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Onsdag den 14. marts 2018 - Strasbourg Revideret udgave

13. Internationalt samarbejde om bekæmpelse af cyberkriminalitet - truslen mod offentlige tjenester (debat om et aktuelt spørgsmål)
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  President. – The next item is the topical debate (Rule 153a) on international cooperation in the fight against cybercrime – the threat to public services (2018/2627(RSP)).

 
  
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  Helga Stevens, Auteur. – Voorzitter, het internet is zo goed als onmisbaar geworden in zowat alle facetten van ons leven. We sturen een WhatsApp-berichtje naar een geliefde, plannen een route via Google Maps, kijken kattenvideo's op YouTube, doen online aankopen en betalingen. Kritieke infrastructuur, zoals bijvoorbeeld ziekenhuizen, kunnen niet meer functioneren zonder het internet. Kijk maar naar Eurocontrol: de communicatie van onze Europese luchtverkeersleiding maakt gebruik van dezelfde internetkabels als Facebook en Amazon.

Maar dat internet wordt ook gebruikt voor minder vrolijke zaken. Bijna dagelijks zijn er incidenten die stof leveren voor een goed filmscenario. Onlangs vergrendelden hackers bijvoorbeeld op afstand de elektronische sloten van alle kamers van een Oostenrijks hotel in ruil voor losgeld.

We zullen meer en meer geconfronteerd worden met allerlei vormen van cybercriminaliteit. Hierbij zijn helaas soms ook buitenlandse overheden betrokken. We zijn veel kwetsbaarder dan we denken. Daarom moeten nationale en Europese autoriteiten samen alles in het werk stellen om onze veiligheid online te garanderen voor vandaag, maar ook voor morgen. Wij moeten veel meer investeren in preventie, detectie en respons.

Ons wettelijk kader hebben we al versterkt. De nieuwe gegevensbeschermingsverordening zal de normen voor gegevensbescherming verhogen. Het voorstel van de Commissie inzake EU—certificering voor veilige ICT—producten eveneens. We streven bij voorkeur over de gehele lijn een hoge en internationale beveiligingsstandaard na.

Wij zullen er echter niet komen met wetgeving alleen, want die kan de razendsnelle technologische ontwikkelingen niet altijd bijbenen.

Europol, het Europese agentschap voor politiesamenwerking, zal binnenkort een expertisecentrum voor decryptie krijgen. Dat is goed nieuws. Dat moet kleinere lidstaten ondersteunen bij het kraken van versleutelde berichten. Hiermee kunnen ze cybercriminelen die anoniem proberen te blijven, sneller opsporen en aanpakken. Hiervoor krijgen ze vijf miljoen aan extra middelen van de Europese Commissie.

De nieuwe Europolbaas Catherine De Bolle verklaarde al dat de strijd tegen misdaad en terrorisme niet los kan worden gezien van de ontwikkeling en het gebruik van nieuwe technologie. Nationale overheden moeten ook beseffen dat ouderwets politiewerk hand in hand moet gaan met de omarming van technologische vernieuwing. Die bedenking geldt ook voor justitie. Terwijl criminelen de allerlaatste snufjes gebruiken, zijn politie en justitie vaak op achtervolgen aangewezen met gedateerd materiaal.

Maar we moeten ook kijken naar de burgers. Overheden moeten hen bewuster maken van de risico's van het internet, zodat ze alerter zijn voor diverse vormen van cybercriminaliteit. Ook moeten ze worden aangemoedigd om altijd een klacht in te dienen als ze het slachtoffer worden van bijvoorbeeld cyberpesten, fishing of hacking. Dat gebeurt veel te weinig, maar zonder die melding kan de politie niet in actie komen. Meldingen zijn dan ook nodig om beter zicht te krijgen op cybercriminaliteit, zodat we die gerichter kunnen aanpakken.

Tot slot wil ik erop wijzen dat gegevens een waardevol goed zijn, niet alleen voor de particuliere gebruiker die ze wenst af te schermen, maar ook voor de politiediensten. Onze politie- en inlichtingendiensten hebben toegang tot gegevens nodig om misdrijven op te sporen en terreurcomplotten op tijd te ontdekken. Een te dogmatische zienswijze op privacy verhindert de politie en het gerecht om hun werk te doen. Dat is wat ik heb vernomen tijdens mijn werkzaamheden als co—rapporteur in de Bijzondere Commissie terrorisme.

Collega's, in het belang van onze burgers moeten we een goede balans vinden tussen privacy en veiligheid. Het is geen of—of-discussie, maar een en—en-discussie. Zowel privacy als veiligheid zijn belangrijk. Politiediensten moeten hun werk kunnen doen, namelijk ons beschermen tegen terroristen en criminelen, zowel offline als online.

 
  
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  Monika Panayotova, President-in-Office of the Council. – Mr President, in 2017, internet access reached 51% of the world’s population. Devices connected to the internet reach 8.4 billion worldwide. With the number of targets expanding at such rates, cybercrime is likely to become the world’s number one threat, capable of causing serious economic damage estimated at no less than USD 6 trillion over the next two years alone.

Cybercrime and the criminal use of the internet violate privacy and human rights. They jeopardise the integrity of our data, attack the security of our critical infrastructures and seek to disrupt the provision of services vital for our security and economy. These are serious threats and they require our full and immediate attention. Already in 2013, the first EU Cybersecurity Strategy prioritised the fight against cybercrime. Since then, we have been constantly expanding the efforts we make to improve our resilience and our preparedness to counter these threats, so that citizens and businesses can fully enjoy the benefits of cyberspace.

Allow me to briefly outline some of the efforts which demonstrate the prominent place that the matter occupies on our political agenda. The ambitious Cybersecurity Package presented by the Commission on 13 September 2017 was followed by a set of Council conclusions and an action plan for their implementation. They emphasise the need to enhance the EU’s capacity to prevent, deter and respond to cyber—attacks. In this regard, they encourage the exchange of best practices, investment in cybersecurity training, awareness raising and cyber hygiene. As part of this package, the Council has also started examining the proposal for a Cybersecurity Act that addresses the need for a strong and permanent mandate for ENISA, referred to as the EU Cybersecurity Agency, and for enhancing the EU cybersecurity certification to promote the availability of secure products and services.

We are happy that the work on this file is progressing steadily in parallel with the work in Parliament. We are confident that the constructive dialogue will allow a swift closing of the negotiations and the timely adoption of the act. I would also like to recall that in September last year, the very first Digital Summit took place in Tallinn, allowing our political leaders to give strategic directions for future work in the digital domain. They confirmed the strong commitment of the European Union to fight cybercrime and the criminal use of the internet. This is part of the overall aim of making Europe a global leader in cybersecurity by 2025, in order to ensure the trust, confidence and protection of our citizens and businesses online.

Thus, it is not surprising that discussion has concentrated on the need to achieve the highest level of resilience for digital infrastructure, industries and services, to create a competitive advantage and to attract investment. This was further developed by the October 2017 European Council, which placed combating terrorism and online crime among the prerequisites for successfully building a digital Europe together with a common approach to cybersecurity.

I do not want to prolong my intervention, so I will limit myself to mentioning a number of other relevant initiatives including the EU Internal Security Strategy 2015—2020, which also prioritised the prevention of and fight against cybercrime as one of the three priorities of EU internal security. Secondly, the EU Policy Cycle, which is aimed at tackling the most important threats to the EU posed by organised and serious international crime, including cybercrime. I could also mention cyber dialogues between the European Union and key international partners, as well as cyber diplomacy on which the Council adopted conclusions in June 2017 towards a joint EU diplomatic response to malicious cyber activities.

Very positive news is that, on 9 March 2018, Ministers reached a general approach in the Council on the directive on combating fraud and counterfeiting of non-cash means of payment. The Directive aims to update the current rules to ensure that a clear robust and technology-neutral legal framework is in place. It also eliminates operational obstacles that hamper investigations and prosecutions and provides for actions to enhance public awareness of techniques such as phishing or skimming. Trilogues are now ready to start as soon as you have your mandate from Parliament’s side.

Finally, let me conclude by briefly mentioning that in May this year, we expect Member States to finalise the transposition of the 2016 NIS Directive. It is the first legislative act that seeks to achieve a high common level of security of network in the information systems within the European Union and to improve the functioning of the internal market by creating trust. Let us keep in mind that strong and trusted encryption is of high importance, not only for establishing and maintaining such trust, but also for assuring respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. Their protection, including in cyberspace, is our paramount task and joint responsibility.

 
  
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  Julian King, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, as we have heard, today it is not just computers and phones that are connected, but our homes, hospitals, governments, electricity grids, the news we read and the cars we drive. So we have to take cyber-attacks against our systems very seriously.

They can have a huge economic impact. We have heard some of the examples. Bank and credit card fraud in the eurozone alone amounts to some EUR 1.5 billion a year. Every month, one in five industrial computers are attacked. Aviation systems are subject to an average of 1 000 cyber-attacks a month.

But the threat continues to evolve and change. It is becoming more strategic. Cyber means have been used to undermine democratic institutions, to spread disinformation and to cast questions over elections. The internet of things means that tens of billions more devices are going online. This will inevitably create a huge number of extra potential vulnerabilities, and at the same time potential new tools to perform cyber-attacks. So what from the Commission side are we proposing to do about this?

First of all, we continue to support Member States in the implementation of the NIS Directive, as we have heard, ahead of the transposition deadline in May.

This will ensure operators of essential systems assess risk, prepare a strategy, and properly protect their systems. Some Member States are also extending these measures beyond the critical sectors already set out in legislation to other sectors at risk, in particular public administrations. The NIS Directive will also boost national capabilities and competence to promote the exchange of information about threats and incidents.

In parallel, we are continue the implementation of the action set out in the cybersecurity package presented last September, based around strengthening resilience, creating effective deterrents and reinforcing international cooperation. The Cyber Security Act, which this House and the Council are currently discussing, focuses on making us more resilient. It aims at giving ENISA a permanent mandate and it is setting up an EU-wide framework for cybersecurity certification systems, again as we have heard.

From the Commission side, we are convinced that a European certification process is an important step towards creating security by design. The Commission, the European Parliament and the Council have agreed that this is a priority file and it is of paramount importance that negotiations are concluded within the current mandate of Parliament.

Making us more resilient also means making sure the EU retains and develops essential capabilities to secure its digital economy infrastructure and society and democracy.

To this end, we have announced the creation of a network of European cybersecurity competence centres to reinforce capabilities across Europe and overcome the current fragmentation of research, with the cybersecurity research and competence hub at the heart of that.

The network should bring together research and expertise in cybersecurity from across the European Union and lead to the scaling-up of existing research and technological capacities in the competence centres in Member States, while making sure that research is transformed into specific products and services that will directly increase our cybersecurity.

On 1 February, the Commission launched a call for proposals for a EUR 50 million pilot project to support the creation of this network, an important step in its development. However, as we stressed in our joint communication last September, it is crucial to complement our efforts to build resilience with efforts to build effective deterrents.

We need to make sure that cybercrime does not pay. That means making it easier to detect and easier to prosecute. As long as there is little or no chance of getting caught, cybercrime will remain an all-too-attractive option for criminals and hostile governments alike. We have already proposed a directive to strengthen the ability of law enforcement authorities to combat fraud and the counterfeiting of non-cash means of payment.

To tackle barriers to prosecution, we are also working on a legislative proposal on obtaining electronic evidence for criminal investigations and prosecutions. Over the last two years we have carried out an extensive consultation process and conducted an impact assessment. This issue is complex and requires a carefully balanced approach, having an efficient instrument from law-enforcement point of view, while ensuring full respect for fundamental rights, data protection and ensuring legal certainty for business. I am confident that we will soon present a solid legislative proposal for consideration by the co-legislators.

In parallel, we are advancing work on our practical measures to simplify cooperation between judicial authorities and cooperation between our law-enforcement authorities and service providers, based on the existing legal framework. This includes cooperation inside the European Union and with our key international partners, notably the United States.

The Commission also actively participates in the ongoing preparatory work in the Council of Europe on the possible additional protocol to the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime, which will deal with cross-border access to e—evidence.

On the side of operational efforts that have been underlined, we are beefing up capacity at Europol’s Cybercrime Centre. Law-enforcement capacities need to keep pace with fast-changing technological tools and cybercriminals’ ways of working. This means more cooperation and sharing of experience and reinforced cyber-forensics and detection capabilities.

A strong cooperation framework with external partners is of the utmost importance, given the global nature of the threat. The Europol Cyber-crime centre provides technical and forensic support to a number of international investigations which have led, for instance, to the take-down last summer of two of the largest criminal dark web markets.

Aside from making ourselves more resilient and building more deterrents, we need stronger international cooperation to make cyberspace stable and secure. This is why the cybersecurity package has an important international dimension.

In order to shape this international cooperation, the EU has ongoing cyber-dialogues in place with the United States, Japan, India, South Korea, China and Brazil. Through these cyber-dialogues, the EU promotes the application of existing international law, the implementation of universal norms of responsible state behaviour, and regional cyber-confidence-building measures, as well as the international cooperation through the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime.

The dialogues allow for the enhancement of cooperation with third countries to strengthen global cyber-resilience and the multi-stakeholder model of internet governance, as well as to advance the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. They contribute to global cyber-stability, including through the exchange on responses to malicious cyber-activities that should encourage cooperation, facilitate mitigation of immediate and longer-term threats, and influence the behaviour of potential aggressors.

On all these proposals my colleagues and I are actively working with you for the speedy adoption and implementation of initiatives on the ground, and look forward to continuing this fruitful cooperation, to the benefit of all our citizens.

 
  
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  Roberta Metsola, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Mr President, let me start by thanking you, Commissioner, for your work on this issue. You will find us as a strong partner to continue to work forward on such an important subject, because the spike that we witnessed in online crimes over the last years should concern us all.

Cybercrime and criminals have become more organised, more brazen and more serious. They are using the very tools that we have created to make people’s lives easier against us. We have seen computer systems that we thought impregnable hacked. We have seen the spread of government-controlled social media trolls blur the lines between propaganda and views. There are still too many credit cards and identities stolen and far too many children remain exploited.

Tools created for the good of mankind, and which are largely used for good, are being abused, and we must respond by closing the loopholes. With the increasing number, nature and gravity of cybercrime, with the increasing prevalence of the dark net, we need more and better coordination between Member States at international level, as well as with the private sector, to protect EU citizens, companies and our critical infrastructure.

We need to ensure that our law enforcement authorities are provided with the necessary tools, resources and staff in order to effectively investigate and prosecute cybercrimes, and that this is done in full respect of fundamental rights and privacy expectations. From here, let me call on the Member States which have not yet done so, to ratify the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime – as we call it, the Budapest Convention. We have to work together and, of course, we need Europol, CEPOL, Eurojust and ENISA to be granted sufficient resources and tools in order to allow them to build the necessary capabilities to cope with the increasing workload and to continue their valuable work in the area of cybercrime.

Finally, together I know that we can find the solutions that keep people and companies secure online and respect citizens’ privacy, and go after the criminals who think that they can mask their identities.

(The President cut off the speaker)

 
  
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  Петър Курумбашев, от името на групата S&D. – Г-н Председател, първо позволете ми да поздравя инициаторите на тази дискусия – нашите колеги от ЕКР. Наистина много необходима дискусия в подходящото време. Подходящото време е, защото Европейската комисия внесе своите предложения, особено по отношение на мандата на ЕНИСА – Европейската агенция за киберсигурност. То е амбициозно, прави този мандат постоянен. От друга страна, бих казал, че може да се иска много повече.

Много съм впечатлен, че ние сме почти в парадоксалната ситуация, в която държавите членки, които са най-напред в своята киберсигурност, препятстват това Европейската агенция за киберсигурност да бъде по-силна. Имаме държави членки, които имат своите служби с 600, някои с 1000 служители в тази област. В същото време Европейската агенция за киберсигурност има 50 човека и с това предложение за удвояване на бюджета предполагам, че най-много може да стигне до 100 човека като капацитет.

От друга страна кой друг би могъл да организира отговора на европейско ниво, когато има атака, кибератака към повече държави членки? Кой, г-н Комисар, в момента е отговорен, ако ние имаме атака от типа на „Wan’a cry“ върху двадесет държави членки? Или ние ще оставим този въпрос всяка държава да го решава поединично и да се спасява поединично. Имаме в момента отделни държави членки, които имат добре развити структури, и има други държави членки, които изобщо не слагат сериозно внимание върху организирането на своите киберслужби.

Следващият въпрос, който стои, е въпросът за стандартизацията: дали европейските държави ще успеят да се споразумеят да имат свой сертификат, основан на сериозни международни стандарти, и дали този сертификат ще бъде толкова добре отворен, че ще може да бъде ползван не само в Европейския съюз, а и сред нашите партньори от Съединените Щати, Индия и други държави.

 
  
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  Monica Macovei, în numele grupului ECR. – Domnule președinte, creșterea treptată a popularității monedelor digitale a atras după sine creșterea criminalității informatice, pentru că le oferă hackerilor controlul asupra acestor conturi virtuale.

Aș vrea să mă refer la un aspect specific: la Bitcoin și la OneCoin. Bitcoin este una din acele pretinse monede digitale, care de fapt nu există, care nu este înregistrată la nicio autoritate competentă, care este promovată de fondatorii săi ca o monedă digitală ce va îmbogăți investitorii în timp, însă nu există nicio dovadă a acoperirii în bani a acestei monede virtuale. Bitcoin nu poate fi folosită, pentru că nu pot fi efectuate plăți și este doar un instrument de speculă. O schemă Ponzi folosită de companii precum OneLife Network Ltd, cu sediul în jurisdicția offshore din Belize. Dacă ne uităm pe site, vedem că e temporar închis.

Acum, OneCoin este Bitcoinul regional și este o monedă, de asemenea, care nu există. Există, de exemplu, regional în Moldova, în Bulgaria și în România - se fac investigații. Este vândut de o rețea criminală, care funcționează pe un sistem piramidal și care se numește OneLife.

 
  
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  Nathalie Griesbeck, au nom du groupe ALDE. – Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, en effet, l’internet nous offre à la fois de belles et de très nombreuses opportunités dans le quotidien, mais en même temps de violentes et de nouvelles menaces, et en particulier la menace majeure qu’est la cybercriminalité. La cybercriminalité se multiplie – les collègues l’ont rappelé – et en très grand nombre. Cela nous affecte tous, dans les services publics. Je pense à l’attaque de WannaCry qui a été un exemple qui nous a mobilisés et qui est donc à suivre en ce qui concerne la protection. Il n’y a pas de frontières pour la cybercriminalité. Quel est notre rôle?

Premièrement, face aux États membres, peut-être leur demander de mettre en œuvre très rapidement le cadre européen concernant la protection des données. Cela nous permettra de restaurer la confiance des citoyens.

Deuxièmement, sensibiliser les citoyens aux petits gestes, mais aussi à la prise de conscience de l’importance de se protéger sur l’internet et de protéger l’internet des objets à travers ce qu’on appelle la cyber-résilience et, troisièmement, doter les autorités judiciaires et répressives de capacités et de ressources économiques et humaines suffisantes pour lutter efficacement contre cette menace, notamment par l’intermédiaire du Centre européen de lutte contre la cybercriminalité d’Europol. Je salue, à cet égard, Monsieur le Commissaire, le paquet «cybersécurité», présenté par la Commission. Il convient aussi de réformer – vous l’avez dit – l’agence ENISA pour se doter en Europe d’une agence forte en matière de cyberdéfense et, enfin, de protéger nos infrastructures, nos réseaux et les contenus. À cet égard, le rôle des entreprises est majeur. Seuls, nous ne pouvons pas agir uniquement au niveau public. Les entreprises doivent confectionner des objets sécurisés, savoir évaluer, sécuriser, appréhender les vulnérabilités qui menacent les produits ou les services et aussi signaler systématiquement les cyberattaques. Il est crucial aussi de travailler au chiffrement – je sais que c’est un thème sensible – dans la confection des outils pour garantir la sécurité et l’intégrité des réseaux en respectant les libertés. Allons plus fort et plus vite ensemble!

 
  
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  Jan Philipp Albrecht, im Namen der Verts/ALE-Fraktion. – Sehr geehrter Herr Kommissar King, sehr geehrte Ratspräsidentschaft, werte Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Wir diskutieren das Thema cybercrime und Cybersicherheit ja nicht zum ersten Mal. Die Debatte hält schon einige Zeit an, wir haben in diesem Haus viele Resolutionen mit einer ganzen Reihe von Anforderungen verabschiedet. Wir haben auch viele Gesetze auf den Weg gebracht, die wichtig sind und die große Fortschritte sind. Trotzdem werden in jüngster Vergangenheit und die ganze Zeit immer wieder selbst bestgeschützte Netzwerke von Regierungsinstitutionen und Behörden gehackt, und es wird ganz offensichtlich, dass wir einen Riesennachholbedarf haben. Ich möchte einfach mal zehn Forderungen kurz zusammenfassen, wo ich glaube, dass wir wirklich endlich etwas tun müssen.

Erstens brauchen wir im Rahmen der ENISA-Reform, der gemeinsamen Verordnung zu einem cybersecurity act, verpflichtende Mindestanforderungen für IT-Produkte. Wir bekommen Jahr für Jahr auf dem europäischen Markt eine ganze Ladung von Produkten, die dem Mindestmaß an Standards für Sicherheit überhaupt nicht entsprechen. Wir haben keine solchen verpflichtenden Standards. Das muss sich ändern! Wir brauchen eine Haftung. Wenn Lücken überhaupt nicht geschlossen werden, muss klar sein, dass es auch eine Haftung gibt, die die Unternehmen trifft, die solche Lücken auf den Markt bringen. Es darf keine staatlich geförderte Unsicherheit geben. Es kann nicht sein, dass unsere Behörden Sicherheitslücken aufkaufen, um sie zu nutzen, dabei aber Lücken verschweigen und damit verhindern, dass die Infrastruktur nachgebessert wird.

Eine sichere Infrastruktur geht vor. Wir müssen Lücken erschließen statt verschweigen, und es muss auch nicht immer alles ins Internet. Ich glaube, wir müssen bei den Weiterentwicklungen von Technologie sehr darüber nachdenken, ob man wirklich alles immer mit dem Internet verbinden muss, oder ob es auch Möglichkeiten gibt, da Trennungen vorzuziehen. Außerdem müssen wir Produkte überprüfbar machen. Wir brauchen Personalprofis, die bezahlbar sind. Das sind Punkte, die wir definitiv angehen müssen. Wir brauchen eine Cyberstrategie, bei der auch die Netzkompetenz von Polizei und Justiz deutlich ausgebessert wird. Wir brauchen offene, überprüfbare Standards, die unsere Aufsichtsbehörden überprüfen können. Es ist ein Skandal, dass viele Behörden nicht einmal wissen, was in den Systemen auf ihren Rechnern passiert.

 
  
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  Jiří Maštálka, za skupinu GUE/NGL. – Pane předsedající, pojmy jako hacker a kybernetika se používají v dnešní době denně. Státy se vzájemně osočují z napadání různých internetových serverů nebo ovlivňování voleb. Někteří odborníci mluví o takzvané studené kybernetické válce. To, že kybernetických útoků neustále přibývá a s největší pravděpodobností dále bude, to je realita.

Otázka je, zda je možno se na ně účinně připravit, případně jim předcházet. Mezinárodní výměna zkušeností na tomto poli je zcela zásadní. Problematika kyberbezpečnosti je však složitá. Internet je živý organismus, který si najde svou cestu, a obávám se, že bude vždy krok napřed před námi politiky. Pravidla je třeba nastavit vyváženě, aby nedocházelo k porušování základních práv občanů, jako je svoboda slova. Ale nemůžeme připustit likvidaci svobody internetu a záměrné špiclování občanů. Regulace není totéž co cenzura. Stojí před námi obrovský úkol, na jehož konci musí být zvýšení bezpečnosti našich občanů.

 
  
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  Auke Zijlstra, namens de ENF-Fractie. – Voorzitter, slimme internetcriminelen hacken regelmatig apparatuur en zo'n hack heeft vaak grote gevolgen. De Nederlandse Tweede Kamer vroeg daarom vorig jaar aan de Nederlandse regering om het internet der dingen beter te beveiligen. Ik heb daarop onmiddellijk aan de Europese Commissie gevraagd of een dergelijke eenzijdige maar verstandige maatregel wel op die manier kan worden genomen.

En: dat verbaast u niet, dat kan dus niet. Het moet Europees. De Commissie wil als maatregel tegen hacken verdergaande censuur op internetplatforms en weer een Europees agentschap vol met ambtenaren. Dit, Voorzitter, is Brussel ten voeten uit. Het maakt niet uit hoe kostbaar of hoe slecht een oplossing is, als het maar Europees is.

Voorzitter, het is onterecht dat de lidstaten geen zelfstandige maatregelen kunnen nemen. Ook op dit gebied kunnen lidstaten beter, sneller en alerter optreden dan Brussel. Wellicht kunnen we dan nog wat internetvrijheid behouden.

 
  
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  Γεώργιος Επιτήδειος (NI). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, στις αρχές του 21ου αιώνα προστέθηκε στις απειλές που υπήρχαν μέχρι τότε στα διάφορα κράτη και άλλη μία: οι επιθέσεις στον κυβερνοχώρο. Αν και γενικά δεν υπάρχει ένας καθολικά αποδεκτός ορισμός του κυβερνοχώρου, αυτός μπορούμε να πούμε ότι αποτελείται από το σύνολο των ηλεκτρονικών υπολογιστών, των δικτύων, το διαδίκτυο, των εγκαταστάσεων και των τηλεπικοινωνιακών δυνατοτήτων ενός κράτους. Οι απειλές που είναι δυνατόν να προέλθουν στον κυβερνοχώρο είναι επιθέσεις οι οποίες έχουν ως στόχο να καταστρέψουν ή να δημιουργήσουν προβλήματα στη λειτουργία των προαναφερθέντων μέσων. Επειδή οι δυνατότητες στο διαδίκτυο είναι πολύ μεγάλες, πολλές χώρες αντιμετωπίζουν τον κυβερνοπόλεμο ως απειλή κατά της ίδιας της υπάρξεως τους και γι’ αυτό τον έχουν εντάξει και στις στρατηγικές τους προτεραιότητες. Για να μπορέσουμε να ανταποκριθούμε σε αυτές τις απαιτήσεις, πρέπει τα κράτη να φροντίσουν ώστε οι υπηρεσίες άμυνας στον κυβερνοχώρο να συνεργαστούν μεταξύ τους, να ανταλλάσσουν πληροφορίες και κυρίως να κάνουν ασκήσεις ούτως ώστε να αποκτήσουν την απαιτούμενη εμπειρία για να αντιμετωπίσουν το πρόβλημα.

 
  
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  Емил Радев (PPE). – Г-н Председател, информационните и комуникационните технологии предоставят не само възможности за развитие на обществото и икономиката, но и предизвикателства пред европейската и международната сигурност. Според редица анализи, следващата криза на сигурността ще бъде породена от използването на новите технологии като оръжие срещу критичната инфраструктура или дори за военни цели и се предполага, че ще доведе до огромни икономически и социални щети. Тук не говоря единствено за кибератаки, спонсорирани от определени държави, а за атаки дори от отделни индивиди, притежаващи уменията да нанесат вреди.

Това налага засилване на международното сътрудничество с цел преодоляване на ефекта от киберпрестъпност, кибератаки, електронен шпионаж и други. Регионални инициативи и мерки, като киберцентъра на Европол, заедно с технологичните компании, следва да задълбочат дебата в рамките на ООН за създаване на международен кодекс за поведение за държавите в киберпространството, както и да координират усилията в предотвратяването и разследването на кибератаки, включително чрез обмен на информация.

В този контекст е изключително важно колкото се може повече държави, не само от Европа, да се присъединят и ратифицират Конвенцията от Будапеща за киберпрестъпленията. А защо не дори да се започне работа по конвенция на ООН за борба срещу киберпрестъпленията. Време е да разберем, че киберпрестъпленията са реалност! Те изискват и реални контрамерки.

 
  
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  Nicola Danti (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario, le crescenti opportunità di connessione e di diffusione delle informazioni, il sempre maggiore utilizzo dei prodotti e dei servizi digitali e l'Internet delle cose hanno un impatto positivo su ogni aspetto della nostra vita quotidiana. D'altro canto espongono anche a nuovi pericoli e accrescono la vulnerabilità dei servizi pubblici, perché capaci di attraversarne confini e frontiere.

La sottrazione di dati sensibili, i casi crescenti di frodi nei pagamenti, la diffusione di materiale dal contenuto illegale e gli attacchi cyber su vasta scala, che hanno riempito le cronache dei giornali, dimostrano che le nostre società non sono ancora sufficientemente attrezzate per difendersi da questi rischi.

La direttiva NIS è stato il primo provvedimento sul tema della sicurezza informatica, con il quale ci si è posti l'obiettivo di garantire la resilienza delle infrastrutture strategiche, aumentarne il coordinamento nella prevenzione e nella risposta alle minacce cibernetiche: un passo in avanti di cui già apprezziamo i benefici, ma che non può dirsi all'altezza delle sfide a causa delle reticenze degli Stati membri.

Un anno dopo l'approvazione della direttiva sulla sicurezza delle reti, abbiamo in questi mesi un'altra occasione per irrobustire il sistema di cybersecurity, e di farlo in maniera coordinata attraverso un nuovo atto europeo su cui stiamo lavorando, che dovrà raggiungere due obiettivi ambiziosi. Il primo: il rafforzamento dell'agenzia dell'Unione europea per la cybersecurity, l'ENISA, con maggiori risorse e con poteri operativi. Il secondo: la creazione di un nuovo sistema di certificazione paneuropeo per garantire la sicurezza dei prodotti e dei servizi digitali, capace quindi di aumentare la fiducia nei consumatori che ogni giorno utilizzano beni e servizi connessi.

Solo investire in risorse e competenze in questo campo potrà far sì che il mercato unico digitale sia capace di consegnare a cittadini e imprese un sistema più sicuro e affidabile.

 
  
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  Evžen Tošenovský (ECR). – Pane předsedající, digitální systémy pronikají do všech oblastí života, včetně veřejných služeb. Stáváme se na nich závislými. Hranice mezi kritickou a nekritickou infrastrukturou je stále méně zřetelná, plně autonomní systémy a 5G sítě se již brzy stanou realitou. Ochrana proti kybernetické kriminalitě je proto zásadním úkolem a základem musí být robustní spolupráce na evropské a mezinárodní úrovni. Členské státy Evropské unie mají své profesionální systémy a postupy. Ale potřebujeme prohloubit koordinaci a výměnu informací v rámci evropského ekosystému. Budeme diskutovat roli agentury ENISA, je zde i dimenze spolupráce policejních a justičních orgánů, včetně agentur EUROPOL a EUROJUST.

Ale nelze vytvořit „pevnost Evropa“, kybernetická kriminalita nerespektuje hranice. A o to důležitější je proto mezinárodní spolupráce s našimi euroatlantickými spojenci, ale i se zeměmi, jako je Izrael nebo Jižní Korea.

 
  
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  Urmas Paet (ALDE). – Mr President, cyber security has become a part of global affairs and the threat is real, with possible lethal consequences. Imagine the consequences of a successful cyber attack on a nuclear plant, on an air-traffic control facility or on a hospital.

There are more and more network disruptions for political purposes, and various state actors have been involved in malicious cyber activities in pursuit of political, economic or security objectives, including attacks on critical infrastructure, cyber espionage and disinformation campaigns. Because of this, we need to update European cyber defence capabilities, we need more cooperation among Member States, the EU, NATO and other like-minded countries. We need to build trust. We need to train more experts in cyber defence. We need more joint exercises and we also need to improve accountability, which requires further development of a common understanding of the international law applicable to cyberspace.

The next attack might create far more damage than we have seen so far, and every future conflict can have a cyber dimension.

 
  
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  Indrek Tarand (Verts/ALE). – Mr President, let me fire my salvo. Currently intelligence agencies like the NSA have a habit of hoarding security vulnerabilities and exploits in order to gather intelligence. This means that they don’t disclose these vulnerabilities in a timely manner to the manufacturers of the affected products, who thus remain unaware and can’t immediately patch their products and services.

Unfortunately, this modus operandi relies on the hope that these vulnerabilities are not discovered in parallel by anyone else, which is not very probable, especially if enough time goes by. This in turn makes everyone vulnerable, be it to attacks from a hostile nation-state or cyber criminals.

Due to the nature of digital technologies themselves we are either all secure or none of us are.

 
  
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  Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski (PPE). – Wczoraj odbyliśmy debatę na temat wieloletnich ram finansowych. Cieszyła zgodność między Parlamentem a Komisją co do uznania bezpieczeństwa jako jednego z najważniejszych elementów właśnie tej perspektywy finansowej. Dziś rozmawiamy o cyberbezpieczeństwie. Musi ono zostać uznane za zadanie kluczowe, w innym wypadku nie odniesiemy bowiem sukcesu. Wciąż brakuje nam czasu, konsekwencji, determinacji, a zwłaszcza skuteczności w definiowaniu samego problemu.

Zwrócę uwagę na fakt, że cyberbezpieczeństwo wiąże się z atakami na programy, z zadaniami pozyskiwania informacji w sposób nieuprawniony, z rozmaitymi wirusami, również z podszywaniem się pod osoby nieuprawnione czy z kradzieżą informacji, a przede wszystkim z zagrożeniem bezpieczeństwa – bezpieczeństwa obywateli i podmiotów gospodarczych. Na co chcę zwrócić teraz największą uwagę? Jeżeli nie rozstrzygniemy, nie odniesiemy sukcesu w ochronie obywateli i podmiotów gospodarczych, bezpieczeństwo Europy zostanie poważnie zagrożone. A ono już jest poważnie zagrożone. I jeszcze jedno na koniec: nieprzerwanie uważam, że lekceważenie tej problematyki, również od strony technologicznej, sprzyja niestety przeciwnikom Europy, integracji europejskiej, a także naszemu bezpieczeństwu.

 
  
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  Miriam Dalli (S&D). – Mr President, we have been hearing today that digital technologies are an integral part of our daily life and the backbone of our economies. This makes it more crucial for the European Union to continue to equip itself with strong cybersecurity legislation, whilst investing in further research on how to protect citizens online. I believe that this is our opportunity to train young ICT experts who can combat this phenomenon and the crimes we are facing now and also the crimes of the future.

Cybersecurity is not about infrastructure alone. It is also about educating users on the risks that they will be facing in cyberspace. The matter is more urgent since a number of public services across the EU are now available online. All it takes sometimes is just a click of a button or a password that is too easy to crack. My message today to the Commission and European governments is that it is not enough to arm yourselves with unhackable infrastructure. Educate citizens to think then click, not the other way round.

 
  
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  James Nicholson (ECR). – Mr President, the European Union has rightly prioritised the issue of cybersecurity, in my opinion, for some time. Cybercrime is costing the EU citizens and businesses throughout. The Barroso Commission in 2013 said one of the strategic priorities on cybersecurity was to drastically reduce cybercrime. This remains a noble aim. But sadly, the reality is that cybercrime has grown five times within the last four years, and this is expected to grow even further in the coming years. We need to ensure our intelligence agencies and police forces across Europe have all the necessary tools and comprehensive policy framework to take on these criminals. Equally, it is vital that we continue to raise the awareness among citizens of the importance of protecting their data against viruses and malware.

While the United Kingdom will be leaving the European Union, we are not leaving Europe, and it is vital that we continue to work together, particularly on issues of security and cross-border crime. Hackers and other criminals seeking to attack us do not make a distinction between the EU and non-Member States.

 
  
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  Heinz K. Becker (PPE). – Herr Präsident, Herr Kommissar, werte Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Wir wissen längst: Die Verlagerung weiter Teile unseres Lebens in die digitale Welt macht unser Leben erfreulicherweise meist einfacher, aber gleichzeitig gefährdeter durch Terroristen und Cybercrime-Täter. Das Internet macht nicht vor Ländergrenzen Halt, daher ist die oberste Priorität die europaweite Zusammenarbeit zwischen der EU-Kommission, den EU-Mitgliedsstaaten und uns hier im Parlament. Wir zeigen hier Entschlossenheit.

Der maximale Schutz der kritischen Infrastruktur muss verhindern, was vor wenigen Wochen in Lettland passiert ist, wo das Online-Gesundheitssystem von Hackern lahmgelegt wurde. Dieser maximale Schutz muss sich auf Unternehmen, Behörden und Bürger übertragen, und wir müssen alle dafür sorgen, dass ein gezieltes Bewusstsein zu diesem Thema entsteht. Das fängt an bei den Herstellern, ebenso wie bei den Bürgern, die keinen Virenschutz haben oder nicht einmal updaten. Die Devise heißt, nicht nur die Datenwelt zu schützen, die die Verkehrssysteme, die Bahn-, Flug- und Straßenverkehr betrifft, sondern auch die Kraftwerke, Staudämme, Industriebetriebe, Spitäler, alle Behörden und so weiter. Ich glaube, wir wissen ganz genau, dass auch die Europawahlen und alle Wahlen davon betroffen sind. Daher: Europa muss handeln, jetzt!

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η καταπολέμηση του ηλεκτρονικού εγκλήματος αποτελεί άμεση αναγκαιότητα για την εμπέδωση της δημοκρατίας, της ελεύθερης κυκλοφορίας ιδεών, της προστασίας των προσωπικών δεδομένων και του σεβασμού της προσωπικότητας. Ταυτόχρονα όμως η καταπολέμηση του κυβερνοεγκλήματος πρέπει να σέβεται τα θεμελιώδη δικαιώματα των πολιτών και τις προσωπικές τους ελευθερίες. Ιδιαίτερη μορφή κυβερνοεγκλήματος είναι η διαδικτυακή παρέμβαση στο πλαίσιο προεκλογικής περιόδου σε διάφορα κράτη μέλη. Έτσι, πέραν των άλλων, δημιουργούνται ψευδή προφίλ (fake profiles) στο Facebook, προκειμένου εν συνεχεία να διενεργούνται κυβερνοεπιθέσεις με καθαρά πολιτικούς σκοπούς και στόχους. Στο πλαίσιο αυτό, πραγματοποιούνται συντονισμένες κυβερνοεπιθέσεις με στόχο την πολιτική και ηθική απαξίωση όλων όσων με την πολιτική τους δράση ενοχλούν το πολιτικό και οικονομικό κατεστημένο. Με τον τρόπο αυτό, πέραν των ποινικών αδικημάτων που λαμβάνουν χώρα γίνεται και καταπάτηση κάθε έννοιας ανοικτής και δημοκρατικής κοινωνίας, και όλα αυτά, κύριε Πρόεδρε, ενόψει των επικείμενων ευρωεκλογών.

 
  
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  Axel Voss (PPE). – Herr Präsident, sehr geehrter Herr Kommissar! Das wahre Ausmaß der Cyberangriffe, wird immer noch unterschätzt, und die wirtschaftlichen Schäden sind ja von den Kolleginnen und Kollegen auch schon entsprechend benannt worden. Die Dunkelziffer ist nur noch zu groß, und ich habe nach wie vor auch das Gefühl, wir sind im Umgang mit dem Ganzen noch zu behäbig. Das heißt, die Zeit spielt eine extreme Rolle, und wir müssen hier einfach schneller zu Rande kommen.

Das verdeutlicht letztlich auch zweierlei, auch das wurde eben schon angesprochen: Wir müssen eigentlich mehr Aufklärung betreiben, damit das auch in der Bevölkerung mehr verankert ist. Zweitens müssen wir erkennen, dass das ein globales Problem ist und wir deshalb auch die Zusammenarbeit mit den gleichgesinnten Partnern in der Welt entsprechend stärken müssen, wie wir das machen, weil die Technologie einfach die Grenzen zu sehr verwischt. Wir müssen auch stärker versuchen, hier gemeinsame Standards zu schaffen. Die Herausforderung ist nicht nur cyber crime, es ist das Internet der Dinge, es ist die unterschiedliche Gesetzgebung und es ist das menschliche Handeln.

Was brauchen wir? Wir brauchen Konzepte, eine Strategie, wie wir Cyberattacken verhindern können, eine Strategie, wie wir darauf reagieren können, wobei meines Erachtens auch ein hack back mit inkludiert sein sollte. Wir brauchen eine Strategie, wie wir unsere Systeme robuster gestalten können. Das ist das, was die Kollegen auch schon gesagt haben, wir brauchen Standards, wir brauchen die gemeinsamen Regeln, die Aufklärung, security by design, Meldepflichten, das Austarieren mit Datenschutzdingen, Übungen und die Zusammenarbeit mit anderen Staaten.

 
  
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  Jeroen Lenaers (PPE). – Voorzitter, vorige week was Rob Wainwright, de scheidend directeur van Europol, voor een laatste keer te gast bij onze Commissie burgerlijke vrijheden, justitie en binnenlandse zaken. Ik vroeg hem wat voor hem de grootste prioriteit was voor het Europese veiligheidsbeleid in de komende tijd. Hij zei zonder te aarzelen: cybersecurity. Zonder te aarzelen.

Meer dan de helft van de mensen op deze wereld is tegenwoordig verbonden met het internet. Ook het aantal apparaten dat verbonden is met het internet, dat connected is, wordt alleen maar groter. Waar je vroeger alleen met je computer en een irritant inbelmodem het internet op kon, zijn nu onze koffiezetapparaten, onze thermostaten en onze tandenborstels connected.

We gaan tegenwoordig niet meer het internet op, maar we zijn non—stop online. Dat is mooi voor het gebruiksgemak dat daarmee gepaard gaat, maar het is ook kwetsbaar. Ook dat hebben we gezien. DDoS—aanvallen, hacks om bedrijfsgegevens te stelen, verkoop van drugs en andere verboden middelen op het dark web, cyberaanvallen op kritieke infrastructuur.

Één ding is in ieder geval duidelijk: cybercriminelen laten zich niet beperken door grenzen. Een efficiënte aanpak kan zich dat dus ook niet permitteren. De richtlijn ter beveiliging van netwerk- en informatiesystemen was een belangrijke stap om de EU weerbaarder te maken. Versterking van Enisa en ontwikkeling van het keurmerk zijn belangrijke stappen, maar het is nog niet genoeg. Meer dan honderd landen beschikken momenteel over de capaciteit om digitaal te spioneren digitaal en hun professionaliteit groeit.

Mijn vraag aan de Commissie is: hoe gaan we ons daar in de komende jaren tegen wapenen?

 
  
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  Carlos Coelho (PPE). – Senhor Presidente, Senhora Presidente do Conselho, Senhor Comissário King, o cibercrime deixou de ser um risco para ser uma realidade com um impacto cada vez maior nas nossas vidas e no funcionamento das nossas comunidades.

Do agendamento da consulta médica até ao controlo da rede de distribuição de eletricidade, vivemos numa cidade interligada que obriga a uma atuação determinada, tanto a nível europeu como nacional, tanto no setor público como no privado, tanto na prevenção como no combate.

Defendemos, e nalguns casos aprovámos já, o reforço da Agência para a Segurança das Redes e da Informação (ENISA), o reforço das competências e dos meios da Europol, um maior financiamento e uma cooperação estreita com atores privados, como o Facebook e a Google.

Desta forma, temos vindo a equipar a União e os Estados-Membros para esta nova realidade. Mas precisamos também de adaptar os nossos meios de prova, ou seja, garantir que a polícia portuguesa tenha acesso a provas que estão num servidor na Irlanda, apesar de o crime investigado ter sido contra um cidadão português.

Este exemplo torna claro que a ausência de fronteiras no mundo digital dita, urgentemente, a criação de uma abordagem europeia para a prova digital. É por isso que apelo, hoje, para que a Comissão Europeia apresente uma proposta legislativa que venha a regulamentar a prova digital, permitindo um combate mais eficaz e certamente maiores salvaguardas na defesa dos direitos europeus.

 
  
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  Michał Boni (PPE). – Mr President, digital is crucial for future competitive advantages and for everyday life. But the most essential things is trust. Trust based on guarantees to make all digital activities secure, and cybercrime as an offence clearly punishable, when we use the banking system, pay for digital services, use administrative services, watch movies at the tablet, send data to our doctor via telemedicine platform.

This is the preventive function of cybersecurity policies fighting against cybercrime possibilities. Much more secure and protected devices, networks, platforms are the purpose of EU debate on cybersecurity package.

Key for the prevention is cybersecurity hygiene; new attitude: to pay attention to the rules ensuring security in cyberspace.

So what do we need for an effective fight against cybercrime? A proper legislative framework, similar globally; international standards and certification schemes; cooperation and shared responsibility of all stakeholders: public authorities, private sector, civic society and consumer organisations; law enforcement; real and virtual capacity and tools, to act effectively against the dark net internationally. And coordination of common actions, in Europe and globally, based on exchange of all information.

 
  
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  Julian King, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, thank you for this debate, which I think has been very timely and has underlined again the importance of these issues. Last year we saw major attacks with WannaCry and NotPetya, but we also saw politically-motivated attacks. I think together, that has raised the awareness of the need to tackle these different cyber threats. I think we are responding. I am very grateful for the support that I hear and indeed the encouragement to keep working on these issues.

From the Commission side we are committed to develop a cybersecurity agency with real competences and capacities and to develop a certification system that really delivers increased cybersecurity. We will work with the Member States to that end. We will work to promote a really effective public—private partnership. We will, as encouraged by you all, work to build the resilience of our infrastructures, our platforms, services and devices, but also to address the behavioural challenge: to build our behavioural and societal resilience too against some of these threats, because, as has been underlined by many of the speakers, in order to benefit to the full from the digital single market and all the social advantages we get from an ever-more interconnected society, we need to deal with the threats and the challenges that seek to undermine it.

 
  
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  Monika Panayotova, President-in-Office of the Council. – Mr President, I listened to your debates with great interest, and if we had to summarise the main aspects of the issue, I have to say that on the one hand, cyber security questions are clearly linked to the development of the digital single market, providing opportunities for citizens and European industry to make the most of the digital economy. On the other hand we are facing ever-increasing cyber security challenges, and one of them is the cyberattack WannaCry mentioned by many of you.

These challenges ahead of us can be faced, and the ambition of making Europe the leader in cybersecurity by 2025 can be achieved, through multidimensional cooperation, a comprehensive approach and strengthening the legal framework.

In order to increase the preparedness at national and EU level, the key word to overcome those challenges is cooperation and the multidimensional aspects: public-private cooperation, cooperation between Member States, economic cross-border and cross-sector collaboration, cooperation between the relevant services of the Member States, the EU institutions, the new agencies as well as third countries and organisations.

As the Presidency, we are determined to advance the legislative work as much as possible. We consider the Cyber Security Act as a priority and hope to reach a general approach before the end of our term so that the trilogues can start under the Austrian Presidency.

The aim is to give a stronger and permanent mandate to the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA), the new EU cyber security agency, and to avoid fragmentation of the cybersecurity market of services, goods and processes by establishing a framework for certification schemes at EU level. Discussions are still ongoing, notably the task and mandate of the ENISA as well as on certification.

Let me assure you of the Council’s firm commitment to continuing the work that I have outlined and our readiness to adopt and effectively implement concrete measures in the field in order to ensure an open, free, safe and secure cyberspace while protecting with strong determination the fundamental rights and freedoms of our citizens.

 
  
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  President. – The debate is closed.

Written statements (Rule 162)

 
  
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  Laura Ferrara (EFDD), per iscritto. – Sono molteplici i motivi di allarme sociale che possono essere alimentati dalla criminalità informatica. Alcuni di questi sono emersi nei diversi interventi dei relatori, nel corso di questo dibattito, e tutti richiedono attenzione ed azioni concrete, a partire dall'attuazione della direttiva recante misure per un livello comune elevato di sicurezza delle reti e dei sistemi informativi nell'Unione. D'altro canto, come già evidenziato nella risoluzione di questo Parlamento sulla lotta contro la corruzione e seguito dato alla risoluzione della commissione CRIM, la criminalità informatica è un mezzo spesso utilizzato nel riciclaggio di denaro e nella contraffazione. Questa forma di criminalità, pertanto, costituisce una fonte notevole di reddito per molti gruppi criminali e, anche per queste ragioni, la legislazione dell'Unione e la cooperazione tra gli Stati membri e con le agenzie dell'Unione in tale settore deve essere rafforzata. Non possiamo ignorare, infatti, che attraverso l'uso fraudolento di Internet per scopi illegali, come la promozione del traffico di droga o della tratta di esseri umani, le organizzazioni criminali sono riuscite ad ampliare notevolmente il volume dei loro traffici illeciti mettendo anche a repentaglio la sicurezza dei cittadini.

 
  
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  Karol Karski (ECR), na piśmie. – Cyberprzestępczość – przez swój międzynarodowy charakter i rosnące szkody, jakie wywołuje – staje się coraz większym wyzwaniem dla państw członkowskich, Unii Europejskiej i społeczności międzynarodowej. Szacuje się, że cyberataki, czyli ataki z użyciem komputerów i sieci, przynoszą gospodarce światowej straty nawet do 400 miliardów euro rocznie. W zeszłym roku doszło do ponad 4 tysięcy prób wyłudzenia okupu dziennie, a 80 procent firm europejskich doświadczyło przynajmniej jednego incydentu związanego z cyberbezpieczeństwem.

Tymczasem 51 proc. obywateli UE czuło się niedoinformowanych, jeśli chodzi o zagrożenia cybernetyczne, a 69 proc. firm nie miało podstawowej wiedzy na temat swojej podatności na zagrożenia cyfrowe. Z tego względu należy poprzeć podwojenie przez Komisję Europejską nakładów na Agencję Bezpieczeństwa Sieci i Informacji (ENISA), przemianowanej w zeszłym roku na Agencję Cyberbezpieczeństwa UE (EU Cybersecurity Agency). Agencja ma organizować co roku ćwiczenia w zakresie cyberbezpieczeństwa i m.in. bronić przed zewnętrznymi próbami wpływania na wybory.

W oparciu o wspólną deklarację UE-NATO, podpisaną podczas szczytu NATO w Warszawie dnia 8 lipca 2016 r., UE współpracuje też z NATO na rzecz przeciwdziałania zagrożeniom hybrydowym i w zakresie cyberbezpieczeństwa. Zacieśnieniu współpracy odpowiednich unijnych i natowskich komórek cyberbezpieczeństwa oraz wypracowaniu wspólnych standardów mają służyć coroczne wspólne ćwiczenia w dziedzinie przeciwdziałania zagrożeniom dla cyberbezpieczeństwa i hybrydowym, którym w bieżącym roku przewodzić będzie UE.

 
  
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  Ελισσάβετ Βόζεμπεργκ-Βρυωνίδη (PPE), γραπτώς. – Το έγκλημα στο διαδίκτυο αποτελεί αναμφισβήτητα σημαντική απειλή στον σημερινό κόσμο και πρόκειται να απασχολήσει τις κοινωνίες μας στο μέλλον. Σύμφωνα με στατιστικά στοιχεία, το κυβερνοέγκλημα αυξάνεται σε ένταση, πολυπλοκότητα και μέγεθος, καθώς σε ορισμένα κράτη μέλη παρατηρείται ότι η καταγγελλόμενη κυβερνοεγκληματικότητα υπερβαίνει το παραδοσιακό έγκλημα. Επίσης, περίπου το 80% των επιχειρήσεων στην Ευρώπη έχουν βιώσει τουλάχιστον ένα περιστατικό παραβίασης της ασφάλειας στον κυβερνοχώρο. Χαρακτηριστικά, μόλις τον περασμένο Μάιο, η παγκόσμια κυβερνοεπίθεση "WannaCry" επηρέασε χιλιάδες δίκτυα, ηλεκτρονικούς υπολογιστές, νοσοκομεία και σιδηροδρομικές γραμμές σε ολόκληρη την Ευρώπη. Τα πρόσφατα αυτά περιστατικά κατέδειξαν με σαφήνεια τον εξαιρετικά υψηλό βαθμό τρωτότητας της ΕΕ. Επομένως, το ερώτημα που τίθεται είναι πώς μπορούμε να αντιμετωπίσουμε αποτελεσματικά το έγκλημα στον κυβερνοχώρο στο πλαίσιο συνεργασίας σε ευρωπαϊκό επίπεδο και πώς μπορούμε να προστατεύσουμε καλύτερα τους ευρωπαίους πολίτες; Ως εισηγήτρια του Ευρωπαϊκού Κοινοβουλίου στην έκθεση για την καταπολέμηση του εγκλήματος στο διαδίκτυο προσπάθησα να απαντήσω σε αυτά τα ερωτήματα και να χειριστώ αυτό το πολύπλοκο νομικό και κοινωνικό ζήτημα με αποτελεσματικό τρόπο. Η καταπολέμηση του εγκλήματος στον κυβερνοχώρο δεν είναι απλή υπόθεση, απαιτεί υψηλή ειδίκευση, συνεχή κατάρτιση και εκπαίδευση, καλύτερο συντονισμό, συνεργασία με τρίτες χώρες και νομική ασφάλεια.

 
Seneste opdatering: 16. juli 2018Juridisk meddelelse