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Postupak : 2017/2088(INI)
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Odabrani dokument : A8-0157/2018

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A8-0157/2018

Rasprave :

PV 28/05/2018 - 26
CRE 28/05/2018 - 26

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PV 29/05/2018 - 7.8
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P8_TA(2018)0211

Rasprave
Ponedjeljak, 28. svibnja 2018. - Strasbourg Revidirano izdanje

26. Provedba instrumenata ZPP-a za mlade poljoprivrednike u EU-u nakon reforme iz 2013. (rasprava)
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  Presidente. – L'ordine del giorno reca la relazione di Nicola Caputo, a nome della commissione per l'agricoltura e lo sviluppo rurale, sull'attuazione degli strumenti della PAC a favore dei giovani agricoltori nell'UE dopo la riforma del 2013 (2017/2088(INI)) (A8-0157/2018).

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo, Relatore. – Signor Presidente, signor Commissario, onorevoli colleghi, nell'Unione europea solo il 6 % del totale di quanti dirigono aziende agricole ha meno di 35 anni, mentre oltre il 50 % ha più di 55 anni. Il rinnovo generazionale nel settore agricolo ha quindi bisogno di misure politiche incisive nella nuova PAC per favorire il ricambio generazionale.

Nel testo approvato a larga maggioranza in commissione AGRI sono state formulate varie raccomandazioni politiche volte a migliorare il regime di sostegno esistente e ad assistere i giovani agricoltori nell'accesso all'attività agricola. L'accesso alla terra, come è noto, è il principale ostacolo che impedisce ai nuovi imprenditori agricoli di avviare attività nel settore dell'agricoltura in Europa. L'accesso alla terra è limitato dalla scarsa disponibilità di terreni e ovviamente anche dalla concorrenza da parte di altri agricoltori e investitori.

Il problema dell'accesso alla terra si è acuito essenzialmente come conseguenza dell'attuale struttura dei pagamenti diretti, che spesso determina aumenti dei canoni di affitto dei terreni e dei prezzi di acquisto. Troppi agricoltori proprietari o affittuari tendono a restare in attività il più a lungo possibile per poter continuare a beneficiare delle sovvenzioni, ricorrendo a prestatori di servizi per coltivare i terreni o lavorando al minimo i terreni coltivati di cui dispongono.

Vanno, a mio avviso, aumentati i livelli di attività necessari per assegnare i pagamenti destinati a sostenere il conseguimento di determinati target, così come penso sia necessario applicare un divieto di cumulo non pertinente delle sovvenzioni con la fruizione di indennità di pensioni.

Gli Stati membri devono implementare nuove misure atte a concedere ai nuovi imprenditori agricoli e ai giovani agricoltori l'accesso prioritario ai terreni agricoli, avvalendosi appieno di tutti gli strumenti normativi e prendendo spunto anche dalle best practice già attuate con successo in alcuni Stati membri. Si potrebbero per esempio prevedere strumenti come le banche rurali, che potrebbero facilitare ulteriormente l'accesso ai terreni, ma anche fornire un quadro completo della disponibilità dei terreni per i giovani agricoltori. Va facilitato il ricambio generazionale con normative, per esempio in materia di successione e fiscalità, norme sull'accesso ai terreni, alla pianificazione territoriale e alle strategie di successione aziendale.

L'attuale PAC non prevede incentivi per favorire il trasferimento delle aziende agricole dagli agricoltori più anziani alle generazioni più giovani. È una lacuna che va colmata, e va colmata presto, se vogliamo davvero incentivare i giovani. Lo possiamo fare introducendo, per esempio, misure che possano effettivamente motivare gli anziani a trasferire la proprietà dei terreni, quali ad esempio quelle sul regime di prepensionamento o sugli altri tipi di incentivi al pensionamento.

Relativamente al bilancio, è fondamentale continuare a fornire un sostegno al programma per i giovani agricoltori, aumentando però il livello massimo di finanziamento nazionale oltre il 2 % per i pagamenti obbligatori del primo pilastro, e incrementando la percentuale di sostegno del secondo pilastro per incoraggiare il rinnovo generazionale.

Raccomandiamo un miglioramento delle misure volte a facilitare l'accesso ai finanziamenti con tassi di interessi agevolati sui prestiti a favore dei nuovi imprenditori agricoli, anche da parte di operatori finanziari privati, implementando gli strumenti finanziari per erogare prestiti a tasso zero per gli investimenti dei giovani agricoltori. Serve una migliore cooperazione anche con la BEI e con il Fondo europeo per gli investimenti, al fine di promuovere la creazione di strumenti finanziari ad hoc dedicati ai giovani agricoltori in tutti gli Stati membri.

Un importante punto riguarda la semplificazione: la gestione complessiva dei pagamenti diretti e delle misure del programma di sviluppo rurale è considerata infatti estremamente complessa e difficile, in particolare per i nuovi imprenditori agricoli che non hanno particolare familiarità con il sistema di pagamento, e che quindi necessitano di una forte semplificazione delle procedure e della riduzione dei tempi relativi alle istruttorie di pagamento.

Sulla formazione, la Commissione e gli Stati membri dovrebbero essere in grado di offrire maggiori opportunità di formazione e di consulenza ai giovani agricoltori, sia quelli potenziali che quelli confermati, includendo la competenza per l'avvio di attività d'impresa in agricoltura e le competenze agricole e tecnologiche relative alle nuove tecnologie e imprenditoriali, quali marketing, networking, comunicazione, innovazione, multifunzionalità e diversificazione e competenze finanziare.

L'innovazione, infine, è uno degli strumenti che maggiormente può contribuire a migliorare il ricambio generazionale. I giovani agricoltori rappresentano un grande potenziale di innovazione e di diversificazione, considerato che tendono ad avere maggiori competenze e capacità manageriali e ad essere più propensi ad accedere ai nuovi mercati, sviluppare nuovi metodi di produzione e utilizzare al meglio gli sviluppi e le innovazioni tecnologiche nel settore agricolo, in grado di consentire loro di rispondere alle sfide ambientali dell'agricoltura.

È necessario dunque prestare un sostegno deciso ai giovani che desiderano introdurre tecniche e processi di produzione innovativi, quali i sistemi dell'agricoltura di precisione e di conservazione, che sono destinati a migliorare la redditività e la sostenibilità ambientale del settore agricolo. Solo mettendo in campo queste azioni si potranno offrire ai giovani agricoltori prospettive a lungo termine in grado di impedire l'esodo rurale.

Un deciso sostegno ai giovani agricoltori è condizione sine qua non per assicurare il futuro delle zone rurali e va dunque individuata come priorità assoluta nel quadro della nuova PAC per il periodo successivo al 2020.

 
  
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  Phil Hogan, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, I would like to thank Nicola Caputo and the shadows for this report. It comes at a very important time for European agriculture, not least for our young farmers. As you are aware, the Commission will adopt and publish its legislative proposals for the future of the CAP shortly, and I am very confident that you will see clear consistency between the recommendations that you have made, and the proposal that the Commission intends to bring forward in respect of young farmers.

As Mr Caputo has pointed out, only 6% of European farmers are younger than 35 years, compared to 56% who are older than 55 years. Therefore, with an ageing agricultural community, generational renewal is increasingly important, and it needs to be accompanied by adapted policies. Currently, measures in Pillars one and two provide support to young farmers, notably the young farmer payment under Pillar one, which was introduced to provide an enhanced income support to newly-established young farmers during the initial setting-up period.

In 2016, more than 300 000 newly set-up young farmers in the EU benefitted from this additional payment, which amounted to support of about EUR 360 million. The rural development policy also makes fundamental contributions to creating the best possible environment for young farmers. According to the targets that have been brought to the attention of the Commission by Member States and the rural development programmes, specific support for 176 000 young farmers will help a new generation of farmers to develop their businesses.

So the Commission shares the views of the European Parliament that support for young farmers should continue and be improved. This is a position that I have consistently articulated over the last few years. This is why attracting new farmers and facilitating generational renewal will be an important objective of the CAP post 2020.

Young farmers will benefit from a wide range of instruments, which will include a combination of mandatory and voluntary aspects. But the Commission will not be able to do this alone, and Member States will be requested to establish a generational renewal strategy and address key issues that your report has clearly highlighted, particularly those for which the Member States and not the European Union has competence. It will be important to describe how national instruments – for example taxation, inheritance law, regulation of land markets, territorial planning – can complement EU-supported interventions, and Member States will not get approval for their plans unless they are able to have a very important package for generational renewal, which is a good example of where we will have a common agricultural policy supported and approved at EU level.

In relation to access to land and land transfer, the Commission shares the rapporteur’s view that this is a major barrier to young farmers setting up. This is why we have proposed to support forms of cooperation that could encompass farm partnerships between generations of farmers; farm succession or transition-planning services; brokerage for land acquisition; innovative national or regional organisations engaged in promoting and facilitating matching services between younger and older farmers. These are some examples that we can utilise more fully.

On top of this, young farmers will benefit from investment support and knowledge transfer and training interventions, which are important to ensure the long-term sustainability of our farms. Member States will be allowed to establish financial instruments supporting working capital. This instrument can be of primary importance for young farmers and new entrants, who face more difficulties given the high investments and low returns of a start-up phase.

The Commission continues to engage with the European Investment Bank, especially through our fi-compass platform, to learn from experiences and best practices on specific schemes for young farmers and new entrants. As part of the CAP planning process, the Commission will fully engage in accompanying Member State authorities to develop sound schemes for generational renewal, depending on the specific needs, focusing on innovative approaches, best practices and knowledge-sharing.

So the Members of the House, particularly those who are members of the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development (AGRI), who have taken a very keen interest in, and constructive approach to, the needs of young farmers, can be assured that the Commission shares this view and will be bringing forward proposals accordingly. It is essential that we have more young people involved in farming in order to develop an efficient, competitive European agriculture and food production sector in the future. This report from Mr Caputo, together with the report that we have just discussed by Mr Dorfmann, are important contributions to the Commission’s policy development, and as I said at the outset, I hope that they will recognise many of the proposals and recommendations that can be seen in the Commission’s forthcoming proposals.

 
  
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  Nuno Melo, em nome do Grupo PPE. – Senhor Presidente, este relatório é importante e oportuno; temos que considerar que ao nível da Europa há um agricultor com menos de 35 anos por cada nove com idade superior a 55 anos. Em alguns Estados como Portugal, Espanha, Itália, Reino Unido ou Bulgária, a proporção de jovens agricultores é muito baixa, só um agricultor por cada vinte com mais de 55 anos.

O que está em causa é obviamente a manutenção da nossa autossuficiência alimentar e os problemas residem fundamentalmente na instalação de agricultores, no acesso à terra, na transmissão de explorações dos mais antigos para os mais novos e no acesso ao crédito.

Nós, enfim, enquanto alterações que apresentamos, há várias sugestões que nos fazem sentido, como a criação de um programa à semelhança do Erasmus associado à formação profissional para melhorar as competências e a troca de experiências entre jovens agricultores, o apoio aos jovens que pretendem técnicas e processos de produção inovadores.

Enfim, ninguém questiona o carácter estratégico da agricultura, mas há um abandono das terras que é grave e é preciso dar aos jovens das zonas rurais as mesmas condições que são dadas aos jovens nas zonas urbanas. E pergunto, até terminando, se é compreensível que, por exemplo, no meu país, os agricultores recebam hoje em dia menos dinheiro pela venda dos seus produtos do que em 1986, data da adesão de Portugal à União Europeia. Certamente, quando é assim, a agricultura não é atrativa.

 
  
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  Eric Andrieu, au nom du groupe S&D. – Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, je remercie tout d’abord Nicola Caputo pour ce très bon rapport. La population agricole européenne ne se renouvelle pas. C’est le constat qui est fait et il n’est pas nouveau, malheureusement.

Depuis plus de 50 ans, le développement agricole, appuyé par la PAC, a favorisé la concentration et l’agrandissement des exploitations et a conduit à une forte capitalisation qui a rendu certaines exploitations difficilement transmissibles. Or, la question du renouvellement des générations – on le voit aujourd’hui – est un problème crucial pour notre sécurité alimentaire et il l’est également si l’on veut maintenir des territoires vivants.

Face à ce défi majeur, nous devons mettre en place une politique volontariste, qui combine des instruments européens avec des dispositifs nationaux, afin de garantir un meilleur accès aux terres, au financement et à la formation. L’entrée de jeunes dans l’agriculture est un élément de dynamisme et d’innovation essentiel si nous voulons favoriser une mutation de nos modèles agricoles. Il faut le dire avec force, comme le fait Nicola Caputo.

Le renouvellement des générations est non seulement souhaitable, non seulement possible, mais il est essentiel, Monsieur le Commissaire. Merci d’un tenir compte dans votre proposition législative.

 
  
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  Jan Huitema, namens de ALDE-Fractie. – Voorzitter, beste commissaris, de gemiddelde leeftijd in de agrarische sector is hoog, bovengemiddeld hoog, en slechts 6 % van de mensen die werken in de agrarische sector is jonger dan 35 jaar.

Het is echter niet een doel op zich om de gemiddelde leeftijd naar beneden te halen. Ik maak me zorgen of de agrarische sector nog wel aantrekkelijk blijft voor mensen om in te gaan werken. Dat gaan we niet oplossen door jonge boeren meer directe inkomenssteun te geven, directe inkomenssteun die betaald wordt door de directe inkomenssteun van de overige boeren te korten. Is dat eerlijk? Ook oudere boeren zetten zich elke dag nog hard in om voldoende en goed voedsel te produceren.

Nee, dat kan alleen door de sector competitiever te maken, innovatiever te maken en ervoor te zorgen dat de sector met oplossingen komt voor klimaat- en milieuproblemen. Dat kan naar mijns inziens op twee manieren: door technische oplossingen – zoals big data, zonnepanelen, precisielandbouw – en ecologische innovaties – zoals bijvoorbeeld het gezonder maken van de bodem, veredeling, en het inzetten van insecten om plaaginsecten te bestrijden.

 
  
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  Maria Heubuch, im Namen der Verts/ALE-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Es ist wirklich sehr wichtig und notwendig, heute über Junglandwirteförderung zu diskutieren, denn es gibt da drei große Probleme in der bestehenden Förderung. Das erste – Herr Kommissar, Herr Caputo, Sie haben es beide genannt – ist der Zugang zu Land. Das ist die größte Hürde für Neueinsteiger. Und die bestehende Junglandwirteförderung geht dieses Problem überhaupt nicht an. Hier brauchen wir wirklich eine ganz entschlossene Strategie der Europäischen Union.

Zweiter Punkt: öffentliches Geld für öffentliche Güter. Dieses Prinzip wird von der Junglandwirteförderung komplett ignoriert. Es werden nicht jene Höfe gefördert, die am meisten zu Umwelt, zu Tierschutz, zu Landschaftsschutz beitragen, sondern alle ohne Differenzierung.

Und das Dritte: Wir wollen Landwirtschaft zu einem Zukunftsort machen. Dafür braucht es faire Einkommen für bäuerliche Arbeit. Gerade Neueinsteiger sind oft Vorreiter beim biologischen Landbau, bei der Direktvermarktung, bei gemeinsamen Finanzierungsmodellen, bei handwerklicher Lebensmittelherstellung. Und diese innovativen Projekte sollten wir ganz gezielt fördern, damit sie wirtschaftlich auch besonders tragfähig sind. Das spiegelt sich im bestehenden Bericht viel zu wenig wider.

 
  
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  Luke Ming Flanagan, on behalf of the GUE/NGL Group. – Mr President, if it was any other profession, we wouldn’t really be asking this question. If we were talking about a carpenter that went off to work every day and they come back with less money than they left in the morning with, you wouldn’t be asking why they were leaving the profession. Likewise with a hairdresser, if they couldn’t make money off it, you wouldn’t be asking why they were leaving the profession – you’d know why. Likewise with an electrician, if they couldn’t make a profit doing it, you wouldn’t be able to get anyone to do it. But you wouldn’t say the problem with the carpenter was access to wood, the problem for the hairdresser was access to scissors, or the problem for an electrician was access to copper. The problem is there’s no money in it and they’re not making any money out of it, and why would any young person go into a profession where they can’t make a living? So how do we help them make a living? We help them make a living by paying them for their produce, by a fair distribution of the CAP and by paying them for public goods. Then you’ll solve the mystery. Would any of you do a job that you didn’t get anything for? No, you wouldn’t. The problem is profitability.

 
  
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  John Stuart Agnew, on behalf of the EFDD Group. – Mr President, I’d just like to remind Mr Flanagan, who has just spoken, that farming isn’t a profession, it’s a trade.

There are three barriers to preventing young entrants to agriculture. The first is access to land. In the UK, local councils owned small farms and rented them out to young entrants as a first step on the ladder. The problem was that there were so few opportunities for the next step that young tenants became old tenants and the system just froze. The second is bed blocking by the older generation. Public money might be used to allow such individuals to retire with dignity and let the younger generation take the reins with new ideas. The third is access to capital by young tenant farmers. This could be facilitated by government loan guarantees. The guarantee would have to reduce in time, as the tenants should be able to demonstrate a profitable enterprise to interest commercial lenders on its own merits.

The initiative by the Commission to give marginally more area aid to young farmers is fraught with bureaucratic problems and open to abuse. It won’t resolve bed blocking, it won’t increase access to serious capital, and on tenanted holdings, it will just roll out to the landowner.

 
  
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  Κωνσταντίνος Παπαδάκης (NI). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, στο όνομα της ηλικιακής ανανέωσης και της στήριξης των νέων αγροτών, επιταχύνεται το ξεκλήρισμά τους και η συγκέντρωση της γης σε λίγα χέρια. Χαριστική βολή θα είναι η πρόταση απαγόρευσης στους αγρότες να παίρνουν ταυτόχρονα με την πενιχρή σύνταξή τους και επιδότηση. Προκλητικά πλέον προσφέρονται ευκαιρίες, λέτε, για την ενεργοποίηση ασφάλισης σε περίπτωση παγετού, ξηρασίας και πλημμύρας. Δηλαδή είναι ευκαιρία η αποζημίωση και όχι υποχρέωση του κράτους και δικαίωμα του πληγέντα μικρού και μεσαίου αγρότη. Νέο χτύπημα αποτελεί και η πρόταση ένα μέρος των επιδοτήσεων να μετατρέπεται σε σεμινάρια επιχειρηματικότητας, τα οποία θα είναι μάλιστα όρος και προϋπόθεση για την όποια επιδότηση που θα καταβάλλεται πλέον μόνο αν συνοδεύεται από αντίστοιχο επιχειρηματικό σχέδιο. Η κατεύθυνση της ΚΓΠ είναι σαφής: ευελιξία ανάλογα με τις ορέξεις της αγοράς, ομάδες παραγωγών και συγκέντρωση της παραγωγής σε λίγους. Μόνη διέξοδος για τους μικρομεσαίους αγρότες η αγωνιστική δράση ενάντια στην ΚΓΠ, την κυβέρνηση και την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση με κοινωνική συμμαχία ενάντια στην πολιτική που τους καταστρέφει με αιτήματα με βάση τις πραγματικές τους ανάγκες.

 
  
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  Albert Deß (PPE). – Herr Präsident! Ohne Junglandwirte keine Zukunft der Landwirtschaft in Europa. Ohne Junglandwirte keine Zukunft des ländlichen Raums in Europa. Ohne Junglandwirte keine Ernährungssicherung für eine halbe Milliarde Menschen in Europa. Deshalb sind wir gut beraten, Programme aufzulegen, sowohl finanzieller Art als auch gesellschaftlicher Art, damit Junglandwirte wieder bereit sind, hier tätig zu werden.

Ich stelle fest, dass die Situation in Europa sehr unterschiedlich ist. In einigen Mitgliedstaaten gibt es mehr Junglandwirte, in anderen weniger. Deshalb, Herr Kommissar, haben wir im Omnibusverfahren schon den Spielraum für die Mitgliedstaaten erweitert. Ich bin aber auch skeptisch, ob die Förderung, die wir bisher gewährt haben, nämlich einen Zuschlag pro Hektar zu geben, gerechtfertigt ist. Die Unterschiede zwischen den Betrieben sind zu groß. Ich nenne zwei Beispiele: Ein Junglandwirt kann von seinen Eltern einen Betrieb übernehmen, in dem alle Investitionen getätigt sind, und ein anderer Junglandwirt, dessen Vater vielleicht vorzeitig verstorben ist und dessen Mutter den Betrieb über Wasser gehalten hat, der muss riesige Investitionen tätigen, damit er weitermachen kann. Das heißt, wir müssen mehr auf die Investitionen abstellen und nicht unbedingt eine pauschale Förderung geben, damit junge Landwirte bereit sind, hier wieder Betriebe zu übernehmen.

 
  
 

Procedura "catch-the-eye"

 
  
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  Sofia Ribeiro (PPE). – Senhor Presidente, a renovação geracional e de conhecimentos é fundamental para a agricultura, pois assim conseguimos trazer gente nova, novas práticas, novas tecnologias e melhores formas de produzirmos produtos agrícolas com menos custos, menos riscos para o ambiente, para a saúde humana e de forma sustentável.

No entanto, esta renovação não significa tirar a uns para pôr a outros, mas sim para integrar os novos conhecimentos nas práticas seculares dos nossos agricultores mais experientes que têm contribuído, e muito, para o bem público que é a agricultura.

Não podemos também esquecer que, em muitos casos, os jovens já colaboram nas explorações familiares mas que, infelizmente, raramente conseguem ter a sua própria exploração devido às verbas envolvidas para a instalação dos novos agricultores. Por isso, considero que os jovens agricultores deveriam ter uma majoração nos apoios sempre que assumam a responsabilidade de explorações familiares, de modo a continuar esta atividade, até porque, como sabemos, os jovens têm maiores dificuldades de acesso ao capital.

Assim, é fundamental que a União Europeia permita uma retirada digna do setor dos mais experientes com apoios claros, abrindo desta forma espaço para os mais jovens.

 
  
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  Ricardo Serrão Santos (S&D). – Senhor Presidente, Senhor Comissário, a agricultura na Europa, como qualquer outra atividade económica, carece, e foi dito aqui, de jovens que proporcionem a renovação geracional necessária à continuidade do setor com maior dinamismo e abertura a soluções inovadoras.

Para além das tendências socioeconómicas que podem justificar o envelhecimento dos campos na Europa, o acesso à terra, a vocação vocacional, o acesso a seguros e ao crédito condicionam a instalação de jovens na agricultura. É fundamental conceder aos Estados—Membros instrumentos adequados no âmbito da PAC para promover o rejuvenescimento do setor agrícola através de medidas específicas no âmbito do primeiro e segundo pilar.

É importante também, e isto é preciso realçar, que as políticas nacionais possam confortar estes mecanismos com políticas facilitadoras de acesso ao crédito, arrendamento, herança de terras e bonificações fiscais com o objetivo de atrair os jovens e requalificar o tecido rural.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η λήψη μέτρων ενίσχυσης των νέων αγροτών αποτελεί μια κοινωνική αναγκαιότητα για όλους τους νέους αγρότες στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση, πολύ δε περισσότερο στην Ελλάδα, η οποία έχει χτυπηθεί από την σκληρή λιτότητα, τη βάναυση δημοσιονομική προσαρμογή που έχουν επιβάλει η τρόικα και οι δανειστές. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι πρέπει να ληφθούν συγκεκριμένα μέτρα για την ενίσχυση των νέων αγροτών, ιδίως μάλιστα των νέων αγροτών που βρίσκονται σε περιοχές ιδιαίτερα απομακρυσμένες, και μιλώ κυρίως για τα νησιά του Αιγαίου. Επιπλέον πρέπει να υπάρξουν εργαλεία χρηματοδότησης και, ταυτόχρονα, μείωση του κόστους των εφοδίων, μείωση του κόστους του αγροτικού πετρελαίου, και να σταματήσουν επιτέλους οι κατασχέσεις των αγροτικών επιδοτήσεων. Κύριε Hogan, πρέπει να σταματήσουν στην Ελλάδα οι κατασχέσεις των ενισχύσεων για τους νέους αγρότες. Έχω καταγγείλει το θέμα αυτό επανειλημμένα. Η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση οφείλει για το θέμα αυτό να λάβει μέτρα.

 
  
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  Γεώργιος Επιτήδειος (NI). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, για να μπορέσει να έχει επιτυχία η Κοινή Γεωργική Πολιτική και να αυξηθεί η πρωτογενής παραγωγή, θα πρέπει να αντιμετωπιστούν τα προβλήματα της προσβάσεως των νέων αγροτών στην αγροτική απασχόληση. Είναι αλήθεια ότι έχουν περιοριστεί σημαντικά οι διατιθέμενες γαίες. Επίσης, είναι δύσκολο – διότι δεν υπάρχουν τα αντίστοιχα κίνητρα – να αποσυρθούν από τη γεωργική δραστηριότητα οι παλιές γενεές και να μεταβιβάσουν την απασχόληση στις νεότερες. Επίσης, θα πρέπει οι παροχές που δίνονται στους νέους αγρότες να έχουν κοινωνικό χαρακτήρα και να μην είναι απλά μια οικονομική ενίσχυση και επιδότηση. Με μεγάλη προσοχή θα πρέπει να αντιμετωπιστεί και το πρόβλημα που αντιμετωπίζουν οι αγρότες, και οι νέοι βεβαίως αγρότες, στην Ελλάδα, η οποία έχει καταστραφεί οικονομικά από την εφαρμογή των μέτρων των μνημονίων. Άρα, λοιπόν, είναι υποχρέωση της Ευρωπαϊκής Ενώσεως να προστατεύσει κυρίως την ελληνική αγροτική παραγωγή και τη δυνατότητα των νέων Ελλήνων αγροτών να ασχοληθούν με τις αγροτικές δραστηριότητες.

 
  
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  Czesław Adam Siekierski (PPE). – Panie Przewodniczący! Wprowadzenie nowej reformy WPR oraz nowoczesnego podejścia do jej wdrażania należy powierzyć w pierwszej kolejności młodym rolnikom. Oni mają lepsze kompetencje, większe umiejętności w zarządzaniu, dużą otwartość w podejściu do innowacji. Poseł sprawozdawca i komisarz mówili o barierach, jakie muszą pokonać młodzi rolnicy, szczególnie dotyczy to wielu rozwiązań krajowych związanych z liczeniem, opodatkowaniem i pozyskiwaniem ziemi. Wymagają one dobrych rozwiązań, bardziej otwartych dla rolników.

W przeszłości wiele mówiliśmy o instrumentach finansowych, ich roli w realizacji WPR. Mam nadzieję, że znajdą się one w propozycjach legislacyjnych Komisji Europejskiej i w krajowych planach strategicznych. Sądzę, że podejmą je młodzi rolnicy. Gwarancje, poręczenia ułatwiają dostęp do kapitału. Także rozwiązania związane z innowacyjnością, wprowadzaniem nowoczesnych technologii bardziej należy oprzeć na młodych rolnikach, aby wykorzystali to jako swoje szanse rozwojowe. Oni są przecież bardziej otwarci na wiedzę i inteligentny rozwój. Wreszcie młodzi rolnicy potrzebują rozwoju wsi jako miejsca ich życia.

 
  
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  Maria Gabriela Zoană (S&D). – Domnule președinte, domnule comisar, fermierii cu vârsta de peste 65 de ani reprezintă 31% din populația activă în agricultura europeană, în timp ce tinerii sub 35 de ani reprezintă doar șase procente. Agricultura viitorului nu poate fi sustenabilă și performantă fără ca tinerii fermieri să aibă susținere financiară și acces la mecanisme tehnologice de ultimă generație. Depopularea zonelor rurale este o realitate a cărei soluție o reprezintă măsurile concrete pentru tinerii fermieri. Pentru atragerea și menținerea fermierilor în zonele rurale, avem mare nevoie de pilonul doi, de investiții în infrastructura agricolă.

Accesul la terenuri constituie, într-adevăr, cel mai mare obstacol în calea fermierilor tineri din Europa. În acest context, găsesc foarte bun, pentru fermieri, raportul pe care-l vom vota mâine în plen, însă solicit excluderea părții finale a articolului 2.2 din raport privind restricționarea posibilității fermierilor de a beneficia, în paralel, și de pensie acordată de stat și de subvențiile agricole, în contextul în care pensia din țările din estul Europei este mult mai mică decât în alte state membre ale Uniunii Europene.

 
  
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  Othmar Karas (PPE). – Herr Präsident, Herr Kommissar, meine Damen und Herren! Ich bin alarmiert und besorgt, dass nur sechs Prozent aller Landwirte unter 35 Jahre alt sind. Ich bin alarmiert und besorgt, dass Junglandwirte in der EU um ein Drittel zurückgegangen sind – von 3,3 Millionen auf 2,3 Millionen. Dass die Gesamtbetriebszahl um 3,8 Millionen zurückgegangen ist, während die durchschnittliche Betriebsgröße um 36 % zugenommen hat. Für mich gehören die beiden Berichte, die wir heute diskutieren, zusammen, und wir werden Ihre Antwort durch diein den am Freitag vorzustellenden Legislativvorschlägen nach diesen beiden Berichten beurteilen, nicht umgekehrt.

Es geht bei beiden Berichten nicht um Nettozahler oder Nettoempfänger. Nutznießer einer wettbewerbsfähigen, nachhaltigen, gerechten und flächendeckenden bäuerlichen Landwirtschaft, des sozialen Zusammenhalts im ländlichen Raum, hoher Lebensmittelstandards, einer lebenswerten Kultur- und Naturlandschaft, einer jungen Generation, die mit Zuversicht gerne einen landwirtschaftlichen Betrieb betreibt, sind alle Bürgerinnen und Bürger. Daher sollten wir tun, was zu tun ist, und die Landwirtschaft nicht die Brexit-Suppe auslöffeln lassen.

 
  
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  Clara Eugenia Aguilera García (S&D). – Señor presidente, señor comisario, señor Caputo, creo que es un buen informe, pero, en mi opinión, el problema fundamental de la falta de interés de los jóvenes por incorporarse a la actividad agraria es el precio que perciben por los productos. Y, por lo tanto, la cuestión es tener una renta digna.

Yo creo —y ya lo ha mencionado algún colega— que no es una profesión atractiva para los jóvenes actualmente y, por eso, tenemos este problema principal, porque no obtienen una renta digna. Y debemos contribuir a ello.

También me gustaría destacar que, a veces, hacemos mención a que la Comisión haga políticas para el acceso de los jóvenes agricultores. Pero no solo la Comisión: los Estados miembros con sus competencias pueden hacer mucho también; tienen competencias para permitir el acceso a esos jóvenes.

Y el problema del uso de la tierra —es verdad—. ¿Cómo es posible que obtengamos un bajo precio por los productos agrarios y, sin embargo, el valor de la tierra sea exponencialmente muy alto? ¿Qué es lo que está pasando? ¿Una gran burbuja? No sé; algo debe de estar sucediendo.

 
  
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  Marijana Petir (PPE). – Gospodine predsjedavajući, gospodine povjereniče, mladi ljudi diljem Europe napuštaju ruralne sredine čime se dovodi u pitanje proizvodnja hrane i opstojnost ruralnog prostora. Potrebno je ruralne sredine učiniti poželjnim mjestom za život, a poljoprivredu atraktivnim zanimanjem ukoliko doista želimo da se dogodi generacijska obnova koja je temelj budućnosti europske poljoprivrede.

Potrebna je i bolja potpora od one koju danas imaju mladi poljoprivrednici kroz dodatnu mobilizaciju financijskih instrumenata u drugom stupu. Nemogućnost pristupa poljoprivrednom zemljištu, kasni prijenos vlasništva nad poljoprivrednim gospodarstvom, nedostupnost kredita po povoljnoj kamati i nepoštena trgovačka praksa prepreke su u poslovanju mladih poljoprivrednika koje moraju biti hitno otklonjene.

Svi mladi poljoprivrednici trebali bi imati istu startnu poziciju bez obzira iz koje države članice dolaze, stoga im treba omogućiti pristup financijskim instrumentima i kreditima pod istim uvjetima i kamatnim stopama. Uvođenjem odgovarajućih programa koji će potaknuti raniji prijenos vlasništva nad poljoprivrednim gospodarstvima može se pomoći mladima da ranije uđu u posao, a starima da imaju dostojanstvenu starost.

 
  
 

(Fine della procedura "catch-the-eye")

 
  
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  Phil Hogan, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, I want to thank all of those who have contributed to this important debate. It is clear – and not at all surprising from the debate or indeed from the previous debate – that there is significant support for young farmers, and rightly so. We also spoke quite a lot tonight about the importance of innovation and knowledge transfer. The one idea of which we have no shortage, of course, is of innovative, knowledgeable young people who are anxious to get involved in farming, but sometimes there are many barriers in their way to doing so. The challenge is to remove those barriers and to encourage young farmers’ interest. Also, the challenge is to help them to overcome the many barriers to entry by Member States or, indeed, how we can help in the European Parliament and in the European Council, through the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

As I have indicated in my opening remarks, there are a suite of measures available in the existing Common Agricultural Policy and often they are not being used by Member States. These measures have different but complementary objectives. Of course we need complementary measures between those which come within the competence of the EU and those which are within the competence of the Member States. We have to get the Member States to utilise more policy options than today in order to help people and encourage them to become involved in agriculture. Member States have competence, for example, on taxation, and more can and should be done in this area in order to incentivise young people into farming.

When the Commission makes its legislative proposals later, we will include proposals to support our young farmers and I hope and I know that we can rely on your support in respect of these measures, but I would also encourage you to press your national governments to provide appropriate and complementary measures at the level of the Member State.

The European Parliament, and in particular through Mr Dess, Mr De Castro and Mr Siekierski, through the Omnibus, played a very important role in highlighting and increasing the support for young farmers. The provisions in the Omnibus certainly should be implemented in full by the Member States, especially the increase in the farmers’ top-up payment from 25% to 50%. Many Member States have taken advantage of increasing the top-up, but many Member States have not taken advantage of this particular new opportunity to give additional income, as Mr Flanagan has said, which is essential to ensuring that young people are, at least, given more attractiveness in terms of the support that is available through the Common Agricultural Policy. The fact that so many Member States have chosen to use the facility is encouraging, but let’s hope that we can find a way where all Member States will be able to support these measures.

One of the ways in which we will be able to do so is by having a specific objective in the CAP strategic plans, which will not get approval from the Commission unless they are able to show that they have genuine proposals to encourage more young people into agriculture and the food sector. It will be very important to see the reaction of the Council and Parliament in relation to how the specific objective of generation renewal for the first time will give a clear indication, as I said earlier, of the competence of having a harmonised but also common policy in relation to the specific objective of generation renewal.

When I spoke earlier of the CAP, I referred to it as a social policy. We have a responsibility to maintain the fabric of our rural communities and that cannot be done if we don’t encourage or get more young people into the heart of our rural communities through agriculture and food. Several of you have referenced the demographics of the farming population, and you are correct in doing so. Generation renewal is not only desirable but essential to secure the future of our rural areas and to create the much needed jobs for many people in the non-farming sectors in our rural areas. This is a very important objective that we must get right in the context of the co-legislative process that we are about to embark on under the CAP.

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo, Relatore. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, mi farò perdonare per aver superato i minuti nella mia introduzione, semplicemente per ringraziare tutti i relatori ombra e tutti coloro che hanno contribuito a questo dibattito. Voglio anche ringraziare il Commissario Hogan per le sue parole e per aver anche affermato di voler recepire nella sua proposta molte delle osservazioni che abbiamo indicato.

Penso che siamo tutti quanti d'accordo che l'agricoltura in Europa può migliorare e può decollare solo se favoriamo questo ricambio generazionale, perché i giovani sono più in grado di favorire anche l'innovazione in agricoltura. Sono certo che se riusciremo a raggiungere questo obiettivo, riusciremo anche a cogliere l'altro obiettivo che è stato evidenziato da molti colleghi, quello di migliorare la redditività delle imprese agricole. Quindi: più giovani e più agricoltura in Europa.

 
  
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  Presidente. – La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà martedì 29 maggio 2018.

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 162)

 
  
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  Ignazio Corrao (EFDD), per iscritto. – La nuova regolamentazione recentemente adottata dal Consiglio, che stabilisce nuove norme in materia di agricoltura biologica, finalmente elimina l'ultimo ostacolo per la modernizzazione del settore e l'armonizzazione delle norme della produzione biologica, all'interno dell'Unione e non solo. Il settore biologico è cresciuto del 125% negli ultimi dieci anni e sta registrando una notevole parabola ascendente, acquisendo un'importanza sempre maggiore. La crescita, tuttavia, è stata fortemente ostacolata da regole che non erano più adatte allo scopo e che andavano assolutamente riviste. È per tal motivo che accolgo con favore il regolamento approvato dal Consiglio, in quanto giocherà un ruolo fondamentale sostenendo la crescita del settore e fornendo un quadro normativo adeguato allo scopo. Ritengo in generale che la Commissione e il Parlamento dovrebbero indirizzare i giovani agricoltori e i nuovi imprenditori agricoli sulla scelta delle colture su cui puntare. Molte colture infatti non offrono margini sufficienti o ragionevoli in termini di mercato, di domanda o di redditività, e questo aumenterebbe notevolmente il rischio imprenditoriale per i giovani che entrano nel settore. Fornire più strumenti ai giovani imprenditori agricoli è la direzione che si sta intraprendendo, puntando a incentivare il ricambio generazionale, ad aumentare le possibilità di accesso alle terre e ai finanziamenti, per i giovani agricoltori.

 
  
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  Beata Gosiewska (ECR), na piśmie. – Udział młodych rolników i odnowienie pokoleń w sektorze rolnictwa mają zasadnicze znaczenie dla utrzymania opłacalnej produkcji żywności, gdyż zapewniają zrównoważony rozwój i długoterminową konkurencyjność europejskiego rolnictwa. Ostatnia reforma WPR zwróciła szczególną uwagę na tę kwestię, zwiększając zakres środków przewidzianych w polityce rozwoju obszarów wiejskich i wprowadzając nowy program na rzecz młodych rolników jako dodatkowe wsparcie w ramach płatności bezpośrednich.

Pomimo tych wysiłków wydaje się, że obecne środki nie są wystarczające i że w przyszłości konieczne będą pewne dostosowania. W sprawozdaniu wzywa się państwa członkowskie, aby przyznały nowym podmiotom i młodym rolnikom pierwszeństwo w dostępie do gruntów rolnych. Rozwiązanie tego problemu wymaga ponownej oceny systemu płatności bezpośrednich i stworzenia zachęty dla starszych rolników do przekazywania gospodarstw młodszym pokoleniom. Zaleca się również, by skupić się na ograniczaniu dodatkowych przeszkód dla młodych rolników, tj. dostępu do kapitału, braku umiejętności biznesowych i niewystarczających planów dziedziczenia. Należałoby również zająć się zmniejszeniem barier administracyjnych. Mając na uwadze dobro młodych polskich rolników, zagłosuję za sprawozdaniem.

 
  
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  Ilhan Kyuchyuk (ALDE), in writing. – The recent report on the implementation of the CAP young farmers’ tools in the EU after the 2013 reform highlights key issues such as improved access to land and credit, encouraging knowledge transfer and succession planning, the setting up of more advisory services, and the reduction of administrative barriers for young farmers. Unfortunately, there are more issues, which we should address such as demographic picture in some regions of the EU that are very unbalanced, with few or no young people living there. Obviously to counter these negative trends the EU and Member States should support young farmers. Young farmers and new entrants represent important sources of innovation and entrepreneurship within agriculture, bringing benefits such as the introduction of new knowledge or techniques, the development of new business and organisational models, more sustainable farming systems (e.g. share farming, pre-financing, crowdsourcing), the increase of connections between farming and the local community, and the adaptation of traditional knowledge to develop business innovations. Therefore, EU and Member States have to provide systematically consultancy and support for young people who want to become young farmers. Because young people are capital, which EU agriculture needs in order to be sustainable and developed.

 
  
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  Владимир Уручев (PPE), в писмена форма. – С приемането на резолюцията относно прегледа на инструментите в ОСП за подкрепа на млади земеделски стопани, Европейският парламент още веднъж потвърди силната си ангажираност за обновяване на поколенията в селското стопанство и превръщането му в модерен и привлекателен сектор за младите хора.

Подкрепата за млади фермери по линия на ОСП следва да се запази и засили във всяка следваща реформа на политиката с цел насърчаване на младите хора към кариера в селското стопанство. Силна ОСП, насочена към младите фермери, ще спомогне и за справяне с основните предизвикателства, свързани с достъп до земя и финансиране, намаляване на административните пречки, допълнително обучение и развитие на бизнес умения.

Младите земеделски стопани с лекота възприемат новите технологии и са носител на иновации и предприемачество. Ето защо ОСП следва да насърчава ново поколение от млади земеделски стопани, които прилагат нови бизнес модели, основани на крайните потребители, и разработват интелигентни решения за устойчиви и екологосъобразни земеделски практики.

Обновяването на поколенията е от ключово значение и за поддържането на жизнеспособни селски райони. Привличането на млади хора, респективно младите фермери към селските райони, е обвързано с наличието на подходяща материална, социална и дигитална инфраструктура, както и осигуряване на условия и стандарт на живот, подобен на този в градските райони.

 
Posljednje ažuriranje: 7. rujna 2018.Pravna napomena