctoral graduates to develop pedagogical and curriculum design skills, including in digital learning.

Also through Erasmus+, we will promote the development and testing of flexible and modular course design.

Let me also mention the Commission’s support for research and innovation projects under Horizon 2020, developing ICT applications for education and training, making learning more effective, engaging and collaborative.

We are also conscious of the importance of youth work in supporting young people from disadvantaged backgrounds in developing digital skills and competences. The Commission welcomes, therefore, the reference to recognising competences gained outside the formal education system.

Last but not least, we should emphasise the important role of Erasmus+ and Horizon 2020 in supporting innovation in all sectors of education, and for people of all ages.

For the next three years (2018-2020) Erasmus+ will implement the ‘Digital Opportunity Scheme’, supporting internships to develop digital skills. Through our Horizon 2020 stakeholders, as well as through the Digital Skills and Jobs Coalition, we have been mobilising companies to offer more internships in this field, strengthening Europe’s innovation capacity.

One of the EU’s most successful programmes, Erasmus+ contributes to promoting growth and jobs, developing skills and promoting European values and social cohesion. Over the last 30 years, it has had an impact on the personal and professional lives of more than nine million participants, within and outside Europe. Among others, it funds eTwinning, promoting cooperation between schools through distance learning.

There are clear and strong messages at the highest political level regarding the crucial role of Erasmus+ in supporting the goals of the Rome Declaration, specifically ‘a Union where young people receive the best education and training and can study and find jobs across the continent’.

The recommendations within this draft resolution will provide us with much inspiration in our continued work to provide the best possible support to people of all ages on their lifelong learning journey.

 
  
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  La Présidente. – Le point est clos.

Le vote aura lieu mardi, le 12 septembre 2017.

Déclarations écrites (article 162)

 
  
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  Dominique Bilde (ENF), par écrit. – Ce rapport était l’occasion de mettre tout le monde d’accord. Qui peut nier le besoin de davantage permettre la formation à distance à l’aide du numérique ? Personne. Mais comme trop souvent, la thématique de la proposition a été kidnappée pour servir des fins idéologiques. Pourquoi y introduire les questions de genre ? Pourquoi tant de mesures à l’égard des réfugiés quand on attend de véritables propositions pour la majorité de la population ? Pourquoi autant dicter aux États leurs politiques éducatives alors que cela relève de leurs compétences ? Est-ce si dur de porter une analyse juste sur la situation générale et de proposer des solutions pour tous ? À quoi me sert que mon couvreur me dise comment doit être ma porte d’entrée ? De quel droit peut-il demander à ce que je change mon intérieur ? Manifestement, il est impossible pour certains de se mettre en quête du bien commun. Alors qu’ils devraient travailler à trouver des solutions pour les citoyens, ils dépensent toute leur énergie dans la lutte pour leurs combats personnels. C’est ainsi qu’ils créent de nouveaux problèmes au lieu de les résoudre. Ils avancent leurs pions pendant que les citoyens attendent.

 
  
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  Antanas Guoga (PPE), in writing. – I want to thank the rapporteur for this own-initiative report. The topic of e-learning is very important in Europe. It gives a lot of opportunities to people, regardless of their age, sex or social status. Easier access to education should be the standard universally applied, but in practice that is not the case, unfortunately. For example, it is hard for poorer people to obtain access to education. Working mothers might face difficulties juggling their family responsibilities, work and education. Furthermore, people with specific needs finds it hard to participate in traditional education. That is why I see e-learning as an optimal solution which can make access to education much better and more efficient, as well as reduce the social gap between different classes of societies in Member States. I believe that e-learning will become the new traditional form of education due to digitalisation of all spheres of our lives.

 
  
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  Bogdan Brunon Wenta (PPE), in writing. – I would like to thank Mr Zver for his work on this report. Lifelong learning is not only a mandatory part of every human life, but it is highly integrated into our traditional educational system. Since it is imperative by today’s standards to hone ones knowledge, experience and skills, the educational system has to acknowledge rapid changes in circumstances and adapt accordingly. Poor access to education can be a cause for uncompetitive workforces, social exclusion and even violent radicalisation. With the help of e-learning and distance education, even people who cannot access classical education because of insufficient funds, disabilities or other hindering factors are not being excluded from the learning process. Increasing unemployment rate in Europe could be held in check and dropout rates from schools may shrink if these new methods of education were properly implemented and access to them was ensured. Further and distance education framework in Europe should be built upon a cooperation of the Member states also in the area of digital skills. More teachers need to be acquainted with digital competences and an EU-wide online platform to exchange good practices should be created.

 
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