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Procedura : 2017/0017(COD)
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Dokument w ramach procedury : A8-0258/2017

Teksty złożone :

A8-0258/2017

Debaty :

PV 11/09/2017 - 20
CRE 11/09/2017 - 20
PV 11/12/2017 - 18
CRE 11/12/2017 - 18

Głosowanie :

PV 13/09/2017 - 9.7
CRE 13/09/2017 - 9.7
Wyjaśnienia do głosowania
PV 12/12/2017 - 5.3
Wyjaśnienia do głosowania

Teksty przyjęte :

P8_TA(2017)0338
P8_TA(2017)0477

Debaty
Poniedziałek, 11 grudnia 2017 r. - Strasburg Wersja poprawiona

18. Unijny system handlu uprawnieniami do emisji (EU ETS): kontynuowanie obecnego ograniczenia zakresu działalności lotniczej i przygotowanie do wdrożenia globalnego środka rynkowego od 2021 r. (debata)
zapis wideo wystąpień
PV
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  Der Präsident. – Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die Aussprache über den Bericht von Julie Girling im Namen des Ausschusses für Umweltfragen, öffentliche Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit über den Vorschlag für eine Verordnung des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates zur Änderung der Richtlinie 2003/87/EG zur Aufrechterhaltung der derzeitigen Einschränkung ihrer Anwendung auf Luftverkehrstätigkeiten und zur Vorbereitung der Umsetzung eines globalen marktbasierten Mechanismus ab 2021 (COM(2017)0054 - C8-0028/2017 - 2017/0017(COD)) (A8-0258/2017).

 
  
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  Julie Girling, rapporteur. – Mr President, I am pleased to be able to speak this evening in plenary on the interinstitutional agreement reached in trilogue in October under the Estonian Presidency. Aviation accounts for approximately 2.1% of global CO2 emissions. In the EU, direct CO2 emissions from aviation account for approximately 3% of the total.

This might not sound like very much, but when you think about the anticipated growth in air traffic emissions – by 2050 they are expected to be seven to ten times higher than in 1990, according to ICAO – these projections are really quite scary. We need to take very strong action.

Clearly such a growth is unsustainable and necessitates a policy response. We must work hard over the next few years to ensure we are on track to reach our climate ambitions under the Paris Agreement. In the European Parliament, we have taken the view that we must reduce the carbon impact of the growth of air travel. We all know the history of ‘stop the clock’, so I do not intend to repeat that, but I do want to emphasise the European Parliament’s commitment to continuing to work with ICAO to ensure the next few years deliver what they must: carbon reductions in line with our Paris commitments.

Since the proposal was made by DG CLIMA in 2017, earlier this year, we have moved at a fast pace in Parliament in order to reach an agreement with Council by the end of this year. From the publication of my draft report in May, I have fully supported the Commission’s approach that we await the progress on the GMBM. I did, however, make some additional calls, and I am glad to say we reached a satisfactory agreement during the trilogue negotiations.

The most important addition is the application of a time limit on the ‘stop the clock’ derogation. Whilst welcoming the agreement reached at international level, having an end date on this reflects Parliament’s legitimate concerns over the robust development of the GMBM and whether it would deliver on its commitment to ensure carbon-neutral growth from 2020.

At present, based on the current negotiations within ICAO, progress on the offsetting provisions appears to be slow, with some parties – China and India notably – objecting to ICAO’s role in setting the rules for the GMBM. As such, I believe it would be remiss to make a decision on the future of the ETS in support of a GMBM that is currently still vague and of an imprecise framework.

With this regulation we are effectively outsourcing all our climate action on aviation to ICAO, an organisation that routinely makes decisions behind closed doors and does not allow full participation and transparency. A time-limited derogation will maintain political pressure on the Council and Commission to develop a long-term regulatory solution. We must learn from the issues encountered with previous iterations of the legislation and provide the sector with much needed investor certainty by completing work on the GMBM’s reporting provisions and the transparency and environmental integrity of its offset registry.

With a trilogue agreement on ETS Phase 4 reached in early November, Parliament won a delegated act on the CORSIA MRV rules. We believe we should have the opportunity to assess the provisions when the time comes. The political agreement on the need for ICAO to act in full transparency and reach out to all stakeholders to inform on progress and decisions made must move from rhetoric to reality as the implementation of these measures progresses.

The trilogue agreement also safeguards the Commission’s proposal to introduce an annually declining cap from 2021 and the possibility to reassess this, with a view to increasing the percentage of allowances auctioned. With exemption lapsing on 31 December, we give ICAO time to introduce the global carbon-offsetting scheme for the sector in 2021.

 
  
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  Corina Crețu, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, honourable Members, unfortunately my colleague, Mr Arias Cañete, has been delayed by the bad weather, so I also have to represent him on this report. It is my pleasure to stand again in front of you for him and take part in your deliberations on the proposal on the European Union emission trading system for aviation.

The Commission is glad that, on 18 October, the co-legislators were able to reach an agreement on this very sensitive file. I want to express a special gratitude to the rapporteur, Ms Girling, for her excellent work. It was instrumental to reaching a swift agreement.

I would also like to thank the shadow rapporteurs for their contributions and support. It was imperative to conclude this file before the end of the year. If the amendment to this directive does not enter into force by early 2018, the full scope – covering all flights to and from third countries – will kick off again.

The agreement between this Parliament and the Council is a balanced and fair one. Firstly, the deal ensure the continuation of the European Union ETS for intra-European flights beyond 2017. From 2021, the European Union ETS for aviation will be strengthened through the application of the 2.2% yearly emissions reduction.

We are also committed to assessing how the sector passes its carbon costs onto its customers, with a view to increasing the auctioning share in the next review.

Secondly, the Commission will report regularly to the European Parliament and the Council on international developments, notably on the implementation of CORSIA, carbon offsetting and a reduction scheme for international aviation.

We know that a lot of work is still needed to make CORSIA operational by 2021. Its rule book is being negotiated now and we have to remain vigilant. It is clear that we still have some challenges ahead before we can say that we have a robust and effective global scheme delivering what it is supposed to deliver.

We also have to watch out to see whether and how our partners will translate these international measures into the concrete operationalisation of CORSIA rests on domestic action.

As agreed, the Commission will submit a new proposal to amend the ETS Directive, with the aim of implementing CORSIA in a way that is consistent with our climate target.

Finally the text agreed by the co-legislators contains an empowerment to adopt delegated acts on monitoring, reporting and verification of the emissions, and this is in order for the European Union to be able to implement CORSIA in that regard.

Honourable Members, in our view the agreed text strikes a good balance between the leadership we should continue to have by addressing aviation emissions, the reinforced European Union ETS, and the responsiveness of European Union policies to international developments, notably the expected operationalisation of the scheme based on the assessment of their robustness and their effectiveness, which you asked the Commission to produce. I am confident it can get wide support in the European Parliament so that the legislation can enter into force early next year as planned.

 
  
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  Werner Langen, Verfasser der Stellungnahme des mitberatenden Ausschusses für Industrie, Forschung und Energie. – Herr Präsident! Die Vorlage stammt vom 3. Februar 2017, das Parlament hat am 13. September seine Stellungnahme verabschiedet, und unter der Federführung der Kollegin Girling ist jetzt die Einigung erzielt worden, die auch im Rat angenommen wurde.

Meine Aufgabe ist es, die Stellungnahme des Industrieausschusses kurz zu erläutern. Wir sind mit dem Vorschlag der Kommission von Anfang an im Wesentlichen einverstanden gewesen. Wir haben den eingeschränkten Anwendungsbereich befürwortet, wir haben die Ausnahmen für nicht gewerbliche Luftfahrzeugbetreiber mit jährlichen Gesamtemissionen von weniger als 1 000 Tonnen CO2 befürwortet, und wir haben die Kommission aufgefordert, die Entwicklung des globalen marktbasierten Mechanismus CORSIA voranzutreiben. Womit sich der Ausschuss nicht befasst hat, das ist ein Punkt der Einigung: Vorbehaltlich dieser Überprüfung wird der lineare Reduktionsfaktor auch für den Luftverkehrssektor eingeführt. Damit sind wir aber einverstanden. Der Bericht wurde mit 51 gegen 5 Stimmen angenommen.

 
  
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  Seb Dance, im Namen der S&D-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Ich kann nicht für die EVP sprechen.

I could try. Aviation is the largest, fastest—growing sector when it comes to CO2 emissions. It is not the biggest contributor on its own, but as the fastest—growing sector, it is incumbent on us to take action on it. It would make a mockery of the Paris Accord were we not to do so.

The ICAO scheme, CORSIA, which will commit to carbon—neutral growth by 2020, is of course a very welcome step forward. Actually I have a grudging respect and admiration – a genuine admiration in fact – for ICAO, the work that they do and the fact that they have adapted to the needs to tackle climate change. You look surprised, Bas, but it is true. The admiration is real. But of course we cannot rely solely on these processes, because we know that they are not transparent and we do not know what the final result will be.

But the Commission and the Council both started this process by saying they wanted indefinite exemptions for international flights from the ETS. This would of course give a blank cheque, and it is frankly an absurd idea, given that we do not know what the outcome of the ICAO process will be. So the deal of putting a limit on the exemption to 2023 is an excellent step, and this Parliament should congratulate itself on having ensured that. I pay tribute, as ever, to the work of the rapporteur, Ms Girling, for helping to secure that, as well as the work of all the other groups that supported her.

It is not only the right thing to do: it also puts pressure on ICAO to deliver a CORSIA package that would be ambitious and would prevent the European Union from placing international flights under the ETS. It is obviously not in ICAO’s interests to do so, and we would therefore want them to be as ambitious as possible. However, it is essential that this process is transparent. The Aarhus Convention obliges signatories to grant access to the public to information, participation and access to justice. This process is opaque and is in contravention of these principles.

One final point: there is an amendment saying that there should be protection for UK companies for the ETS scheme against UK companies dumping. My appeal to the UK Government is to just commit now to being in the ETS. We know what the outcome of phase one means. It means that the UK will be in the single market and the customs union, barring miracles. Commit now and you remove...

(The President cut off the speaker)

 
  
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  Mark Demesmaeker, namens de ECR-Fractie. – De luchtvaartsector is goed voor ruim 2% van de globale CO2-uitstoot, vergelijkbaar met de totale uitstoot van een land zoals Duitsland. De uitstoot neemt bovendien ook toe. Om de doelen van het klimaatakkoord van Parijs te bereiken moeten alle sectoren een inspanning leveren, dus ook de luchtvaartsector. Vluchten binnen Europa vallen sinds 2012 onder het Europees emissiehandelssysteem. Voor internationale vluchten geldt nog altijd die uitzondering op de regel. Met de voorliggende tekst verlengen we die uitzondering een allerlaatste keer. Zo geven we het globale ICAO-akkoord alle kansen op slagen, maar een blanco cheque schrijven we niet uit. Door de duidelijke einddatum voor de uitzondering voor internationale vluchten houden we de druk op de ketel van ICAO en een stok achter de deur.

Ik wilde collega Girling van harte feliciteren met haar doordachte aanpak. De NVA-delegatie zal het akkoord voluit steunen.

 
  
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  Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, let me start by congratulating Julie Girling for this wonderful result and I can only wish to have the same kind of result this Wednesday when we have the final trilogue on the effort sharing regulation.

I’m particularly happy with the time limited derogation. We had to fight for that very strongly and I’m very happy that that was part of the general compromise in the end. Last month, once again in Montreal, ICAO showed how important it is that we have at least one instrument to keep pressure on the ICAO process when the ICAO council decided to take over only two of the 12 sustainability criteria for biofuels that their own environment committee had proposed.

It’s a very, very weak outcome of the sustainability criteria for biofuels and the same might happen with the offsetting criteria that are being set by ICAO. It’s very strange that an organisation like ICAO, which does not have any real knowledge about this, is dealing itself in the criteria for offsets.

At the same time, in the EU with the ETS we’ve had a very bad experience with offsetting, with huge windfall profits being made and almost destroying our system. So I’m very happy that we are keeping pressure on them by emphasising the transparency that will be asked for by all European institutions.

Finally, Mr President, I would like to emphasise the need for further technological breakthroughs. In the end it’s the only way to limit CO2 emissions from the aviation sector. Only through electronic or hydrogen aeroplanes can we fight this fight against climate change through aviation.

 
  
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  Kateřina Konečná, za skupinu GUE/NGL. – Pane předsedající, také mně dovolte poděkovat kolegyni Julii Girlingové, která se stala jakýmsi ambasadorem všech reforem ETS v tomto parlamentu. Myslím si, že je dobře, že na těch věcech dělají ti lidé společně, protože my jsme to letectví díky vlivu mezinárodních organizací museli dostat mimo.

Ale na druhou stranu je třeba říci, že nám patří do celého systému, na který se připravujeme a který se, pevně věřím, podaří v nejbližší době dokončit tak, abychom emise neomezovali jenom u těch, které máme nejblíže, ale abychom se je snažili omezovat i tam, kde nám v tom bohužel neustále brání i například některé mezinárodní organizace tak, jak je to v ICAO, ale jak je to také i v IMO v rámci emisí z lodní dopravy. Tam narážíme na úplně stejný odpor, kde nechtějí být přístupní tomu, abychom se bavili o tom, jak to udělat jinak.

My jako GUE/NGL určitě se zapojením letectví do systému ETS a postihováním jeho globálních emisí souhlasíme a považujeme to za zcela nezbytné. Stávající omezení musí platit a chápu, že se na to sektor musí patřičně připravit. Na druhou stranu si uvědomme, jakým způsobem se chováme k evropskému sektoru v rámci systému obchodování s emisními povolenkami a kolik času dáváme těm nadnárodním korporacím a společnostem k tomu, aby se přizpůsobovaly. Já bych si přála, abychom zařídili rovnost a zároveň bych si dovolila říct, že my tento dokument samozřejmě podpoříme, ale prosím, dívejme se na to vždy globálně a v celé šíři toho spektra.

 
  
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  Bas Eickhout, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Mr President, first of all, I would like to join the choir of people thanking the rapporteur, Ms Girling, for her very good work on this file, as well as on the other file, but we will do that for next month I guess. The way in which you dealt with his file is really appreciated, as is the way in which you managed to get a broad majority in this House on board. That was a very good job on a not necessarily easy topic, so in that sense, I offer my congratulations.

So what does this deal really mean? It means that aviation for intra-EU flights will now also come under the decreasing cap of emission trading, which was not the case until now. Until now, they were part of ETS but they got a lot of free allowances and no decrease in caps. Finally, some shortage of emission allowances will hit this sector, because in the end every sector needs to play its role. Until now, aviation has been excluded. But that’s only for intra-EU flights.

Of course, for international flights outside the EU we still have an exemption and we still rely on the international organisation ICAO. First of all, I would like to stress to the Commission, which sometimes gets cold feet when making new proposals, for example on maritime and on shipping emissions, that if there is one thing that is very clear from this experience, it is that if the EU did not take a step in 2008, ICAO would never have come to the deal that they have on the table now. EU policies do influence global policies, and the Commission should not shy away from it, rather it should learn from it and step up its efforts regarding the maritime sector, because that is the only other sector still not playing any role.

But secondly, we still have to wait and see what ICAO is really going to deliver. We know that ICAO has now delivered on their principle, but many countries still said that they do not agree with the target of a neutral greenhouse gas growth path after 2020. We do not yet know how many countries will really fulfil that target.

Thirdly, they allowed for huge offsetting for themselves, and that’s why I looked a bit surprised at my colleague Seb Dance, who talked about admiration for ICAO. I think that’s a bit too early. We need to know what they’re going to deliver, and how they are going to develop their offsetting scheme is going to be key. If we had just said ‘okay, we trust the global deal and that’s it’, we would have made a very big mistake. That is why it is good that we time-limited the derogation until 2023. I would have loved to be a bit stricter, but I can live with this compromise. ICAO has until 2023 to deliver on an offsetting scheme, otherwise the EU needs to take action on its own.

 
  
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  Julia Reid, on behalf of the EFDD Group. – Mr President, less than 1.5% of global carbon dioxide emissions are attributable to international aviation, and I am sceptical that emissions from this sector will increase by 300-700 per cent by 2050 whether action is taken or not.

Imposing even more taxes on flights will not deter people from flying, so is unlikely to mitigate any impact on climate change. However, the rapporteur believes that the Commission’s implementation report on the ICAO’s market mechanism should be in line with the EU’s commitments under the Paris Agreement and should ensure that all environmental standards of the EU ETS are maintained.

To date, the ETS, in conjunction with other legislation designed to reduce emissions and increase energy costs, has had a devastating effect on heavy industries within the EU, leaving them unable to compete with countries such as China, India and the USA. Consequently, energy-intensive businesses, such as steel, aluminium and chemicals have closed, exporting jobs and investment out of the EU.

 
  
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  Isabella De Monte (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, le attività di trasporto aereo sono un'enorme fonte di emissione di gas a effetto serra, e in assenza di misure di riduzione dovrebbero quadruplicare entro il 2050 il loro livello rispetto al 2010.

Per tali ragioni, la riduzione globale delle emissioni nazionali di gas a effetto serra è un obiettivo fondamentale della politica dell'Unione europea. In tal senso il sistema ETS è uno strumento essenziale per una riduzione economicamente efficiente di tali emissioni.

Nell'attesa che l'Organizzazione mondiale dell'aviazione civile internazionale stabilisca i dettagli del meccanismo di un accordo basato sul mercato per affrontare a livello globale l'aumento delle missioni, è necessario che il Parlamento europeo e il Consiglio approvino la revisione di questo regolamento. Una celere approvazione entro la fine dell'anno permetterà di evitare, per gli operatori aerei europei, qualsiasi vuoto giuridico rispetto alla normativa ETS nell'anno in corso.

Questo garantirà certezza e chiarezza del diritto e permetterà il rispetto degli obblighi di conformità previsti dal sistema ETS dell'Unione europea relativo al trasporto aereo e la proroga della deroga fino al 31 dicembre 2023, per i voli all'esterno dello spazio economico europeo.

Infine, voglio ricordare che sarà importante la piena realizzazione del Cielo unico europeo. Ciò permetterà di evitare la frammentazione dello spazio aereo e ottimizzare il flusso del traffico, con conseguente diminuzione delle emissioni.

 
  
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  Gesine Meissner (ALDE). – Herr Präsident! Ich möchte mich auch ganz herzlich bei der Berichterstatterin bedanken.

Der Dank und das Lob kommen jetzt von allen Seiten. Ich muss sagen: So wie es vorher das Parlament verlassen hatte, war ich nicht ganz einverstanden. Das Ergebnis des Trilogs finde ich sehr gut. Es ist ja so, dass das Parlament eine Aussetzung des Luftverkehrsemissionshandels zwischen EU und den Drittstaaten sogar nur bis 2020 wollte. Ich denke mal, das wäre wirklich zu früh gewesen, denn bis 2021 soll CORSIA eingeführt werden. Ich finde es großartig, dass es bei der ICAO endlich passiert. Die ICAO loben will ich gar nicht so. Aber ich muss sagen, ich beschäftige mich seit vielen Jahren damit und ich war zuerst sehr skeptisch, ob von der ICAO überhaupt ein weltweiter Vorschlag für ein globales Emissionszertifikatssystem kommen würde.

Jetzt kommt das, und das ist sehr gut. Nun müssen wir aber auch erst mal sehen, dass es wirklich eintritt. Wir haben nämlich vorher schon 2012 gemerkt, dass die anderen sich wehren, wenn die EU versucht, sie in ein System zu zwingen, das sie nicht wollen. Ich denke mal, es ist vollkommen klar: Beim globalen Luftverkehr brauchen wir auch globale Instrumente, um das Klima weltweit zu retten.

 
  
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  Stefan Eck (GUE/NGL). – Herr Präsident, verehrte Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Zuerst einmal möchte ich der Berichterstatterin für ihren Bericht danken.

Aber ich muss auch sagen, dass das ETS die Emissionen nicht wesentlich reduziert hat. Es ist in seiner derzeitigen Ausstattung, im Hinblick auf die Klimaziele und die Kosten ineffizient. Weder in diesem Haus und schon gar nicht im Europäischen Rat gibt es derzeit den Mut und die Mehrheiten, um einen Mindestpreis für CO2-Zertifikate, zumindest temporär, festzulegen.

Ohne grundlegende Reformen halte ich das ETS geradezu für betrügerisch und ein klassisches Beispiel für ein greenwashing von umweltverschmutzenden Sektoren wie beispielsweise dem Luftverkehr. Die Luftverkehrsemissionen werden 2020 voraussichtlich um 70 % höher sein als 2005, und bis 2050 könnten sie um weitere 300 bis 700 % ansteigen. Daran wird das derzeitige System gar nichts ändern und das wissen Sie, meine Damen und Herren. Wir haben ja bald Weihnachten, und Sie könnten Ihre Wählerschaft einmal damit beschenken, dass Sie ihnen die volle Wahrheit über das ETS sagen. In diesem Sinne: Ich wünsche Ihnen allen ein frohes Fest.

 
  
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  Jakop Dalunde (Verts/ALE). – Herr talman! Medan vi talar så fortsätter utsläppen från flyget att öka, och det är dags att EU nu agerar för att vända utvecklingen och kraftigt minska utsläppen från flyget.

Flyget måste betala för sin del av klimatpåverkan precis som alla andra. Det är bra att EU nu tar ett steg framåt för att så faktiskt ska ske när det gäller flygets del av EU:s utsläppshandel.

Men det får inte stanna här. Vi måste inkludera de s.k. höghöjdseffekterna. Det skadar klimatet tre till fyra gånger mer när man släpper ut klimatpåverkande gaser uppe i luften men trots det så räknar vi utsläppen som om de vore på marken.

Vi måste också inkludera resor till och från flygplatser utanför Europa. Om man reser med flyg från Stockholm till New York eller Bangkok så betalar man i dagsläget ingenting alls för sin klimatpåverkan, och så får det faktiskt inte fortsätta.

Vi måste minska hela flygets utsläpp och till och från alla flygplatser i världen.

 
  
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  Mireille D'Ornano (EFDD). – Monsieur le Président, l’Organisation de l’aviation civile internationale (OACI), qui rassemble 191 États, a défini, depuis 2016, les objectifs et principaux éléments d’un marché mondial des émissions de CO2 issues de l'aviation internationale, pour l’après 2021. Ce programme «CORSIA» s’emploiera à stabiliser les émissions aux niveaux de 2020.

Pourtant, ce texte demande à la Commission de publier, au 1er mars 2020, un rapport jugeant de la pertinence des normes et pratiques recommandées par l’OACI, des instruments adoptés, ou encore de l'ambition et de l'intégrité environnementale du mécanisme. Il est en outre demandé à la Commission de rendre compatibles les instruments de l’OACI avec le droit de l’Union européenne, ce qui crée un écran entre les décisions de l’OACI et les États qui en sont membres.

Dans un secteur aussi sensible et concurrentiel que l’aviation, rendons-nous à l’évidence: seul un système mondial est réellement légitime, juste et efficace.

 
  
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  Tiemo Wölken (S&D). – Sehr geehrter Herr Präsident, vielen Dank! Auch ich begrüße es, dass die Internationale Zivilluftfahrt-Organisation einen Plan zur Reduktion und Kompensation von Kohlenstoff vorgelegt hat.

Wir sollten diesen aber sehr kritisch prüfen. Meine Skepsis beruht dabei auf drei Punkten. Erstens: CORSIA wird nur etwa ein Fünftel der weltweiten Klima-/Flugemissionen abdecken, denn es gilt unter anderem nicht für Inlandsflüge und auch nicht für andere Emissionen als Kohlenstoffdioxid.

Zweitens: Es ist noch nicht klar, wie die Emissionen kompensiert werden sollen. Dabei haben wir bisher weltweit schlechte Erfahrungen mit der Kompensation gemacht. Nicht umsonst dürfen EU-Mitgliedstaaten ab 2021 für ihre nationalen Klimaziele keine Kompensationsprojekte mehr nutzen.

Drittens, was ich auch hervorheben will: Eine Kompensation von Treibhausgasausstoß ist nur die zweitbeste Lösung. Wir müssen möglichst nah an das Ziel herankommen, gar keine Treibhausgase mehr auszustoßen. Daher sind aus meiner Sicht technische Lösungen besser, die den Ausstoß an der Quelle verhindern.

Um meine Standpunkte zusammenzufassen: Klimawirksame Emissionen der Luftfahrt gehen uns alle an. Die zivile Luftfahrtorganisation sollte daher ein Verfahren entwickeln, das transparent ist, und die Öffentlichkeit stärker miteinbeziehen. Insofern ist es sehr wichtig, dass gerade das Europäische Parlament diesen Plan sehr kritisch überprüfen kann. Daher werde ich dem Kommissionstext morgen zustimmen.

 
  
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  Lieve Wierinck (ALDE). – Ik denk dat we het er allemaal over eens zijn dat we in de mate van het mogelijke inspanningen moeten leveren voor het klimaat. Tegelijkertijd moeten we ervoor zorgen dat de Europese luchtvaartsector, die een belangrijk deel van onze economie uitmaakt, competitief blijft. Net omdat ik uit Zaventem kom, weet ik maar al te goed hoe belangrijk luchthavens zijn voor de lokale, maar ook voor de nationale economie. Daarom blijf ik erop hameren dat we steeds een goede balans moeten vinden tussen onze ecologische ambities en het vrijwaren van de concurrentiepositie van onze luchtvaartsector.

Het mag dan ook niet de bedoeling zijn om het gebruik van hét vervoermiddel van de 21e eeuw te verminderen. Daarom moeten we investeren in O&O die de luchtvaartsector efficiënter en groener gemaakt. Ik ben dan ook voorstander van het volgende: de inkomsten, verkregen via veiling van uitstootpakketten, moeten worden gebruikt voor het investeren in onderzoek. In navolging van het Clean Sky-programma geeft deze investering in onderzoek een competitief voordeel aan onze luchtvaartindustrie op lange termijn en vormt ze een nieuw wapen in de strijd tegen klimaatverandering.

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, le emissioni di gas a effetto serra prodotte dalle attività di trasporto aereo sono in forte aumento e, in assenza di opportuni provvedimenti, entro il 2050 potrebbero raggiungere un livello pari a quattro volte quello del 2010.

L'aumento delle emissioni nel settore dell'aviazione rischia di compromettere gli sforzi compiuti dall'Unione europea e a livello mondiale per affrontare efficacemente i cambiamenti climatici.

Anche io esprimo il mio parere favorevole al prolungamento fino al 2020 dell'attuale sistema ETS dell'Unione, che consente di ridurre le emissioni di circa 17 milioni di tonnellate di CO2 l'anno, fino a quando non vi sarà sufficiente chiarezza circa la natura e il contenuto degli strumenti giuridici adottati dall'ICAO per l'attuazione di una misura a livello globale, la cosiddetta CORSIA. Ciò significa che all'interno dello Spazio economico europeo, il settore aereo continuerà a contribuire, come ogni altro settore economico, agli sforzi volti alla riduzione delle emissioni interne.

Occorre però accelerare i lavori all'interno dell'ICAO in vista dell'effettiva adozione e applicazione di una misura globale in grado di risolvere tutti i problemi legati al traffico internazionale.

 
  
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  Dominique Riquet (ALDE). – Monsieur le Président, le problème est que nous sommes pris entre deux feux, si je puis dire: d’une part, la nécessité de répondre à l’urgence climatique et, donc, de réduire les émissions de CO2 d’un secteur qui est exclu des accords internationaux; d’autre part, l’absence de visibilité technologique pour l’avion vert et aussi l’explosion volumétrique du système aérien et du transport aérien, ainsi que le problème de la concurrence internationale pour nos compagnies aériennes, qui d’ailleurs est aussi un sujet sur la table de notre institution.

En fait, nous soutenons le message envoyé par le trilogue, qui est un message d’unité à la communauté internationale et qui va éviter toute incertitude juridique. Nous devons avoir confiance dans la mise en place d’un nouveau système fort dès 2021 pour la phase pilote. Aujourd’hui, en 2018 déjà, 72 pays ont signalé qu’ils rejoindront ce système mondial, et on s’attend à plus dès 2020. Faisons maintenant en sorte que le SEQE et le CORSIA puissent s’aligner correctement en temps voulu.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye-Verfahren

 
  
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  Franc Bogovič (PPE). – Letalstvo je najhitreje razvijajoč se sektor v prometu in že danes predstavlja izpust 1,3 % vseh C02 plinov, zato je nujno, da preprečimo, da se ne zgodi ta črn scenarij, da bi se do 2050 ti izpusti povečali še za 3 do 7 krat, kolikor so napovedi glede na rast prometa.

Evropa ne more sama rešiti tega problema, svoja prizadevanja izvaja v okviru ETS, prav tako pa v okviru Pariškega sporazuma želi k sodelovanju privabiti ostale akterje.

Veseli me, da je tudi Svetovna organizacija civilnega letalstva (ICAO) pristala in da je pripravila prve sheme, kako si ta bremena porazdeliti tudi v prihodnje, in upam in verjamem tudi, da bo zavedanje, da smo za planet odgovorni vsi, pripeljalo do tega, da bo po letu 2021 na globalnem nivoju sprejeto določilo, na osnovi katerega bodo bremena pravično razdeljena, da ne bo trpela konkurenčnost posameznih delov sveta na tem področju.

 
  
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  Tibor Szanyi (S&D). – Elnök Úr! Jómagam azokkal a képviselőtársaimmal értek egyet, akik a kutatás-fejlesztésre helyezték a hangsúlyt. És ezt szeretném egy kicsit jobban is megindokolni. Mindazok a repülőgépek, amelyeket ma a világ különböző fejlett országaiban legyártanak, ezek 15-20-25 évig is akár működésben lesznek, és ontani fogják azt a szén-dioxidot, aminek kiontására ma tulajdonképpen őket megtervezték. Ennélfogva ez egy nagyon-nagyon nehezen mozgó ágazat, és itt az elején kell megfogni tulajdonképpen a folyamatokat, és én éppen ezért gratulálok Girling asszonynak, aki nagyon elokvens módon támogatta ezt a bizonyos perspektivikus cselekményt.

Összességében tekintve azt hiszem, hogy a szén-dioxid-kibocsátás az a légi forgalomban, ami tulajdonképpen hosszabb távon akár le is tudja nullázni mindazokat az erőfeszítéseket, amelyeket más területeken, az ipar, vagy a közlekedés más területein tud hozni Európa, illetve világ, és éppen ezért kell nagyon odafigyelni. Kutatás-fejlesztés!

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, περίπου το 1,3% των παγκόσμιων εκπομπών διοξειδίου του άνθρακα προέρχεται από διεθνείς αερομεταφορές. Έτσι λοιπόν αυτό το ποσοστό, το 1,3% των παγκόσμιων εκπομπών –αυτό είναι το ακριβές ποσοστό– αναμένεται να αυξηθεί, καθώς τα επόμενα χρόνια αναμένεται και αύξηση των αερομεταφορών. Η αύξηση αυτή των εκπομπών μπορεί να φτάσει μέχρι και το 700% το 2050. Είναι προφανές λοιπόν ότι τα μέτρα που έχουν ληφθεί από τη γενική συνέλευση του Διεθνούς Οργανισμού Πολιτικής Αεροπορίας έχουν οδηγήσει, όπως γνωρίζουμε όλοι, στο σύστημα αντιστάθμισης και μείωσης ανθρακούχων εκπομπών για τις διεθνείς αερομεταφορές, το σύστημα Corsia. Το ερώτημα όμως είναι εάν αυτό το σύστημα μπορεί να εφαρμοστεί περιφερειακά, χωρίς να το τηρούν οι άλλες δυνάμεις, όπως είναι οι Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες και η Κίνα. Εάν δεν υπάρξει παγκόσμια ρύθμιση για το θέμα αυτό, δεν θα έχουμε σοβαρά αποτελέσματα.

 
  
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  Ελευθέριος Συναδινός (NI). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, το σύστημα εμπορίας δικαιωμάτων εκπομπών προσπαθεί να εξισορροπήσει το ισοζύγιο άνθρακα και των λοιπών αερίων σε συνάρτηση με το δαιδαλώδες σύστημα αεροπορικών μεταφορών. Ο κατακερματισμός όμως του ευρωπαϊκού εναέριου χώρου και η εμπορευματοποίηση των εκπομπών αερίων μέσω των πλειστηριασμών δικαιωμάτων δεν συνάδει ακριβώς με την προστασία του περιβάλλοντος ως πρωταρχικό μέλημα της Ένωσης, λαμβανομένου υπόψη ότι το περιβάλλον δεν γνωρίζει σύνορα. Επιπρόσθετα, όταν οι αεροπορικές εταιρείες που δεν επιτυγχάνουν τους στόχους σταθεροποίησης των εκπομπών λαμβάνουν πιστοποιητικά αντιστάθμισης, αυτό καταστρατηγεί έμμεσα τη βασική αρχή της Ένωσης για το περιβάλλον που είναι: «ο ρυπαίνων πληρώνει».

Οι συζητήσεις και τα ψηφίσματα για τις περιβαλλοντικές πολιτικές αποτελούν ευκαιρία διακομματικής συνεννόησης και συμφωνίας. Η περιβαλλοντική κουλτούρα και προστασία δεν πρέπει να χτίζει αριστερές πολιτικές καριέρες ούτε να μονοπωλείται από την Αριστερά και τους Πράσινους. Το περιβάλλον δεν πολιτικοποιείται. Αφορά όλους μας και ειδικά τις επερχόμενες γενεές.

 
  
 

(Ende des Catch-the-eye-Verfahrens)

 
  
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  Corina Crețu, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, I appreciate very much the support expressed by the Members of this Parliament for this legislative proposal. We are all looking forward to a positive vote on it.

I also take note of your concerns as regards International Civil Aviation Organisation, which the Commission shares. We know that this organisation should work in a more transparent manner, and we have agreed on a joint statement from the three institutions on these issues.

We are also aware that the rules being developed in the International Civil Aviation Organisation are far from securing a robust system, but we’ll have a chance to report on this and react accordingly. That is precisely one of the key elements of the legislation we are discussing today.

Let me conclude by thanking you once again on behalf of Mr Arias Cañete, who very much regrets not being here with us today. Thank you for processing this file in a swift manner and for your valuable contributions.

 
  
  

PRZEWODNICTWO: BOGUSŁAW LIBERADZKI
Wiceprzewodniczący

 
  
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  Corina Crețu, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, my colleague Věra Jourová has just informed me that she is in very heavy traffic, so I should continue with her file. However, before I continue I need a two-minute break, if it is possible.

 
  
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  President. – Very well, Madam Commissioner, maybe I will ask the rapporteur to take the floor first.

 
  
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  Corina Crețu, Member of the Commission. – Will you allow me to be absent for one minute?

 
  
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  President. – Yes, I will give you five minutes in the name of good cooperation between the Commission and Parliament.

 
  
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  Julie Girling, rapporteur. – Mr President, thank you. Thank you, Madam Commissioner, that is no problem at all with me, and I’ll be very brief anyway. I’d just like to give my final thanks to the shadows. It is rather ironic that we are here talking about an aviation item, when so many people have been unable to make what I know they saw as a very important debate, and because of aviation difficulties.

I would just like to make a couple of points: I think we all agree that aviation has to pay its way in the same way as road and rail transport do, and that the GMBM, whilst not perfect, does encompass our principles of protecting the single market and preventing unfair competition. It is the only game in town when it comes to a global measure. So we do need to stand by it, but we also need to be really, really clear that it is going to take some really careful watching.

I appeal to all of the colleagues who will be here when I will sadly not be, over the next several years, to make sure that they hold both the Commission and ICAO’s feet to the fire on this issue and that when we get reports, as we’ve seen this week, about biofuels and how ICAO have reneged on commitments made only a short time ago, that must signal alarm bells that we need to use the mechanisms laid down in this report to hold them to account.

And finally, for the record, for my colleague Mr Dance, I would like to agree with him that the UK Government should indeed signal, as soon as possible, that they intend to continue commitments under both this and the main ETS scheme. There seems absolutely no reason why they should not, and indeed I would encourage them to do so – and do – at every opportunity.

(Applause)

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. – Zamykam debatę.

Głosowanie odbędzie się we wtorek 12 grudnia 2017 r.

 
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