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Tisdagen den 12 juni 2018 - Strasbourg Reviderad upplaga

12. Presentation av årsrapporten om mänskliga rättigheter och demokrati i världen 2017 och Europeiska unionens politik på området (debatt)
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  Elnök. – A következő pont a Bizottság alelnökének és az Unió külügyi és biztonságpolitikai főképviselőjének nyilatkozata az emberi jogok és a demokrácia világbeli helyzetéről szóló 2017. évi éves jelentés és az ezzel kapcsolatos uniós politika ismertetése (2018/2751(RSP)).

 
  
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  Christos Stylianides, Member of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Madam President, human rights are about real people, each one with their own story to tell. In the last year we have constantly tried to show this: when we talk about principles and values we talk about human beings. When we work for human rights, we work to make a real difference to millions of lives around the world. This was the main focus of the campaign we launched to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and this is also the logic that drives the new annual report.

We live in a difficult moment for human rights around the world. In too many countries the situation has become worse, not better. This moment tells us that progress can never be taken for granted, and this is why we should continue working for positive change.

But the report also shows that our action can make a real difference. Progress can happen, and it is happening in many parts of the world – thanks also to our commitment. For every violation of human rights, there are many more good stories to tell. For every criminal, there are many more human rights defenders.

In this fight for justice, we know where we stand. And the report I am presenting today on behalf of the High Representative shows what our commitment means in practice. It maps our work firstly to strengthen democracy. Secondly, to end the death penalty. And thirdly, to support the rights of minorities. These are just a few examples.

Let me say a few words on the structure of the report. Last year you recommended making the report more readable and publishing it without delay. So this year we have decided to focus on thematic issues and use country-specific examples, rather than going through each country one by one.

Country reports now feature on our website so that the process is still transparent but also much faster. With the report we do not only want to provide a picture of the activities we do, but also to show our impact and give concrete examples, once again to show that human rights are not only about international law – the strictly legalistic approach – they are about people’s lives and they are the foundation of more solid societies.

The report, for instance, mentions the cases of violence against vulnerable children in Fortaleza, Brazil, that have been cut by two thirds thanks to our support. And Federica Mogherini has just come back from Jordan, where she took part in the graduation ceremony for over 100 Syrian refugees who were able to finish university thanks to our financial support. But let me also mention the first ever election observation mission that we deployed in The Gambia to accompany the country’s extraordinary path from dictatorship towards a truly inclusive democracy.

I would like to thank in particular the EU Special Representative for Human Rights, Stavros Lambrinidis, who has contributed to many of these ‘good human rights stories’ and for making them more visible. ‘Good human rights stories’ is the name of a new initiative to be launched at the UN General Assembly high level week in September. The aim is to show, together with a broad alliance of countries from across the globe, examples of where positive human rights practices have made fundamental changes to individual lives, communities and societies.

In the coming year we will be celebrating these stories. They show where strong human rights protection frameworks have been put in place, where communities have been made stronger through the work of civil society organisations and where countries have shown that poverty reduction and sustainable development can be achieved hand-in-hand with making progress in human rights.

Stavros Lambrinidis is also putting into practice one of the main ideas from our human rights action plan: the need to engage with all actors at all levels, because only through engagement can we improve the human rights’ situation around the world.

Last year we published the mid-term review of the EU action plan. The review showed an encouraging trend concerning human rights dialogues, which are gaining in legitimacy and exerting a more positive impact on third countries. Again, this should only reinforce our commitment to engaging constantly with our interlocutors, particularly where and when human rights are not respected.

In this respect our European Union delegations around the world are at the forefront of our daily work. Our staff in delegations monitor and follow up on cases of human rights violations. They meet with the lawyers of jailed human rights defenders and attend trials as observers. And they lead local dialogues on human rights with the national authorities. They are very often the face of the European Union in the world, and it is also thanks to their work that we are known as a credible and reliable force for democracy and human rights.

This is not an easy moment for fundamental rights, democracy and human rights defenders. In a moment like this, it would be easy to fall into cynicism and despair. We must continue to critically assess our own approach and adjust, where necessary. The scrutiny of this Parliament is indispensable in this regard. But as we do this, we must also keep in mind all the progress we have achieved together, and all the lives that have improved thanks to the European Union’s commitment.

There is always hope, even in difficult times like these. And precisely in difficult times like these we must redouble our efforts.

 
  
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  Cristian Dan Preda, au nom du groupe PPE. – Madame la Présidente, je salue le travail fait en 2017 en matière de promotion des droits de l’homme et de la démocratie dans les quatre coins du monde par les institutions de l’Union européenne.

Ce travail est résumé dans le rapport annuel adopté par le Conseil il y a quelques semaines. Je salue aussi le nouveau format du rapport, plus court et plus concis. J’ai été particulièrement satisfait, à sa lecture, du fait que la promotion de la démocratie occupe une place plus importante, tout comme du travail que les institutions européennes et nos délégations dans des pays tiers réalisent au jour le jour. J’ai milité pour cela tout au long de ce mandat et surtout quand j’ai été rapporteur du Parlement sur le rapport annuel.

En effet, j’estime que nous ne pouvons en aucun cas imaginer une situation où les droits de l’homme seraient respectés en l’absence d’un cadre démocratique bien établi.

En 2017 encore, nous avons pu constater comment des régimes autoritaires bafouent les droits les plus élémentaires de leurs citoyens. Je pense aux Vénézuéliens, dont la liberté d’expression est remise en cause et dont les droits économiques et sociaux n’existent tout simplement plus. Dans ce même sens, je pense à Cuba, mais aussi à la Corée du Nord, vers laquelle les yeux de la planète se tournent aujourd’hui en oubliant que c’est une des pires dictatures de l’histoire.

De plus, en 2017, un certain nombre de dirigeants se sont tournés vers le mirage de l’autoritarisme, comme en Turquie.

Par rapport à tous ces cas, je crois que nous devons continuer à agir et redoubler d’efforts de concert avec nos États membres.

 
  
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  Elena Valenciano, en nombre del Grupo S&D. – Señora presidenta, yo también saludo el trabajo y los esfuerzos hechos en la defensa de los derechos humanos en el mundo por las instituciones de la Unión Europea; desde luego el trabajo de la alta representante y también del señor Lambrinidis.

Yo no voy a caer en el pesimismo de decir que los derechos humanos retroceden. Es verdad que depende mucho de las regiones y que nuestro esfuerzo siempre es bienvenido fuera de las fronteras de la Unión Europea. Lo que sí digo es que tenemos un problema de coherencia. El comisario decía: no es un buen momento, no son buenos tiempos para la defensa de los derechos humanos, del derecho internacional, de los derechos fundamentales. No lo es; es verdad que no lo es y que hay regiones enteras del mundo que están cayendo en el cuestionamiento de los derechos fundamentales, de la universalidad de los derechos humanos.

Eso es así, y tenemos líderes políticos muy importantes que defienden este cuestionamiento de los valores fundamentales. Por eso la Unión Europea tiene que reforzar su trabajo; pero, claro, también nosotros enviamos mensajes muy negativos ¿no?, y estoy pensando en la última decisión del Gobierno italiano de mantener fuera de sus aguas a un barco cargado de personas que sufren y necesitan ayuda; o algunas de las actuaciones y decisiones del presidente Orban. Es decir, es muy difícil dar lecciones al resto del mundo sobre derechos humanos cuando nosotros mismos incumplimos de manera tan flagrante los principios fundamentales, como el caso de Italia ayer mismo.

Y yo no creo que sea Salvini el único responsable, ni Orban; yo creo que somos todos. Y aquellos que se sientan en el Consejo Europeo con Salvini y con Orban tienen la responsabilidad de señalar la irresponsabilidad que suponen esas actuaciones y hasta qué punto cuestionan nuestro papel en el mundo, que es un papel fundamental y que creo que la Unión Europea está haciendo bien.

 
  
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  Monica Macovei, în numele grupului ECR. – Doamna președinte, trăim o perioadă neagră pentru jurnalismul de investigație și pentru presa liberă. Sunt abuzuri, violențe, tortură, presiuni și s-a ajuns și la crimă. Daphne și Jan au fost uciși pentru că purtau această luptă împotriva corupției, criminalității și mafiei. Tocmai ca jurnalist de investigație și dezgropând toată mizeria politicienilor. Adevărul nu trebuie plătit cu viața. Adevărul trebuie aplaudat și premiat.

Un pericol împotriva acestor jurnaliști de investigație sunt procesele deschise în alte țări, în alte jurisdicții, împotriva jurnaliștilor, pentru că asta îi intimidează, costurile sunt foarte mari, nu fac față și riscă să ajungă la faliment sau să renunțe la tot ce au pentru astfel de procese. Au început să se practice aceste procese împotriva jurnalistului de investigație. Singura soluție este să modificăm și să adoptăm o legislație modernă anti-SLAPP, cum se numește în engleză, pentru aceste procese deschise în alte jurisdicții la nivelul Uniunii Europene, și asta cât mai repede.

 
  
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  Petras Auštrevičius, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Madam President, this year, while celebrating 70 years of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, we all must admit that justice and dignity across the globe are severely threatened. Therefore, I see this Commission report as a good stock-taking exercise, which is giving us an opportunity to identify the existing loopholes in our human rights policy and adjust it accordingly so that the situation can actually be improved.

2017 was marked by ongoing conflicts and humanitarian catastrophes, terrorism and radicalisation, as well as a tighter grip of authoritarian regimes on human rights defenders, civil society and populations in many parts of the world and even in European Union’s vicinity.

In addition, in the EU itself, we have seen an unprecedented flow of fake news and propaganda, which have been used by governments and populists to spread anti—human—rights narratives, manipulate electoral processes and challenge liberal values.

We urgently need to intensify our efforts to keep human rights at the centre of Europe’s Global Strategy and the EU’s external action. To foster civil society and stand up for human rights defenders around the world, it is crucial to build human rights alliances regionally and internationally with our United Nations partners.

To resist the regimes and governments violating human rights, all tools at the European Union’s disposal must be applied with consistent resolve and determination. Real progress can only be achieved if human rights are never used as a bargaining chip in favour of EU or national economic and trade interests. Freedom and human rights are not for sale!

 
  
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  Barbara Lochbihler, im Namen der Verts/ALE-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin! Der EU-Menschenrechtsbericht 2017 ist ein eindrucksvolles Dokument mit vielen sinnvollen und notwendigen Initiativen, gerade in einer Zeit des zunehmenden backlash bei Menschenrechtsschutz, Rechtsstaatlichkeit und Demokratieförderung. Die fortlaufenden und sich verstärkenden Angriffe auf die Unabhängigkeit und Arbeitsfähigkeit der Zivilgesellschaft und von Menschenrechtsverteidigern erfordern erhöhte Aufmerksamkeit. Gerade das Protect Defenders Programme sollte unbedingt weitergeführt und ausgebaut werden.

Im Hinblick auf die aktuelle Diskussion um die Finanzierung und Zusammenführung der außenpolitischen Instrumente möchte ich betonen, wie wichtig die Eigenständigkeit des Europäischen Instruments für Demokratie und Menschenrechte ist. Dessen Wirksamkeit gerade in schwierigen politischen Kontexten darf nicht gefährdet werden.

Fachkompetente Stimmen aus der Zivilgesellschaft berichten von einem schleichenden Nachlassen der EU beim Menschenrechtsschutz. Diese Kritik höre ich nicht zum ersten Mal, und sie muss vom Europäischen Auswärtigen Dienst und der Kommission ernst genommen werden. So ist es zum Beispiel nicht hinnehmbar, dass das Partnerschaftsabkommen zwischen der EU und Ägypten im Jahr 2017 unterzeichnet wurde, obwohl der ägyptische Präsident während der Verhandlungsphase ein verschärftes NGO-Gesetz unterzeichnet hat. Das ist nur ein Beispiel von vielen, bei denen die EU an Glaubwürdigkeit verliert.

Nicht nur in der Handelspolitik, sondern ganz massiv auch in der Flüchtlingspolitik sehe ich im Jahr 2017 und auch heute die größten Defizite der EU, sich mit den Doppelstandards ihrer Menschenrechtspolitik auseinanderzusetzen und konsequent das Leben und die Rechte der Flüchtlinge an unseren Außengrenzen zu schützen. Ein ganz aktuelles Beispiel ist die Weigerung eines Mitgliedstaats, in Seenot geratene Flüchtlinge an Land gehen zu lassen. Dies zeigt, mit welcher wachsenden Selbstverständlichkeit Mitgliedstaaten und die EU wegschauen, wenn es um die Menschenrechte von Flüchtlingen geht.

 
  
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  Marie-Christine Vergiat, au nom du groupe GUE/NGL. – Madame la Présidente, la lecture de ce rapport est toujours un grand moment tant il illustre «satisfecit» et «deux poids, deux mesures».

Loin de moi l’idée de dire que l’Union européenne ne fait rien, mais nous savons tous ici que globalement les droits de l’homme vont mal et que nombre d’entre eux régressent y compris, cela a été dit, dans l’Union européenne.

Quelques exemples, parlants me semble-t-il.

Entreprises et droits de l’homme: on sait combien les entreprises européennes bafouent les droits de l’homme dans le monde, combien il a été difficile pour l’UE de participer aux travaux de l’ONU sur la création d’un outil contraignant dans ce domaine, combien elle fait tout pour en minimiser la portée.

Idem pour les dialogues politiques sur ces questions avec l’Asie et l’Amérique du Sud. Ce sont les pays où les entreprises européennes sont en première ligne pour accaparer les terres et déforester. Le Brésil est cité en exemple, là où un tiers de la forêt amazonienne a été détruite, sans parler des populations locales déplacées, voire assassinées.

En quoi l’Union européenne a-t-elle fait évoluer les choses?

Il en est de même pour les efforts de soutien à la CPI. On cite une déclaration de la Haute Représentante de novembre 2017 sur la visite de M. El-Béchir en Ouganda, en Russie et au Tchad. Mais l’UE coopère avec le Soudan et le légitime au niveau international grâce au processus de Khartoum.

Et que dire du cynisme sur les politiques migratoires: on se félicite des vies humaines sauvées en oubliant les morts en Méditerranée, près de 15 000 en trois ans, dans le désert mais aussi sur le sol de l’Union européenne. Des personnes refoulées, expulsées, y compris vers des dictatures, telles que le Soudan.

Même chose encore quand on se félicite d’une déclaration de Mme Aung San Suu Kyi sur les Rohingyas et, plus drôle oserais-je dire, du dialogue sur les droits sociaux avec Cuba.

Tout cela manque de modestie, de réalisme et pour le moins d’un minimum de sens critique.

 
  
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  Marie-Christine Arnautu, au nom du groupe ENF. – Madame la Présidente, cet attachement à la démocratie à travers le monde est remarquable, mais ici, au Parlement européen, il me semble prioritaire de nous préoccuper de la démocratie en Europe et, pour ma part a fortiori, en France.

En Europe aussi, les libertés sont bafouées. Les gouvernements hongrois et polonais, démocratiquement élus, défendent l’identité de leur peuple, vous les menacez.

Les Italiens portent au pouvoir deux partis soucieux des intérêts de leur peuple, les eurocrates appellent à ne pas respecter leur volonté.

Mais est-ce bien étonnant de la part d’une Commission présidée par M. Junker qui, pour faire plier la Grèce, affirmait qu’il ne saurait y avoir de choix démocratique contre les traités européens?

Au prétexte de lutter contre les fake news et les discours de haine, toute expression dissidente est censurée sur les réseaux sociaux.

En France, les identitaires notamment en ont fait l’amère expérience, tout comme Tommy Robinson en Angleterre, pour avoir dénoncé les méfaits de l’immigration.

Ce grave recul des libertés en Europe est profondément dangereux et pourtant vous le cautionnez et vous l’encouragez.

 
  
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  Pier Antonio Panzeri (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, se guardiamo la realtà, non possiamo non sottolineare che il movimento per i diritti umani è in crisi. Dopo decenni di conquiste, molti paesi sembrano aver fatto passi indietro. Molti leader populisti e uomini forti esprimono in modo sistematico un disprezzo totale nei confronti dei diritti umani e di chi li difende. Devo dire però che forse il movimento per i diritti umani non sembra trarre insegnamenti corretti dalle difficoltà. Oggi, nell'anno in cui ricorre il 70° della Dichiarazione universale, dobbiamo interrogarci come approcciare il tema, se intensificando le vecchie strategie o se invece allargando il campo.

Comprendiamoci: è indubbio che l'attivismo può smuovere le persone, ma se le cose che diciamo sugli obblighi morali avessero fatto la differenza il mondo oggi sarebbe in condizioni migliori. Noi che ci occupiamo e abbiamo a cuore i diritti umani dobbiamo chiederci cosa spinge così tante persone a votare uomini forti nel mondo e in Europa. A ben guardare, l'espansione delle politiche internazionali a favore dei diritti umani si è accompagnata al fenomeno economico che ha portato all'ascesa del populismo radicale e del nazionalismo. Non doveva andare così. Si presumeva che la Dichiarazione universale avrebbe avuto cura delle tutele sociali e invece la lotta per i diritti umani ha lasciato troppo sullo sfondo l'aspetto della cittadinanza sociale.

Ecco, se vogliamo indicare un campo più largo oggi, allora dobbiamo unificare sempre di più diritti umani e diritti sociali. Mentre saluto positivamente la relazione e il lavoro fatto da Federica Mogherini e da Stavros Lambrinidis, ritengo che dovremmo agire per un'agenda più ambiziosa, che sia capace di offrire valide alternative ai mali della nostra epoca.

 
  
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  Beatriz Becerra Basterrechea (ALDE). – Señora presidenta, señor comisario, hoy es un buen día para recordar algo muy sencillo: que los derechos humanos son los derechos de los seres humanos y que la mitad de los seres humanos en el mundo son mujeres.

Hoy es un buen día para recordar que muchas mujeres, como en Arabia Saudí, reclamaron un derecho, como el de conducir, y que están ahora en la cárcel. Hoy es un buen día para recordar la represión que sufren las mujeres iraníes que se han atrevido a quitarse el velo en público o para recordar a la egipcia Amal Fathy, arrestada por las autoridades de su país por hablar del acoso sexual en Facebook.

Hoy podemos recordar que la mutilación genital femenina sigue afectando a 30 países y a más de 200 millones de mujeres y niñas. O recordar que en El Salvador el aborto se castiga en todos los casos y que hay mujeres en prisión, incluso por abortos espontáneos. Recordemos todo esto hoy y cada día, porque es nuestra función llevar esperanza y garantizar los derechos a todas las mujeres en el mundo.

 
  
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  Jordi Solé (Verts/ALE). – Madam President, we all want to see the state of democracy and human rights improve throughout the world and would wish the European Union could play an even stronger role in its promotion when dealing with third countries. However, there is a great need for consistency between EU internal and external actions. If we don’t achieve coherence between what we do at home and what we would like others to do abroad, our capacity to achieve real change in the world is seriously hindered. Let me give you an example. Some of us will always remember that in 2017 a Member State of the European Union, Spain, used police violence to stop a vote – a democratic exercise in Catalonia and that, in the run—up to that vote and afterwards, the same Member State committed breaches of fundamental rights. And when that happened, the European Union basically looked the other way, instead of trying to defend EU’s citizens’ fundamental rights and Europe’s core values.

It is therefore imperative for the European Union, and for the credibility of its external action, not to use double standards when it comes to democracy and human rights, whether inside or outside our borders.

 
  
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  Miguel Urbán Crespo (GUE/NGL). – Señora presidenta, en un debate sobre los derechos humanos en el mundo es importante también que hablemos de lo que está pasando en Europa. Porque aquí las políticas de austeridad han afectado a los derechos básicos de la población, como la educación, la sanidad, la Seguridad Social o la vivienda.

Además, estamos siendo testigos de cómo el populismo punitivo se utiliza con la excusa del terrorismo y de la inmigración para generar un discurso del odio. De esta forma, la extrema derecha ha conseguido que sus discursos antiinmigración, antirrefugiados e islamófobos sean adoptados en muchos países por los principales partidos y, sobre todo y más preocupante, por gobiernos como el de Hungría o ahora también como el de Italia.

Tenemos también países europeos que continúan aplicando legislaciones que permiten detenciones sin cargos ni juicios y, con la excusa de la seguridad, normalizan la represión y la restricción del derecho a la manifestación o la libertad de expresión. Estamos ante una involución autoritaria de nuestras democracias, de la cual Valtonyc o Alsasua son claros ejemplos.

No seamos hipócritas, no exijamos a terceros países lo que no cumplimos en los nuestros. Esforcémonos en respetar en Europa los derechos humanos y la libertad de expresión.

 
  
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  Josef Weidenholzer (S&D). – Frau Präsidentin! Es ist noch nicht lange her, da standen die Menschenrechte im Mittelpunkt der internationalen Politik, und kein Staat wagte, dagegen zu argumentieren. Heute sieht das ganz anders aus: Viele sehen das als nice to have, manche Staaten machen sich sogar offen lustig darüber. Human rights NGOs werden in ihrem Bewegungsspielraum eingeengt und ihre Aktivisten verfolgt – immer häufiger und immer dreister. In einer solchen Welt ist es wichtig, dass nicht alle diesem Zeitgeist nachgeben.

Die Europäische Union ist mittlerweile der wichtigste globale Akteur auf dem Gebiet der Menschenrechte; die europäische Außenpolitik ist auf deren Einhaltung zentriert. Wir haben eigene Instrumente entwickelt, und unsere Delegationen sind überall auf der Welt zu Hotspots für Menschenrechtskämpfer geworden. Das alles sollte uns aber nicht zur Selbstzufriedenheit verleiten. Wir müssen uns noch mehr anstrengen, wir müssen unsere Instrumente verbessern, die Mitgliedstaaten mehr einbinden, und wir müssen nach Verbündeten suchen. Vor allem aber gilt es, weltweit die Selbstheilungskräfte – und das ist die Zivilgesellschaft – zu stärken.

 
  
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  Marietje Schaake (ALDE). – Madam President, if not the EU, then who would lead on protecting and promoting universal human rights in the world? In this room, during this debate, I doubt anyone questions the need to uphold values and principles. But looking at the practice, a more troubling picture emerges: ‘migration management’ or ‘countering terrorism’ are increasingly blanket excuses to turn a blind eye to the rights of people. And privatised law enforcement, where private companies are filtering what people can and cannot see online without oversight, is another area to watch out for.

I think it is essential that we don’t fall into the trap of the short-term populistic objectives, also with an eye on the new MFF. For Europe, interests such as security and values such as human rights protection should never be traded off because they overlap. So I urge for more political leadership that is unequivocal and that is not traded away at difficult moments.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes (S&D). – Senhora Presidente, o respeito pelos direitos humanos no mundo, no último ano, conheceu acabrunhantes retrocessos. Para eles também contribuíram, lamentavelmente, contradições, disfunções e políticas perversas da União Europeia, que nos descredibilizam.

Em países grandes e pequenos onde a União tem influência, como a Etiópia ou o Barém, porque se calou diante de abusos sistemáticos, incluindo tortura, prisões arbitrárias, massacres. Ou como no Sudão, ou Mianmar, porque financiou e cooperou com governos que vivem de violar os direitos humanos. Porque deixou escalar na Síria, e noutros locais, os conflitos onde chega até, é o caso da Síria, sem saber ou querer, a financiar equipamento militar do regime de Erdogan, que persegue cruelmente curdos, jornalistas e quaisquer opositores dentro e fora do país, o regime com o qual a União Europeia fez um negócio imoral sobre refugiados.

Ou na Palestina, onde a União se resigna diante da ocupação israelita, que, além de inviabilizar a solução de dois Estados, significa repressão e humilhação de todo um povo que já conta centenas de manifestantes pacíficos assassinados em Gaza só neste ano. Nestes e noutros casos, a nossa credibilidade está em causa. Como podemos ser credíveis a promover os direitos humanos no mundo se também não olhamos para dentro da União Europeia?

 
  
  

VORSITZ: RAINER WIELAND
Vizepräsident

 
  
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  Andi Cristea (S&D). – Domnule președinte, anul 2017 a fost un an de referință în ceea ce privește activitatea globală a Uniunii Europene în domeniul drepturilor copilului, prin actualizarea liniilor directoare privind promovarea și protecția drepturilor copilului, care datează încă din 2007. Prea des, copiii sunt expuși abuzurilor specifice și, prin urmare, au nevoie de o protecție sporită. Munca în rândul copiilor, recrutarea acestora în conflicte armate și căsătoriile timpurii și forțate reprezintă în continuare probleme critice în anumite țări. De asemenea, un număr însemnat au nevoie de ajutor, în special în domeniul sănătății și al accesului la educație, apă și salubritate.

Consider că este esențial ca, la nivel european, să elaborăm un plan de acțiune pentru următorii ani prin care să acordăm prioritate drepturilor copiilor în cadrul politicilor externe ale Uniunii Europene. Uniunea Europeană are obligația morală să continue eforturile pentru a proteja copiii în fața violenței, abuzurilor și exploatării.

 
  
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  Francisco Assis (S&D). – Senhor Presidente, Senhor Comissário, o presente relatório constitui uma útil radiografia da situação dos direitos humanos e da democracia no mundo. Dos avanços alcançados, mas também dos retrocessos verificados. Temos assistido, por exemplo, a um agudizar da repressão dos defensores dos direitos humanos com um aumento do número de homicídios destes ativistas em vários países; temos também constatado, infelizmente com grande preocupação, uma hostilização crescente da sociedade civil por parte diferentes governos, através de leis que dificultam as atividades das suas organizações ou até que as criminalizam com base em interpretações abusivas do próprio conceito de terrorismo.

O contexto internacional é exigente e as instituições europeias têm de estar à altura das suas responsabilidades. A União Europeia deve ser cada vez mais atuante e deve reforçar a exemplaridade do seu comportamento. Por exemplo, a União Europeia deve aumentar o nível de exigência no que toca às suas responsabilidades extraterritoriais quando estão em causa empresas ou investidores europeus cujas operações negligenciam os direitos humanos em países terceiros.

A verdade é que milhões de pessoas, cujos direitos humanos são desrespeitados em diversos pontos do mundo, muitas vezes vislumbram ainda na União Europeia uma última esperança de alcançarem algum apoio e alguma proteção. A nossa responsabilidade é correspondermos às expetativas dessas pessoas.

 
  
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  Cécile Kashetu Kyenge (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario, anche nel 2017 i diritti umani sono rimasti al centro dell'azione esterna dell'Unione europea. Abbiamo lavorato per l'affermazione su scala mondiale degli stessi principi che hanno ispirato la creazione dell'Unione: democrazia, Stato di diritto, rispetto dei diritti umani e fondamentali, principi di uguaglianza e di solidarietà.

Abbiamo lavorato affinché questi principi trovassero una collocazione all'interno di tutte le politiche, soprattutto quelle con una forte dimensione esterna. Mi riferisco, in particolare, alle politiche in materia di sviluppo, commercio, migrazione. Ma il 2017 ha segnato anche una tappa molto importante per quanto riguarda il riconoscimento dei diritti dei minori, suggellata anche dalla comunicazione della Commissione sulla protezione dei minori migranti.

Se l'Unione vuole essere credibile nel suo ruolo guida di sostenitore della promozione e della protezione dei diritti umani sulla scena mondiale, deve anche essere pronta a sanzionare quegli Stati che vi si oppongono sia all'interno che all'esterno delle sue frontiere.

 
  
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  Wajid Khan (S&D). – Mr President, every year we evaluate the situation of human rights and democracy in the world. It is upsetting to admit that not only are we making insufficient progress, but we are also going in the opposite direction. We are witnessing a growing number of attacks against human rights defenders, as well as a reduced space for civil society organisations. Many governments have introduced repressive laws to curtail basic freedoms for citizens.

In front of an increasingly challenging international context, the EU stands as the leading human rights actor. The first review of the EU action plan has shown positive results in mainstreaming human rights in our external action. The next step is to make sure that each international agreement includes a human rights clause so that companies based in third countries, as well as in Europe, comply with international standards. In this regard, the EU has a responsibility to act and be a global leader. We cannot let non—democracies take the lead and impose their anti—rights agenda. Now, more than ever, we need to be at the forefront of the promotion of human rights and steer the wheel in the right direction. I know the Commissioner is a very passionate ambassador of human rights. I’m sure he’ll do a great job.

 
  
 

Spontane Wortmeldungen

 
  
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  Csaba Sógor (PPE). – Elnök Úr! Az Európai Unió egy olyan térségként tűnik fel a világban, amely magas szinten biztosítja az emberi jogokat, és amely ezt várja el partnereitől is. Az emberi jogok mindenkit megilletnek, azokat is, akik menedéket keresnek nálunk az üldöztetés elől, és egy olyan országból jönnek, ahol nemhogy emberi jogaikat nem biztosítják, hanem az életük is veszélyben van. Ez azonban nem jelenti azt, hogy nem szeretnénk megtartani Európát annak a helynek, ahol a bőrszíne, vallása vagy etnikai származása miatt nem érhet diszkrimináció senkit sem, és ahol a nők a férfiak egyenjogúságát nem vonják kétségbe.

Az emberi jogok az európaiakat is megilletik, és ha a mi fogalmainktól eltérő társadalmi normákat valló személyek érkeznek, azoknak alkalmazkodniuk kell ahhoz a modellhez, amelynek mentén mi szervezzük az életünket, és amelyre felépítettük az Európai Uniót is. Meggyőződésem, hogy az emberi jogok biztosításához is elsősorban törvényes rendre és ennek betartására van szükség, másképpen nem maradhat Európa az emberi jogok biztosításának éllovasa.

 
  
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  Κώστας Μαυρίδης (S&D). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, Κύριε Επίτροπε, αυτή η έκθεση αφορά την προστασία των ανθρωπίνων δικαιωμάτων σε τρίτες χώρες. Φυσικά η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση οφείλει να είναι ο θεματοφύλακας των ανθρωπίνων δικαιωμάτων χωρίς διακρίσεις, διότι εκείνο που μας διαφοροποιεί ανά την υφήλιο είναι το γεγονός ότι τα ανθρώπινα δικαιώματα είναι το θεμέλιο της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης.

Λυπάμαι όμως να παρατηρήσω ότι, ενώ έχουμε άποψη για την Ουγκάντα, για τη Λατινική Αμερική, για τη Ρωσία, δυστυχώς κάνουμε διακρίσεις στον τρόπο που χειριζόμαστε χώρες. Και θα είμαι απόλυτα ειλικρινής με ένα συγκεκριμένο παράδειγμα: η αναξιοπιστία, για να μην πω ίσως και η υποκρισία, της Επιτροπής φαίνεται από τον τρόπο που διαχειρίζεται την Τουρκία. Δυστυχώς η Επιτροπή δεν εκπροσωπεί τα συλλογικά συμφέροντα της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης με σωστό τρόπο. Για να συγκαλύψει την Τουρκία, την «πακετοποίησε» μαζί με εφτά χώρες από τα Βαλκάνια, ενώ στην πραγματικότητα βρίσκεται σε ενταξιακό καθεστώς και έπρεπε να τηρεί αυστηρά τους νόμους και τους κανονισμούς της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης.

 
  
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  Mark Demesmaeker (ECR). – Dank u wel, Voorzitter. Wij zijn allemaal bezorgd over de toenemende mate waarin mensenrechten, rechtsstaat en democratische waarden nog altijd bedreigd worden. En de EU wil terecht de universaliteit van de mensenrechten en fundamentele vrijheden in haar extern beleid bevorderen.

Maar we hebben een probleem, commissaris. We hebben een probleem met onze geloofwaardigheid en onze slagkracht, als we intern niet toepassen wat we extern propageren. Ik was zelf getuige hoe in Catalonië brutaal en buitensporig politiegeweld werd gebruikt tegen vreedzame kiezers. Politici en leiders van de burgerbeweging zitten gevangen, ver van huis, sommigen al zeven maanden, als politieke gevangenen. De EU is een vrijhaven voor wie vervolgd wordt aan de andere kant van de aarde en dat is goed.

Maar voor Catalaanse en dus Europese burgers, wier democratische rechten repressief beknot worden, is de EU maar weinig solidair. En dat ondermijnt onze geloofwaardigheid. En het is een van de redenen waarom het vertrouwen in dit Europese verhaal ernstig onder druk staat.

 
  
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  Patricija Šulin (PPE). – Poročilo o človekovih pravicah in demokraciji v svetu za leto 2017 je pomembno za poglobljen pregled stanja na tem področju. Če se oddaljimo od demokracije in zavzemanja za človekove pravice, se bomo podali na napačno pot.

Akcijski načrt za človekove pravice in demokracijo, ki ga je sprejela Evropska unija za obdobje 2015–2020, je potrebno prilagoditi učinkovitejšim politikam Evropske unije na tem področju – tudi z državami zunaj Evropske unije.

Uveljavljanje človekovih pravic žensk, otrok in manjšin mora ostati v ospredju. Želim opozoriti na trgovanje z ljudmi, ki je globalen pojav in dobiva večje razsežnosti. Na tem področju bi morali storiti več.

Za doseganje ciljev na področju človekovih pravic je zelo pomemben instrument za demokracijo in človekove pravice, ki podpira organizacije in združenja ter posameznike, ki se zavzemajo za človekove pravice in temeljne svoboščine.

Za obdobje 2014–2020 so namenjena sredstva v višini 1,3 milijarde evrov, ki bi jih morali natančneje ...

(Predsedujoči je govornico prekinil.)

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η προστασία των ανθρωπίνων δικαιωμάτων και της δημοκρατίας σε όλο τον κόσμο πρέπει να γίνεται με πράξεις και όχι με λόγια. Το να υπάρχει μόνο μια έκθεση με ευχολόγια δεν λέει τίποτε. Η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση πρέπει να βγάλει συμπεράσματα και να επιβάλει κυρώσεις.

Και αναφέρομαι ξεκάθαρα στην Τουρκία, η οποία παραβιάζει τα δημοκρατικά δικαιώματα, παραβιάζει τα ανθρώπινα δικαιώματα. Ο Ερντογάν έχει βάλει τη μισή Τουρκία στη φυλακή και απλά εδώ στο Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινοβούλιο ακούγονται λόγια, χαϊδέματα προς την Τουρκία. Πρέπει να επιβληθούν μέτρα, να υπάρξουν άμεσες κυρώσεις, να απαγορευθεί η πώληση στρατιωτικού εξοπλισμού στην Τουρκία, να απαγορευθεί οποιαδήποτε δυνατότητα να δίνονται ευρωπαϊκά κονδύλια στην Τουρκία, να σταματήσει η Ευρωπαϊκή Τράπεζα Επενδύσεων να δίνει χαμηλότοκα δάνεια στην Τουρκία, να σταματήσει κάθε προενταξιακή βοήθεια. Μόνο έτσι θα καταλάβει ο σουλτάνος!

 
  
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  Marijana Petir (PPE). – Gospodine predsjedavajući, gospodine povjereniče, 3666 kršćana ubijeno je u prošloj godini prema podacima organizacije Open Doors. U 50 zemalja svijeta koje ova organizacija istražuje 250 milijuna kršćana izloženo je nekom obliku nasilja, od neprijateljstva ili diskriminacije pa do teškog fizičkog nasilja, i u konačnici ubojstava. To su strašne brojke koje govore o stvarnim prijetnjama kojima su kršćani diljem svijeta izloženi na dnevnoj bazi.

Svakodnevno razgovaramo o ljudskim pravima, no imam dojam da se prečesto bavimo temama koje izlaze izvan okvira temeljnih ljudskih prava i koje ne bi trebale biti u fokusu djelovanja Europske unije. Smatram kako bi se Europska unija trebala više baviti zaštitom ljudskih prava, posvetiti se zaštiti ljudi koji strahuju za svoj život, roditelja koji gube djecu, djece koja gube bezbrižno djetinjstvo, a pomoć drugih zemalja ne dopire do takvih područja. Pitanje jest: ako nećemo mi pomoći, tko će? I koja je naša uloga ako dopuštamo da se ljudska prava šutke krše?

 
  
 

(Ende der spontanen Wortmeldungen)

 
  
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  Christos Stylianides, Member of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Mr President, first of all I would like to thank you for this indeed very fruitful debate in this extremely demanding field. I cannot agree more with the majority of the examples you mentioned. Also, I cannot agree more that maximising the efficiency of our tools in promoting and protecting human rights and democracy is of utmost importance. No doubt about this.

To achieve our ambitious goals of improvements for democracy and human rights across the globe, we have to ensure a strategic and systematic approach. I would like to focus on this because the majority of you also emphasised this: our systematic and strategic approach.

Finally, let me express my deep appreciation for the very constructive and enhanced cooperation with this House. In this challenging global context, I find it more important than ever to ensure that we all speak with one voice in upholding democratic values and the universality of human rights. I think it is quite important to insist on this in order to be more efficient and effective on the ground. My experience in many conflict areas around the world convinces me that this is the only way to improve the situation on the ground.

 
  
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  Der Präsident. – Die Aussprache ist geschlossen.

Schriftliche Erklärungen (Artikel 162 GO)

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (EFDD), per iscritto. – Nella relazione si afferma che, nel 2017, la dimensione dei diritti umani, è stata integrata in tutte le aree dell'azione esterna dell'UE e che l'Europa ha giocato un ruolo leader, dei diritti umani, a livello globale. Certamente, sono stati compiuti degli sforzi, ma la situazione attuale appare tutt'altro che rassicurante. In Myanmar, una vera e propria campagna di omicidi di massa, stupri e violenze di vario genere ha costretto ben 655.500 Rohingya, a fuggire nel vicino Bangladesh, dall'agosto 2017. In Colombia, l'esercito e le imprese multinazionali, continuano a espropriare gli afro-colombiani delle loro terre, approfittando del vuoto lasciato dalla guerra civile. In Cina, le sparizioni forzate della minoranza turcofona degli Uiguri, sono drammaticamente aumentate nel 2017, con l'introduzione dei campi di "rieducazione" nella regione autonoma dello Xinjiang. Come i Rohingya, gli afro-colombiani e gli Uiguri, tanti altri popoli subiscono ancora oggi violenze, semplicemente per la loro etnia. Ma il 2017 è anche un anno da record per il numero di giornalisti incarcerati, di cui 153 solo in Turchia, e per gli attivisti uccisi: almeno 312. Un anno tragico, questo 2017. Cominciare ad ammetterlo è forse il primo passo per un approccio meno ipocrita, ma più costruttivo e realista.

 
  
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  Lívia Járóka (PPE), írásban. – Ukrajnában elharapództak az etnikai kisebbség ellenes atrocitások. Az utóbbi pár hónapban szélsőséges szervezetetek több roma tábort támadtak meg lakóikkal együtt. A rendőrség senkit sem tartóztatott le. Ukrajnában több százezer roma él, legtöbbjük mélyszegénységben, és naponta szembesülnek diszkriminációval, míg igazságszolgáltatáshoz való hozzáférésük rendkívül korlátozott.

Kérem a Bizottságot és a tagállamokat, hogy gyakoroljanak nyomást Ukrajnára, hogy lépjenek fel az ilyen atrocitások ellen, ítéljék el azt és tegyék meg a megfelelő lépéseket az elkövetők felelősségre vonására és az ilyen típusú nacionalista szervezetek betiltására, ahogy ez Magyarországon is már megtörtént. Kérem a Bizottságot és a tagállamokat, hogy fokozott figyelmet szenteljenek a csatlakozásra váró országokra: A volt jugoszláv tagállamokban igen kényes a romák helyzete, nincsenek megfelelő jogi keretek a diszkrimináció ellen való fellépésre.

A leszakadó kisebbségek helyzete is aggasztó. Tűrhetetlennek és elfogadhatatlannak tartom, hogy ilyen esetek megtörténjenek Európában. Gazdasági lépésekkel, akár kisebbségvédelmi jogszabályokkal, de meg kell akadályozni az ilyen eseteket. Az Anti-gipsysm kifejezést az Európai Parlament és az Európai Bizottság is elismert fogalomként tartja számon. A soron következő európai romastratégiába mindenképp szervesen be kell építeni ezt a fogalmat, és cselekvési tervvel megerősíteni az ellene való küzdelmet.

 
  
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  Ilhan Kyuchyuk (ALDE), in writing. – Unfortunately, in 2017 we continue to witness а decline of human rights and civil society worldwide. It is important to note that in 2017, the EU remained a leading player in the universal promotion and protection of human rights at multilateral level, working in particular through the Third Committee of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) and the United Nations Human Rights Council (HRC). The EU strongly supports civil society space and the protection of human rights defenders, focused on reversing crackdowns and new restrictive laws on non-governmental organizations in certain countries, on releasing imprisoned human rights defenders and peaceful activists and on supporting their freedom to conduct their work in numerous concrete ways. However, it is necessary to witness progress in the promotion and protection of human rights and democracy in the next 2018 human rights and democracy report. To achieve this progress, the EU should strengthen its cooperation with all international and regional organisations working in both fields. Furthermore, we must continue our full political and financial support for advocates of liberty, democracy and human rights throughout the world.

 
  
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  Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski (PPE), na piśmie. – W kontekście debaty na temat rocznego sprawozdania dotyczącego praw człowieka i demokracji na świecie oraz polityki UE w tym zakresie chciałbym odnieść się do konferencji grupy PPE, która miała miejsce w Parlamencie Europejskim 5 czerwca i poświęcona została sytuacji społeczeństwa obywatelskiego na Białorusi. Fotografia, która wyłania się z relacji przedstawicieli społeczeństwa obywatelskiego, uzupełniona o interwencje laureata Nagrody Sacharowa w 2006 roku, pana Aleksandra Milinkiewicza, i profesora Andrew Wilsona, autora książki „Białoruś – ostatnia dyktatura w Europie”, podkreśla, że Białoruś jest dzisiaj innym krajem niż w 2010 lub 2014 roku.

Stary, czarno-biały paradygmat przeciwstawiający sobie społeczeństwo obywatelskie i państwo staje się stopniowo nieaktualny, społeczeństwo obywatelskie staje się coraz bardziej hybrydowe, a granica między organizacjami wspierającymi i zdecydowanie odrzucającymi reżim coraz bardziej się zaciera. Najważniejsza konkluzja, która nasuwa się po spotkaniu, podkreśla, że przede wszystkim nie można zapominać o organizacjach społeczeństwa obywatelskiego, realizując politykę unijną w zakresie praw człowieka. Ich przedstawiciele stanowią cenne źródło informacji, które nie są nacechowane politycznie, a odzwierciedlają nastroje zwykłych ludzi, do których skierowane jest unijne wsparcie. Dlatego nie należy wykluczać tej perspektywy w procesie negocjacji, nie tylko tych dotyczących praw człowieka i demokratyzacji, ale także rozmów dotyczących współpracy sektorowej.

 
Senaste uppdatering: 18 september 2018Rättsligt meddelande