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Procédure : 2016/2242(INI)
Cycle de vie en séance
Cycle relatif au document : A8-0296/2017

Textes déposés :

A8-0296/2017

Débats :

PV 23/10/2017 - 21
CRE 23/10/2017 - 21

Votes :

PV 24/10/2017 - 5.5
Explications de votes

Textes adoptés :

P8_TA(2017)0390

Débats
Lundi 23 octobre 2017 - Strasbourg Edition révisée

21. Contrôle des dépenses et suivi du rapport coût-efficacité des systèmes de garantie pour la jeunesse de l'UE (brève présentation)
Vidéo des interventions
PV
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  President. – The next item is the report by Derek Vaughan, on behalf of the Committee on Budgetary Control, on control of spending and monitoring of EU Youth Guarantee schemes’ cost-effectiveness (2016/2242(INI)) (A8—0296/2017).

 
  
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  Derek Vaughan, rapporteur. – Mr President, youth unemployment has been one of the scandals of our time. Some of the youth unemployment rates in some Member States have been an absolute disgrace. Therefore, I am pleased that the EU has done its part to tackle this scandal through the Youth Guarantee Scheme and the Youth Employment Initiative. Between 2013 and 2017 youth unemployment has come down from 23.8% to 16.6%.

I am pleased that the EU has put his money where its mouth is. I am pleased we have put more money into the programmes to allow us to tackle this issue. I am also pleased that the programme was front-loaded and pre-financing was increased in order to tackle the problem when it was at its worst. I am also pleased that the EU has now agreed to extend the Youth Employment Initiative up until at least 2020. So all that is good.

However, more needs to be done. The programmes got off to a slow start. They were introduced quickly. Many Member States did not have the capacity or the structures to put in place the programmes, and it therefore got off to a slow start and youth unemployment still remains high. It is currently around 18%.

Therefore, I would urge Member States not to use EU funds to replace their own funds and programmes, but I would urge Member States to use their own funds to tackle youth unemployment, and not just rely on funds coming from the European Union. I would also urge Member States, companies and trainers to ensure they are offering a good-quality opportunity to young people and not just use them as cheap labour, as we have seen so often in the past.

On implementation and monitoring, because after all this is a Committee on Budgetary Control report, I want to say I am concerned that there is sparse data on the output and results of the programmes. Better systems need to be put in place so that the results can be properly measured. We need to know how effective and efficient these programmes are. I would also like to see better market analysis so relevant opportunities can be offered to young people. We want opportunities which would benefit young people, but also benefit the economy.

Finally, hopefully we will see an evaluation coming from the Commission soon on these important programmes. This will allow us to make adjustments to improve implementation of these programmes even further. As I said at the start, these programmes have been worthwhile. They have made a huge difference but there is still much to do.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye procedure

 
  
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  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE). – Pane předsedající, nezaměstnanost mladých je velmi vážné téma, je tedy naší povinností se tím zabývat. Podle nejaktuálnějších statistik Eurostatu se nezaměstnanost výrazně snížila. V srpnu 2017 bylo mladých do 25 let v Evropské unii 16,7 %, a to je skutečně pokles.

Věřím, že k tomu přispělo také právě čerpání z Evropského sociálního fondu, které pomohlo nalézt práci mnoha mladým nezaměstnaným. Je ale alarmující, že třeba v Řecku, ve Španělsku, v Itálii stále ta procenta dosahují čtyřiceti, třiceti procent. Nezaměstnanost mladých má obrovské negativní dopady na ekonomiku, ale i na samotné mladé lidi. Samozřejmě, hrozí zde jejich frustrace, radikalizace a každý mladý člověk, který nemůže nalézt práci, nás musí zajímat. Proto podporuji pokračování a zefektivnění těchto záruk za mladé.

 
  
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  Csaba Sógor (PPE). – Mr President, youth unemployment is a particularly worrying phenomenon. From the perspective of the wider economy it can have long-lasting effects on productivity and growth. From the perspective of individuals it can have the effect of excluding young people from the labour market for an extended period of time, which in turn can affect their job prospects for life.

Considering that youth unemployment in the EU reached an alarming high of 23.8% in 2013, I am convinced that we were right to prioritise this particular segment of the labour market. I also believe that the recent fall in unemployment rates was due in part to the Youth Guarantee, its success depending on national factors such as implementation capacity.

Although reduced, the youth unemployment rate still remains a concern that needs our particular attention. At the same time, however, we should not lose sight of the issue of general unemployment and the structural reforms needed to efficiently deal with it.

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, nell'ambito del piano europeo per la lotta alla disoccupazione giovanile, la "Garanzia per i giovani" ha l'obiettivo di finanziare politiche attive di orientamento, formazione e inserimento nel mercato del lavoro per i giovani inattivi.

Si tratta dunque di obiettivi fondamentali, considerando che il tasso di disoccupazione medio nell'Unione europea è del 17,8 %, con picchi del 45 % in Grecia, del 41,5 % in Spagna e del 35 % in Italia. La Corte dei conti europea, nella relazione sull'impatto delle politiche europee sulla disoccupazione giovanile, ha tuttavia evidenziato che in molti paesi il programma non ha assicurato l'effettivo inserimento dei giovani nel mondo del lavoro.

Per quanto riguarda l'Italia, già in passato ho segnalato la persistenza di criticità in talune regioni, con ritardi medi nei pagamenti intorno ai 64 giorni, anche se il dato che preoccupa di più è però quello sull'efficacia complessiva del programma, ossia l'impatto sulla disoccupazione giovanile nei singoli Stati. A fronte del 64 % in Irlanda e del 90 % in Francia, in Italia solo il 31 % dei giovani coinvolti ha trovato un'occupazione.

Vanno dunque definite strategie chiare e adeguate per correggere...

(Il Presidente interrompe l'oratore.)

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). –Κύριε Πρόεδρε, τα ποσοστά ανεργίας των νέων είναι τεράστια στην Ευρώπη, αλλά κυρίως στον ευρωπαϊκό Νότο. Πρωταθλήτρια, δυστυχώς, είναι η Ελλάδα με 45% κι αυτό κυρίως λόγω των μνημονιακών πολιτικών που έχουν επιβληθεί. Φυσικά υπάρχει και μετανάστευση των νέων. Πεντακόσιες χιλιάδες νέοι από την Ελλάδα έχουν αναγκαστεί, ακριβώς λόγω της σκληρής μνημονιακής πολιτικής, να μεταναστεύσουν. Είναι δεδομένο ότι χρειάζεται στήριξη του προγράμματος «Εγγυήσεις για τη νεολαία», καθώς επίσης και «Πρωτοβουλία για την απασχόληση των νέων». Οι «Εγγυήσεις για τη νεολαία» απαιτούν 50 δισεκατομμύρια ευρώ. Τι ποσά όμως διατίθενται, κύριε Αβραμόπουλε; Ψίχουλα. Απαιτούνται πολύ μεγαλύτερα ποσά, αν θέλουμε να αντιμετωπίσουμε πραγματικά τα προβλήματα της ανεργίας των νέων κι όλα αυτά σε μια φάση που ο κύριος Draghi έχει μέχρι στιγμής δαπανήσει 1,7 τρισεκατομμύρια ευρώ στην ποσοτική χαλάρωση. Επομένως, απαιτούνται τεράστια ποσά για να αντιμετωπιστεί η ανεργία των νέων και φυσικά εγκατάλειψη της πολιτικής της λιτότητας και της βίαιης δημοσιονομικής προσαρμογής.

 
  
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  Ruža Tomašić (ECR). – Gospodine predsjedniče, program Jamstvo za mlade dao je određene rezultate, pogotovo u državama članicama koje su se teško oporavljale od krize i u kojima je nezaposlenost mladih godinama bila na rekordnoj razini.

Izvjestitelj je dobro prepoznao izazove s kojima se program danas susreće, a rješenje bi moglo biti u prilagodbi preporučenih mjera lokalnom kontekstu uz veće uključivanje predstavnika poslodavaca i obrazovnih institucija s velikim lokalnim ili regionalnim utjecajem.

Smatram kako Jamstvo za mlade ima budućnost, ali pozivi na dodatna izdvajanja iz nacionalnih proračuna mogli bi se pokazati kontraproduktivnima. Budemo li poslodavcima uzimali više novca kroz poreze kako bismo financirali ovaj program, smanjit ćemo njihovu sposobnost rasta i zapošljavanja i tako ograničiti uspješnost samog programa. Nemojmo upasti u tu zamku.

 
  
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  Arne Gericke (ECR). – Herr Präsident, liebe Kolleginnen, liebe Kollegen! Thema EU-Jugendstrategie: Was haben wir dazu für tolle Sonntagsreden gehört. Leider sieht die Realität anders aus.

Folgendes hatte Europa versprochen: Die Jugendgarantie stellt sicher, dass allen jungen Menschen ohne Arbeit binnen vier Monaten eine Arbeitsstelle oder ein Praktikumsplatz beschafft wird. Dafür investieren wir insgesamt 6,5 Mrd. Euro. Wären wir hier kein Parlament, sondern ein Unternehmen, hätten viele von uns die Kündigung in der Hand.

Das sagt der Europäische Rechnungshof dazu, ich zitiere: „Mitte 2016 waren in der EU vier Millionen junger Menschen arbeitslos. Die politischen Entscheidungsträger sollten dafür sorgen, dass keine Erwartungen geweckt werden, die nicht erfüllt werden können.“

Als siebenfacher Vater erinnere ich immer gern an das achte Gebot: Du sollst nicht lügen. Mein Wunsch: Seien wir ehrlich zu den Leuten, dann steigt auch die Glaubwürdigkeit unserer Politik! Europa kann vieles, aber nicht alles lösen. Vielleicht erreichen wir sogar mehr, wenn wir weniger versprechen.

 
  
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  Bronis Ropė (Verts/ALE). – Gerbiamas Pirmininke, jaunimo nedarbas yra senas reiškinys. Ir dalis Europos Sąjungos valstybių narių jau daugelį metų susiduria su nepaprastai aukštu jo lygiu. Tai kelia ne tik dideles socialines problemas, bet yra ir labai nuostolinga ekonomiškai. Lietuvoje dėl nedirbančių, nesimokančių ir mokyklose nedalyvaujančių jaunų žmonių 2008 m. buvo prarandama 0,7 proc. BVP, o jau 2011 m. – 1,1 proc.

Todėl labai svarbus yra Europos Sąjungos jaunimo garantinių iniciatyvų išlaidų kontrolė ir nuolatinė ekonominė vaisingumo stebėsena, savavališkai teikiant rekomendacijas ir konsultacijas kiekvienai paramos gavėjų grupei, kartu nustatant ir valstybės narės finansinio indėlio dalį. Manau, vieningai sutariama, kad jaunimo nedarbo mažinimo projektai, net ir trumpalaikiai, yra veiksmingi. Tyrimai rodo, jog trumpalaikis jaunimo užimtumas kur kas padidina tikimybę susirasti darbo ateityje.

 
  
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  Marco Valli (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, nel mio paese la disoccupazione giovanile arriva quasi al 37 %, secondo gli ultimi dati, e la disoccupazione giovanile in Sicilia, una regione che abbiamo visitato proprio per controllare come venivano spesi i fondi della Garanzia per i giovani, arriva a un vergognoso 57 %. Capite come siano dati impressionanti e la cosa più impressionante, che ci ha impressionato e ha impressionato anche la Corte dei conti europea, è che la politica in questa regione non è stata in grado di mettere insieme un sistema di pagamenti efficiente. I giovani sono andati molto spesso a lavorare e hanno ricevuto i pagamenti dopo mesi.

Questa è una vergogna, una vergogna che si può ribaltare, assolutamente, mandando via certi partiti. E assolutamente bisogna anche invertire, però, le politiche di austerità, perché capite che se non aiutiamo anche le imprese a creare domanda e a creare posti di lavoro duraturi non riusciremo mai a uscire da questo circolo vizioso della crisi. Quindi, da una parte liberiamoci dai partiti e dall'altra liberiamoci dall'austerità per creare domanda e posti di lavoro duraturi.

 
  
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  Κωνσταντίνος Παπαδάκης (NI). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, προκαλούν οι πανηγυρισμοί της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης και της κυβέρνησης ΣΥΡΙΖΑ-ΑΝΕΛ για τη δήθεν πτώση της ανεργίας. Με ταχυδακτυλουργίες βαφτίζουν ανέργους ως μη ενεργά αναζητούντες εργασία. Μια ώρα απασχόλησης, και χωρίς αμοιβή ακόμα, αρκεί για να θεωρηθεί κάποιος εργαζόμενος, η δε εκ περιτροπής εργασία αυθαίρετα εξαιρείται της μερικής απασχόλησης. Και στην Ελλάδα, με πρωτιά στην ανεργία, το «εγγύηση για τη νεολαία» σημαίνει ολιγόμηνο διάλειμμα από την ανεργία, με 300-400 ευρώ, χωρίς συνταξιοδοτική ασφάλιση, επιδοτώντας την εργοδοσία. Ανακύκλωση δηλαδή πάμφθηνων αναλώσιμων εργατών για τους επιχειρηματικούς ομίλους, σε αντικατάσταση κιόλας παλιότερων που στέλνονται στην ανεργία. Αυτή είναι η προϋπόθεση για την καπιταλιστική ανάκαμψη, που θα πληρώσουν πανάκριβα οι εργαζόμενοι με βίο αβίωτο, είτε έχουν είτε δεν έχουν δουλειά. Κανένας άνεργος χωρίς κάλυψη, επίδομα για όλο το διάστημα της ανεργίας, σε ύψος που να μπορούν να ζήσουν οι άνεργοι με τις οικογένειές τους. Μόνη απάντηση είναι η οργάνωση της εργατικής λαϊκής πάλης, για να μπουν εμπόδια στην καπιταλιστική εργασιακή γαλέρα. Να δυναμώσει και πάλι...

(Ο Πρόεδρος διακόπτει τον ομιλητή.)

 
  
 

(End of catch-the-eye procedure)

 
  
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  Dimitris Avramopoulos, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, providing young people with better opportunities has been a top priority for the Commission. I therefore welcome Mr Vaughan’s report, which comes at the right time.

Four years into the launch of the Youth Guarantee and the Youth Employment Initiative (YEI), our efforts are now paying off. The Youth Guarantee has been an important policy driver to improve the transition of young people from education to work. Setting it up was not easy. It required commitment and political support from Member States and building new partnerships, as well as significant reforms of labour market, education and training policies.

But these efforts are now bearing fruit. Since its launch, around 18 million young people have registered and 11 million have received an offer. The youth unemployment rate decreased from a peak of 24% in January 2013 to 16.7% in August 2017. There are now two million fewer young unemployed in the European Union, and one million fewer young people who are not in employment, education or training – the so—called NEETs. The improving macroeconomic context certainly played a role, but young people have managed better on the labour market thanks to the Youth Guarantee. Public employment services have expanded their services and developed new approaches towards the hard—to—reach. Apprenticeship and traineeship reforms have taken place in many countries. The Youth Employment Initiative has directly helped at least 1.6 million young people to receive a job, training or further education.

As your report rightly points out, there are still challenges. We take due note of the European Court of Auditors’ Special Report on the impact of these two projects on youth employment. The Youth Guarantee has done a lot to shift the focus to early intervention and not registered needs, and to ensure a new focus on outreach. But addressing young people in more vulnerable situations, who face multiple barriers, remains a challenge. We are committed to helping Member States by providing financial support and policy advice to ensure that all young people can have access to these opportunities. Through the Employment and Social Innovation (EaSI) Programme we are, for example, supporting outreach and awareness—raising projects in four Member States and providing mutual learning opportunities.

Your report stresses the importance of cooperation between all partners as a crucial part of achieving this goal. Indeed, public employment services, education providers, social partners and youth organisations need to be involved so that we can reach out effectively to all young people and ensure that measures are sustainable and of high quality. Adequate investment is of course a prerequisite for achieving this.

Many of the measures of the Youth Guarantee would not have occurred without the European Union’s financial support, namely the Youth Employment Initiative and the European Social Fund. In some Member States, the Youth Employment Initiative is funding the vast majority of youth guarantee measures and has been instrumental in setting up schemes. Despite a slow start, implementation of the Youth Employment Initiative sped up between 2015 and 2016: the number of young people supported by the Youth Employment Initiative tripled. The recently agreed increase of the Youth Employment Initiative’s budget by EUR 2.14 billion will help to continue this effort, but I fully agree with you that Member States also need to invest in youth employment in order to effectively implement Youth Guarantee schemes and really reach all young people.

As regards monitoring requirements on the progress of the YEI, we have been providing guidance and requesting feedback from the Member States on data collection and monitoring. The provision of guidance will continue on a regular and ad—hoc basis. Collecting relevant information and feedback on the results on the ground is essential in order for us to be able to report on the achievement of the Youth Employment Initiative. To facilitate this dissemination of the Youth Guarantee’s results, on 26 October we are organising a Youth Guarantee Learning Forum. This will bring together Youth Guarantee policy coordinators from Member States and YEI managing authorities to disseminate good practices, take stock of the lessons learned so far and come up with proposals for the future.

 
  
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  President. – The debate is closed.

The vote will take place on Tuesday, 24 October 2017.

Written statements (Rule 162)

 
  
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  Dominique Bilde (ENF), par écrit. – Malgré son léger reflux, le chômage des jeunes reste, avec 18,8 % en 2016, à un niveau inacceptable. Il n’est, en outre, que le versant le plus visible d’une précarisation massive de la jeunesse européenne, qui hypothèque l’avenir de toute une génération et déstabilise l’équilibre socioéconomique des États concernés à travers les recettes fiscales et les systèmes de retraite, mais aussi la natalité, qui a lourdement chuté en France.

L’austérité imposée par la Commission rend illusoire tout investissement de 50,4 milliards d’euros annuels nécessaire au fonctionnement de la « Garantie pour la Jeunesse », instituée en 2013. En outre, l’absence d’une définition d’« offre de qualité » laisse la porte ouverte aux dérives associées aux mécanismes d’aide publique à l’emploi, de l’effet d’aubaine aux emplois sans perspectives. Ainsi, il est illusoire de penser que seul un mécanisme de soutien public permettrait aux quatre millions de jeunes Européens de sortir de l’ornière.

Il est impératif de traiter les causes du chômage des jeunes: d’une part, les lacunes de la formation secondaire et professionnelle et, d’autre part, la pression sur les coûts de personnel pesant sur les entreprises, soumises à une concurrence internationale impitoyable.

 
  
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  Danuta Jazłowiecka (PPE), na piśmie. – W swoim sprawozdaniu Trybunał Obrachunkowy wykazał, że we wdrażaniu unijnych programów gwarancji dla młodzieży poczyniono niewielkie postępy. Wystarczy wspomnieć, iż w całej Unii bezrobotnych jest ponad 4 miliony osób poniżej 25. roku życia. W niektórych państwach członkowskich bez pracy pozostaje aż jedna czwarta osób młodych.

W przypadku gwarancji dla młodzieży kontrolerzy Trybunału Obrachunkowego ustalili, że podstawowym źródłem niepowodzenia był brak strategii zawierających jasne cele pośrednie i końcowe. W wielu państwach członkowskich nawet nie została wystarczająco precyzyjnie określona grupa docelowa. Tym samym utrudnione było dotarcie do wszystkich osób potrzebujących oferty zatrudnienia, dalszego kształcenia lub praktyki zawodowej. Często też nie zbierano danych umożliwiających pomiar realizacji zgłoszonych rezultatów. Funkcjonowanie programów nie spełniło oczekiwań Komisji, ale przede wszystkim zawiodło osoby młode znajdujące się w trudnej sytuacji.

Konieczne jest więc wyciągnięcie wniosków z dotychczasowej praktyki i zastanowienie się nad tym, jak podnieść efektywność tych programów. Na pewno należy dokonać całościowego przeglądu kosztów związanych z gwarancjami dla młodzieży i dostosować programy do dostępnych środków finansowych. Ponadto Komisja powinna zadbać o to, aby państwa członkowskie uzasadniały, w jaki sposób finansowane przez Unię działania na rzecz zatrudnienia młodzieży będą odpowiadać na istniejące potrzeby. Zmiany te powinny zostać szybko dokonane, ponieważ nie możemy pozwolić sobie na zmarnowanie kolejnych lat.

 
  
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  Henna Virkkunen (PPE), kirjallinen. – Vaikka Euroopan unionin työttömyysaste on nyt alhaisimmillaan sitten vuoden 2008, pitkittynyt talouskriisi näkyy vielä liian monen nuoren elämässä ja tulevaisuuden mahdollisuuksissa. Paras vastaus nuorisotyöttömyyteen on osaaminen ja koulutus. Koulutus ehkäisee työttömyyttä tehokkaimmin. Kaikissa Euroopan unionin jäsenmaissa on edelleen parannettava sekä perusopetuksen laatua että jatkokoulutusmahdollisuuksia. Kyse on koko Euroopan kasvusta ja tulevaisuuden kilpailukyvystä. Meillä on ratkottavana yhteisiä haasteita, kuten työvoiman ikääntyminen, ammattitaidon puutteet, teknologian kehitys ja globaali kilpailu. Lisääntynyt kansainvälinen kilpailu sekä digitalisaation ja robotisaation eteneminen tarkoittaa isoja muutoksia työelämässä. Koulutuksen on tarjottava jokaiselle nuorelle riittävä perusosaaminen ja valmiudet, mutta vähintään yhtä tärkeää on mahdollistaa osaamisen päivittäminen työuran aikana. On tärkeää, ettei yksikään nuori jää tyhjän päälle, vaan pääsee nopeasti kiinni oppimiseen tai työhön. Nuorisotakuun ja nuorisotyöttömyyden vähentämisen toteutumiseksi tarvitaan vielä monissa maissa jäykkien koulutusjärjestelmien ja työmarkkinoiden uudistuksia. Jäsenmailta tarvitaan tehokkuutta nuorisotakuutoimissa ja niiden seurannassa. Investoiminen nuoriin ja koulutukseen on avain Euroopan parempaan tulevaisuuteen.

 
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