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Četvrtak, 14. rujna 2017. - Strasbourg Revidirano izdanje

5.1. Kambodža, posebice slučaj Kema Sokhe
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  Die Präsidentin. – Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die Aussprache über sechs Entschließungsanträge zuKambodscha: insbesondere der Fall von Kem Sokha (2017/2829(RSP)).

 
  
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  Barbara Lochbihler, Verfasserin. – Frau Präsidentin! Seit den Kommunalwahlen im Juni hat es schwere Rückschritte beim Menschenrechtsschutz und beim Demokratisierungsprozess in Kambodscha gegeben. Die Situation eskalierte im August mit der Verhaftung des Oppositionsführers Kem Sokha, mit Attacken gegen unabhängige Medien und auf die Zivilgesellschaft. Diese Entwicklungen müssen vor dem Hintergrund der im Juli 2018 anstehenden Wahlen gesehen werden. Es ist zu befürchten, dass sich die Situation noch weiter verschlechtert. Ohne größeren internationalen Druck und Widerstand wird es auf Seiten der kambodschanischen Regierung bald keine Toleranz mehr für kritische Meinungen, für demokratische Debatten und für Menschen, die ihre Grundrechte verteidigen, geben.

Die EU muss konsequent und mit hoher Aufmerksamkeit die erheblichen Menschenrechtsverletzungen adressieren. Die EU unterstützt die kambodschanische Regierung durch Handelsvorteile. Sollten die Repressionen anhalten, muss die EU ihre Handelsbeziehungen mit Kambodscha überdenken.

 
  
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  David Martin, author. – Madam President, sadly in recent months we have seen a serious deterioration in human rights in the South—East Asia region, reflected by the fact that we have three urgencies on these countries in this session.

Cambodia sadly is no exception. Given Cambodia’s tragic recent past, it is particularly concerning to see fundamental values such as democracy, the rule of law and freedom of expression all under attack in that country. I urge the Cambodians to release political prisoners, to ensure that political parties – and the opposition in particular – have space to campaign and operate in advance of the 2018 elections in that country, in the hope that we can have fair and free elections in Cambodia. We should remind Cambodia that we are a significant partner of theirs. We are giving them EUR 400 million between 2014 and 2020. We give them trade preferences. We do that because we are a community of values who wish to promote values in that country, and I hope they will respect that.

 
  
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  Marie-Christine Vergiat, auteure. – Madame la Présidente, le Cambodge fait partie de ces pays pour lesquels ce Parlement européen dénonce régulièrement les violations des droits de l’homme. À juste titre d’ailleurs, car les choses y évoluent très mal, nous l’avons déjà dit. Pourtant, attachée à l’indivisibilité des droits de l’homme, j’aimerais que nous dénoncions toutes les violations des droits de l’homme aussi fermement et que nous ayons la même préoccupation pour les droits économiques et sociaux que pour les droits civils et politiques.

Au Cambodge, sur lit de corruption, l’accaparement des terres fait des ravages et les multinationales, notamment européennes, s’en donnent à cœur joie: 56 % des terres accaparées et 830 000 personnes concernées. La Cour pénale internationale a été saisie. Cela provoque d’énormes déplacements de populations et aggrave la misère dans une région du monde qui n’a pas besoin de cela. Le cas de Tep Vanny est un bel exemple de la répression qui pèse sur ceux qui dénoncent tout cela.

Lutter contre les causes profondes des migrations, c’est aussi cela, notamment dans cette région du monde la plus concernée par les déplacements de populations.

 
  
  

PRZEWODNICTWO: RYSZARD CZARNECKI
Wiceprzewodniczący

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς, Συντάκτης. – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, το πολιτικό κλίμα στην Καμπότζη επιδεινώνεται. Οι διώξεις κατά της αντιπολίτευσης και κατά των ακτιβιστών και των μέσων μαζικής ενημέρωσης είναι στην ημερήσια διάταξη. Έχουμε επίσης καταδίκες αυθαίρετες. Επομένως, αυτό που συμβαίνει είναι απαράδεκτο και μάλιστα επιδεινώνεται όταν έχουμε δημόσιες δηλώσεις του πρωθυπουργού σε εκκρεμείς δίκες και με αυτόν τον τρόπο θεωρούμε ότι γίνεται παρέμβαση στα θέματα της Δικαιοσύνης. Πρέπει λοιπόν να σταματήσουν οι συλλήψεις, πρέπει να λειτουργήσει ουσιαστικά το πολιτικό σύστημα, πρέπει η κυβέρνηση να εγγυηθεί το κράτος δικαίου, την ελευθερία του συνεταιρίζεσθαι και την ελεύθερη λειτουργία των μέσων μαζικής ενημέρωσης.

Ταυτόχρονα, πρέπει να σταματήσει η αρπαγή γης. Το 56% της γης έχει ουσιαστικά κατασχεθεί, έχει δημευθεί, έχει καταστεί αντικείμενο διαδικασίας αρπαγής. Αρπαγή βεβαίως έχουμε σε πάρα πολλές χώρες και είναι απαράδεκτο. Πρέπει λοιπόν η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση να στείλει ένα μήνυμα προς την Καμπότζη. Δεν μπορεί να συνεχίζεται η προτιμησιακή εμπορική συμφωνία με την Καμπότζη, να υπάρχουν αυτά τα προνόμια και, από την άλλη πλευρά, η Καμπότζη να μην τηρεί τα ανθρώπινα δικαιώματα.

 
  
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  Petras Auštrevičius, author. – Mr President, first of all let me express my warmest greetings to the Cambodian opposition delegation, which is today here with us in the Chamber. I wish to thank you personally for your fight for pluralism and democracy in Cambodia for so many years.

What is going on in Cambodia recently makes us increasingly concerned. Instead of seizing an opportunity that is given by the upcoming elections in 2018, instead of choosing a path of reconciliation, respect for human dignity and basic rights, and instead of taking measures to reduce corruption and poverty, we observe repressions against the independent media, civil society and opposition. All this must be stopped immediately. Kem Sokha and other political prisoners must be instantly released, and Sam Rainsy unconditionally pardoned. After decades and decades of enormous suffering, there is so much to do for enduring peace, real reconciliation and better lives in Cambodia.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 162(8)).

 
  
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  Ramon Tremosa i Balcells (ALDE), blue-card question. – I just want to ask my colleague from Lithuania, Mr Petras Auštrevičius, if he agrees with the fact that the EU could send an official mission next year to the election of Cambodia, as we have been always giving money to this country to improve their political situation.

 
  
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  Petras Auštrevičius (ALDE), blue-card answer. – This is a very current issue. Indeed, we had no observation mission in the recent municipal elections, but for the general elections in 2018 I hope that, with the close cooperation of the external service and our delegation support in Phnom Penh, we will be present observing these elections in order to ensure, as much as possible, transparency and accountability.

 
  
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  Tunne Kelam, author. – Mr President, I would like to say to the High Representative that I join my colleague Petras Auštrevičius in supporting his view on the observation mission and greeting the Cambodian opposition here, because their presence today is very important. Just 11 days ago, opposition leader Kem Sokha was arrested and is facing charges of treason. We are very much concerned that Cambodia has experienced no democratic change of government in 30 years, and that many opposition leaders have been imprisoned, now including two MPs.

Our second concern is the muzzling of the independent media: only 10 days ago, the Cambodian Daily was forced to close due to high tax bills, and in recent weeks a number of radio stations were closed. So we call on the government to provide, before next year’s parliamentary elections, a fair democratic space for opposition so that elections could really reflect the will of the majority of the Cambodian population.

 
  
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  Stanislav Polčák, za skupinu PPE. – Pane předsedající, já bych chtěl rovněž pozdravit zástupce kambodžské opozice, kteří jsou dnes zde s námi.

Zatčení vůdce opozice a jeho obvinění pro velezradu a špionáž je skutečně mimořádný akt. Soud v Phnompenhu řekl, že je to obvinění z konspirace s cizinci. Takto vágní a neodůvodněné obvinění je, podle mého názoru, nebývalé. Pokud odůvodnění pronese dlouholetý premiér tohoto státu, pan Hun Sen, a řekne, že je to tajné spiknutí se Spojenými státy americkými, tak si myslím, že v tu chvíli takovýto postoj naplňuje postoje proti právnímu státu. Myslím si, že to je věc, kterou bychom měli jednoznačně odsoudit.

My poskytujeme pomoc Kambodži, měli bychom dát jasně najevo, že se nám tento postup nelíbí, že není možné tímto způsobem ovlivňovat politickou volební soutěž. Požadavek na vyslání pozorovatelské mise chci jednoznačně podpořit.

 
  
 

Zgłoszenia z sali

 
  
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  Jiří Pospíšil (PPE). – Pane předsedající, já chci podpořit to usnesení, o kterém zde dnes budeme hlasovat, protože situace v Kambodži se opravdu výrazně zhoršuje. To je třeba si uvědomit. Režim premiéra Hun Sena nikdy nebyl demokratický, nikdy se neblížil principům právního státu, jak to vnímáme my v Evropě a ta situace je čím dál horší.

Uvěznění vůdce opozice v polovině tohoto měsíce, což je ta aktualita, o které hovořím, je opravdu asi zatím vrcholem toho, co Hun Sen předvedl. Chci pouze konstatovat, že on sám 11. září pohrozil tím, že rozpustí hlavní opoziční stranu, to znamená, že tam ještě hrozí, že před volbami příští rok může být hlavní opoziční strana rozpuštěna a tím budou ty volby zcela zkreslené.

Je opravdu dobré, aby se Evropská unie postavila do role pozorovatele a jednoznačně více monitorovala to, jak volby příští rok v Kambodži proběhnou, protože já se velmi obávám toho, že pokud budou rozpuštěny opoziční strany, tak ta situace se klasickým demokratickým volbám nebude ani zdaleka blížit.

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, in primis desidero salutare e assolutamente invitare i leader dell'opposizione cambogiana presenti oggi a continuare la loro battaglia, a non arrendersi di fronte alle scelte antidemocratiche poste in essere dal regime di Hun Sen. È un paese a cui sono molto legato, avendo vissuto anche nella casa della Cambogia alla cité universitaire di Parigi.

L'accusa di tradimento nei confronti del leader dell'opposizione Kem Sokha è l'ennesimo arresto di esponenti dell'opposizione nel paese mentre, nel frattempo, il bavaglio nei confronti dei media indipendenti continua a essere sempre più stretto.

Denunciamo anche i fenomeni di accaparramento dei terreni in questo momento incentivati dal governo e reiteriamo il nostro appello affinché cambi totalmente il clima nei confronti dell'opposizione e nei confronti della società civile per permettere che le future elezioni politiche si svolgano in modo democratico.

Invitiamo infine l'Alto rappresentante e il SEAE a valutare, se ce ne saranno le condizioni, di inviare una missione di osservazione affinché possa essere d'incoraggiamento nei confronti dell'opposizione cambogiana, non solo a presentarsi, ma a credere che un futuro per il proprio paese sia effettivamente possibile.

 
  
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  José Inácio Faria (PPE). – Senhor Presidente, no início deste mês, o líder opositor cambojano Kem Sokha foi detido de forma arbitrária e em claro desrespeito da sua imunidade parlamentar. Dois dias depois foi formalmente acusado de traição por um tribunal de Phnom Penh e pode incorrer numa pena de 15 a 30 anos de prisão efetiva. Esta detenção é o culminar de semanas de tensão política que levaram à expulsão do Camboja da ONG americana National Democratic Institute e ao encerramento de 19 emissões de rádio e de uma das poucas vozes independentes da imprensa escrita, o jornal Cambodia Daily.

O que a condenação de Kem Sokha representa é mais uma inaceitável tentativa de neutralização da liderança da principal força política da oposição, o Partido de Resgate Nacional, cujos bons resultados eleitorais nas eleições municipais do passado mês de junho fazem agora o regime de Hun Sen temer que as eleições parlamentares de julho do próximo ano representem o fim do poder que desde 1985 detém naquele país do sudoeste asiático.

Caros Colegas, esta casa não pode deixar de condenar a detenção de Kem Sokha e apelar às autoridades cambojanas para a sua imediata libertação, bem como para o respeito das liberdades fundamentais e das mais elementares regras do jogo democrático.

 
  
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  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE). – Pane předsedající, já se chci také připojit k hlasům, které odsuzují zatčení a věznění opozičního předáka Kema Sokhy a útoky proti jeho straně, celkové utahování šroubů médií a neziskových organizací. Kambodžská národní strana záchrany, která je předmětem útoků, razí politiku odklonu od Číny a příklonu k západnímu liberálnímu modelu. Proto je také Číně i premiérovi nepohodlná.

Premiér Hun Sen, který v zemi vládne již přes třicet let, svoji zemi zavádí zpět k diktatuře. Kambodža je země s velkým potenciálem, ale také velmi pohnutou historií, zejména v době tyranie Rudých Khmerů. Přeji si, aby lidé v této zemi žili svobodně a mohli se plnohodnotně rozvíjet. Naše usnesení by mělo podpořit demokratickou opozici a její předáky zde zdravím.

 
  
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  Bogdan Brunon Wenta (PPE). – Panie Przewodniczący! Koleżanki i koledzy przedstawili już trudną sytuację Kambodży, problemy opozycji, jak i ich lidera Kema Sokhy. Sądzę, że akty aresztowań i przemocy są spowodowane także wzrostem poparcia dla ugrupowań opozycyjnych podczas ostatnich, czerwcowych wyborów lokalnych. Nowe poprawki do ustawy o partiach politycznych i stowarzyszeniach pokazują formy łamania podstawowych praw człowieka.

Chciałbym także nadmienić, tak jak tu kolega już wspomniał, o jeszcze jednym elemencie, bardzo ważnym dla ludności wiejskiej, z perspektywy uprawiania trzciny cukrowej na wielkich plantacjach przez wielkie firmy za przyzwoleniem rządu – to jest zwykły land grabbing i przejmowanie gruntów użytkowanych tradycyjnie przez tych mieszkańców bez zapewnienia odpowiedniej rekompensaty, co skutkuje utratą głównego źródła utrzymania tej najuboższej części społeczeństwa. Dlatego rząd Kambodży musi respektować prawa człowieka, w tym zapisane w konstytucji zasady pluralizmu, wolności słowa i stowarzyszeń, które są podstawowym warunkiem umowy o współpracy między Kambodżą a Unią Europejską.

 
  
 

(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)

 
  
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  Federica Mogherini, Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Mr President, last week, indeed, was a very sad week for Cambodia’s fragile democracy, a sad week for the freedom of the press – as many of you have said – and a sad week for the people of Cambodia.

The arrest of the opposition leader, Kem Sokha, on 3 September and the closure of the Cambodia Daily the day after add to a long list of very serious developments in the country. These include continued restrictions on the freedom of expression, the closure of radio stations, arrests of members of the main opposition party and civil society actors. It is clear that this is a dangerous political escalation. These events suggest a further effort to restrict the space for democratic debate, independent media and civil society ahead of next year’s general elections. The continued use of judicial processes against opposition politicians and NGO figures is widely seen as politically motivated. On our side, as you have recognised, the European Union has called on the authorities to release Kem Sokha immediately. Earlier this year we made our voice heard very clearly when Cambodia amended the law on political parties twice to introduce provisions that would potentially allow for arbitrary dissolution of political parties. Such actions against opposition parties would cast a shadow on the July 2018 elections and ultimately call into question the very legitimacy of the vote.

With regard to the elections, the European Union has provided support worth EUR 10 million to electoral reform, primarily through an improved voter registration process. We have worked closely with the Cambodian National Election Committee in support of electoral reform, mainly through an improved voter registration process. Our support has also included technical support on legal and civic education aspects and support to domestic election observation and monitoring of election-related violence. We will monitor closely the updates of the voters’ list that began on 1 September.

We also deployed an EU election expert mission to Cambodia to follow the local elections last June. The EU delegation, to which some of you have referred, in close coordination with EU embassies and like-minded members of the international community, sent diplomatic observers to polling stations on election day. We have continuously urged the Cambodian authorities to take all necessary steps to ensure the conditions for credible, transparent and inclusive elections whose results will command the confidence of Cambodia’s voters.

The EU has also expressed deep concern over the adoption by the Cambodian Parliament of amendments, as I said, to the law on political parties, and I have heard your considerations on the possibility of sending a fully-fledged EU election observation mission to the next political elections. If the political situation is conducive to a credible election process and if invited by the government, the European Union would be ready to consider the deployment of an EU election observation mission for the national elections due to be held in July next year. I believe that political developments in the coming weeks and months will be a key factor in assessing our possible deployment.

The European Union and its Member States, on another issue that is also important: I have been proud to support the reconstruction and the development of the country from the very beginning. We have an important envelope of development cooperation with Cambodia that is embedded in a multi-annual cooperation programme for the period 2014-2020. All our programmes are implemented subject to close monitoring and on the basis of political and policy dialogue with the government. The respect of human rights, democratic principles and the rule of law are fundamental elements in our development policy and are closely monitored in this context. Our development cooperation with Cambodia is long term, and I have to tell you very clearly that any consideration regarding the possible suspension of cooperation would have to be carefully evaluated in terms of its impact, especially on the poor and vulnerable population, on people’s livelihoods and on better access for children to schools. These are the first priority in helping the Cambodian people. A large part of Cambodia’s population is still very vulnerable, and we will continue to closely monitor the situation and to use our development cooperation to improve the situation of the population.

Cambodia has also been granted access to the European markets under the Everything But Arms scheme, which has served as an important driver of the country’s economic growth. You might be surprised that, despite our geographical distance, the European Union is today Cambodia’s biggest export market. But we also believe, as I said, that there can be no sustainable development with no human rights and no democratic guarantees, so we are using, and will continue to use, all the available channels to ask, and work, for a substantial change in the current political trends. The European Union is ready to continue to work with Cambodia towards a consolidation of its democracy and an equitable economic growth, but we look to the authorities of the country to take all the necessary steps to ensure that all political parties, civil society and the media can carry out their activities without fear, as should be the case in any functioning democracy.

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. – Zamykam debatę.

Głosowanie odbędzie się dzisiaj po debacie.

Oświadczenia pisemne (art. 162)

 
  
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  Miguel Viegas (GUE/NGL), por escrito. – Num momento em que se discute o Camboja, Laos e outros assuntos, Salah Hamouri, ativista palestiniano de 32 anos, foi preso a 23 de agosto pela União Israelita na sua residência de Jerusalém e condenado por um tribunal militar a uma pena de prisão administrativa de 6 meses, passível de ser renovada indefinidamente sem qualquer motivo. Esta situação afeta hoje centenas de milhares de palestinianos. Salah Hamouri passou já 7 anos nas prisões israelitas por um “delito de intenção” relacionado com uma tentativa nunca provada de assassinar um líder religioso de extrema-direita e de pertencer à Frente Popular de Libertação da Palestina. Esta condenação administrativa baseia-se num dossier secreto inacessível aos advogados de defesa e decorre de uma decisão direta do ministro da defesa de Israel, Avigdor Liberman, conhecido pelas suas declarações racistas, anti árabes e anti palestinianas. Refira-se que a esposa de Salah Hamouri, juntamente com o filho de ambos foi e está impedida de entrar em Jerusalém. Só a passividade da UE e dos Estados Unidos permite que Israel prossiga na sua política de sabotagem do processo de paz, massacrando a população palestiniana e comprometendo a criação de um estado independente de acordo com as resoluções da ONU.

 
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