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Procedure : 2018/2707(RSP)
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O-000055/2018 (B8-0029/2018)

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Debatten
Woensdag 13 juni 2018 - Straatsburg Herziene uitgave

19. Verbetering van het taalonderwijs en de wederzijdse erkenning van taalvaardigheden in de EU (debat)
Video van de redevoeringen
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  Presidente. – L'ordine del giorno reca la discussione su:

- l'interrogazione con richiesta di risposta orale al Consiglio sul miglioramento dell'apprendimento delle lingue e riconoscimento reciproco delle competenze linguistiche nell'Unione europea presentata da Cecilia Wikström, a nome della commissione per le petizioni (O-000055/2018 - B8-0029/2018) (2018/2707(RSP)) e

- l'interrogazione con richiesta di risposta orale alla Commissione sul miglioramento dell'apprendimento delle lingue e riconoscimento reciproco delle competenze linguistiche nell'Unione europea presentata da Cecilia Wikström, a nome della commissione per le petizioni (O-000056/2018 - B8-0030/2018) (2018/2707(RSP)).

 
  
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  Cecilia Wikström, author. – Mr President, in the name of my committee, the Committee on Petitions, I have the pleasure of presenting the oral question to both the Council and the Commission on improving language learning and the mutual recognition of language competences in the European Union.

In my Committee, we have received a number of petitions asking to improve language learning and the mutual recognition of language competences in the European Union. The petitioners claim that the existing differences in the teaching, evaluation and recognition of language skills in different Member States undermine the freedom of movement, which is very serious. They also claim that it discriminates against children in school whose mother tongue is one of the smaller languages of the 24 official languages of the European Union.

My Committee decided therefore to table this oral question to both the Council and the Commission on this issue, and both these questions were unanimously – and I underline, unanimously – adopted by the Committee on Petitions. According to Article 165 of the Treaty, Member States are exclusively competent for the content and the organisation of education and training systems. So in this sense, the offer of languages for secondary school exams is the decision of the Member State’s Ministry of Education on the organisation of their educational system. However, proficiency in very much more than only one language is considered essential to strengthen employability within the European Union. It is also a critical key competence for active citizenship.

The EU therefore supports and supplements the actions of the Member States, with the aim to improve the efficiency of language teaching and learning. The oral questions to the institutions therefore tabled by my Committee are in line with the Commission’s initiative on the creation of the European education agenda. I’m proud of that. We are completely (inaudible) within that scope, and in particular the concerned package of measures presented by the Commission in May this year suggesting, among other things, a Council recommendation for improving language learning.

The Committee on Petitions wanted to have a debate on these oral questions in this plenary, taking into account the adoption by plenary of the own initiative report by the Cultural Committee on modernisation of education in the European Union. The EU has long promoted language learning with an aim to increase mutual understanding and mobility, this by supporting supplementing actions and cooperation between national educational systems.

Parliament is taking serious note of these petitions that we have received, in which EU citizens do raise their severe concerns about the lack of teaching and recognition of language skills in their mother tongue.

Every EU citizen should be able to take advantage of their freedom to live in a Member State other than his or her own, and unfortunately this problem is today making it difficult to do so. Therefore, we ask and call upon the Council and the Commission to elaborate on the following issues – and I have them, there are four:

Firstly, what actions have you taken to support Member States in order to improve the mutual recognition of language competences in all the official EU languages, based on the levels existing under the common European framework of reference for languages?

Secondly, how does the Council and the Commission assess the added value of teaching official EU languages and particularly the recommendation for ‘mother tongue plus two’ in the context of modernisation of education in the EU, and more particularly for stimulating entrepreneurship, job opportunities and preservation of cultural diversities within the European Union?

Thirdly, does the Council and the Commission have recent and accurate data available concerning language assessment opportunities and the recognition of language exams, diplomas or certificates in the official EU languages other than English, French, German, Spanish and Italian – the big five? How can the European Union further support educational institutions that do provide classes in the official EU languages for EU citizens living in a Member State other than their own?

And lastly, what measures does the Council and the Commission intend to put in place in the European education area to develop an online system for the cross-border recognition and validation of EU language certificates for the purposes of school-leaving diplomas in order to facilitate accessibility to higher education across the EU?

Those are our four questions. They conclude my Committee’s oral question to the two institutions.

 
  
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  Monika Panayotova, President-in-Office of the Council. – Mr President, at the Gothenburg summit in November 2017 the EU Heads of State and Government chose education and culture as the first subject to be addressed under the new Leaders’ Agenda, underlining their willingness to do more in these areas. The results of the Gothenburg discussions were formalised in the conclusions of the European Council meeting on 14 December last year, which emphasised that education and culture are key to building inclusive and cohesive societies. But the European Council didn’t limit itself to such general statements: it also set out a number of specific areas for work to be taken forward.

I would like to mention two such areas, which are specifically relevant to the question posed today. The first is language learning, where the Heads of State and Government called for action so that more young people will speak at least two European languages in addition to their mother tongue. The second area is the mutual recognition of higher education and school leaving diplomas, and here Member States’ cooperation is key. The benefits of multilingual competences impact upon all aspects of life. They contribute to mutual understanding and mobility within the Union. They increase our productivity, competitiveness and economic resilience. The lack of multilingual competences hampers the mobility of our citizens within the European Union and beyond and limits access to education, training and the labour market. At a time when Europe is looking to the future and seeking to re—engage, especially with young people, around an agenda of shared values, we believe multilingual and multicultural competences are crucial to creating a sense of belonging among Europeans.

Here, I would like to remind you that multilingualism was one of the core elements of the modernised Key Competence Framework adopted by the Council in May and the Council recommendation on promoting common values. The Council recommendation on key competences for lifelong learning is particularly relevant because multilingual competence is identified as one of the eight key competences which should be developed by the Member States’ education systems. This update was not just a single act by the Council to address the common challenge in the European Union of the modernisation of educational institutions, but also part of the Member States’ overall ambition to keep working on the New Skills Agenda for Europe.

The Council’s recent extensive work on that matter, including the provision of a quality framework for language learning and recognition, started with the revision of the European Qualifications Framework. The revised European Qualifications Framework recommendation provided better understanding of qualifications and enabled better use of the skills available on the European labour market. The new Europass Framework, agreed recently, builds on the successful formula with easy—to—use tools to help people identify and communicate their skills and qualifications in all EU languages, which is a major boost for the recognition of all EU languages.

In addition, many other initiatives in Europe have supported the definition and development of language competences. The Council supports in a sustainable manner the use of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and recognises the impact of the European Language Label Award for excellence and innovation in language teaching.

Allow me to remind you that the Council held an education ministerial debate in February this year, when it called for a stronger Erasmus+ programme building on current successful instruments and further boosting participation. The call for an inclusive Erasmus+ programme, providing more and new participants with mobility opportunities, will increase the opportunities for young people both to learn more languages and to promote their own mother tongue with the European Union and beyond.

In May the Council adopted important strategic conclusions on moving towards the vision a European Education Area, which recognised multilingual competence as an important building block of such an area. In the meantime, the Commission has issued a package of three further proposals for Council recommendations, including a proposal on the mutual recognition of higher education and school leaving diplomas and the proposal on improving language learning. The two proposed recommendations are particularly relevant to today’s discussion. The recommendation on improving language learning focuses on language teaching and learning in compulsory education, covering both general and vocational schools, as well as multilingual competences in a lifelong perspective.

Both recommendations will be examined in detail by the Council. This process has only just begun and it is therefore too early at this point to comment on the substance. However, there is already broad consensus that these are the key areas to be addressed in seeking to build a European education area and it is my understanding that the ambition of the forthcoming Austrian Presidency is to seek agreement at least on the first proposal, on mutual recognition of diplomas, before the end of this year.

Therefore, on the issue of language learning, as well as mutual recognition of diplomas, it is clear that the work is progressing quite quickly. These issues are a priority for the Council, and Parliament can expect quality results during the upcoming Presidencies.

 
  
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  Presidente. – Ringrazio la signora Ministra e do il benvenuto al Commissario Navracsics, che ricorderà questa serata perché oggi è il suo compleanno e gli rivolgo gli auguri di buon compleanno.

 
  
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  Tibor Navracsics, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, thank you for this oral question which reflects Parliament’s strong commitment to multilingualism. Just three weeks ago, the Commission adopted a proposal for a Council recommendation on the teaching and learning of languages. In fact, this proposal’s recommendation is a response to the European Council which last December called on us, I quote, ‘to enhance the learning of languages so that more young people will speak at least two European languages in addition to their mother tongue’.

Language learning and multilingualism have never been higher on the political agenda. We should use this momentum.

Let me now answer your questions. First, the mutual recognition of language competence is based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The Commission supports and encourages Member States to use this Council of Europe framework. It facilitates the assessment of language competences and helps to create mutual understanding and transparency for the recognition of such competences. In recent years, the Commission has reinforced its cooperation with the Council of Europe and its European Centre for Modern Languages, situated in Graz, Austria. We have supported several joint projects, including on the assessment of language competences.

Two practical tools have also been developed. First, the European language Portfolio, a document that helps language learners, at and beyond school, to record and reflect on their language learning and cultural experiences. The second instrument is the Europass Language Passport, which is part of the Europass online tool. These two instruments help validate language competences in a transparent and comparable manner. Countries can use them to move towards the recognition of different language competences.

On your second question, on teaching languages in the context of the modernisation of education in the EU: language competences are at the heart of our ambitious vision to create a European Education Area. Being able to speak foreign languages is a key condition for studying and working abroad. It provides valuable and much-demanded skills on the labour market, strengthens a sense of European identity and enable learners fully to discover Europe’s cultural diversity.

The Commission proposal for a Council recommendation on a comprehensive approach to the teaching and learning of languages stresses that young people need to be able to express themselves in three languages. First is the language of schooling, which is generally the national language; second is a language of international communication; and also a third language, which is most often relevant to their personal context. It is a priority for the Commission to support Member States in making language teaching and learning more effective.

Now, on your third question on language assessment and the recognition of language certificates, as well as support to educational institutions: in the 2014 Council conclusions on multilingualism the Commission was invited to explore the feasibility of assessing language competences across all Member States by using existing national language tests. In 2015, two studies were launched. The aim was to map national tests and compare the tests used across Europe to assess the language competences of secondary school pupils. However, these studies concluded that the data available at national level were not comparable.

The Erasmus+ programme supports language learning. In fact, this is one of its specific objectives. Opportunities for pupils to learn abroad, which we intend to boost in the future Erasmus programme, will also support the learning of languages. Moreover, teachers will benefit from continuous professional development and mobility schemes. We want to ensure that by 2025 every newly graduated language teacher will have spent at least six months learning or teaching abroad. Online training projects are also valuable for developing language competences.

Finally, to your fourth question on the recognition of language competencies in school-leaving diplomas: in May the Commission proposed the Council recommendation on a comprehensive approach to the teaching and learning of languages. It stresses the importance of acquiring and developing adequate language competences in one’s mother tongue plus two additional languages. To help people reach adequate competence levels, the recommendation promotes the concept of language-aware schools that embed language learning – the learning of both of foreign languages and the language of schooling – across curricula. This enables a focus on pupils’ respective needs, circumstances, abilities and interests.

Language-aware schools value linguistic diversity and enable students to maintain their entire linguistic repertoire, including their home language or mother tongue when this is not the language of schooling. As a consequence, the prior learning and knowledge of languages which are not part of the curriculum can be formally recognised and can be added to school-leaving certificates. Currently it is not possible to acquire recognised qualifications in all European languages. Therefore, the Commission encourages Member States to step up their efforts to make language certificates more widely available.

 
  
  

PRZEWODNICTWO: ZDZISŁAW KRASNODĘBSKI
Wiceprzewodniczący

 
  
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  Светослав Христов Малинов, от името на групата PPE. – Бих искал да погледнем на днешния дебат като чудесна победа на каузата на малките официални езици. Наистина малките официални езици си заслужаваха един дебат в голямата зала в Страсбург.

Измежду петициите, които бяха в основата на днешния дебат, имаше и една българска петиция, особено впечатляваща петиция на Асоциацията на българските училища в чужбина. И макар да тръгна въпросът и дебатът под петиция на български учители, много бързо темата беше припозната като голяма общоевропейска тема, а именно защита на малките официални езици и най-вече на техните най-уязвими носители – децата, учениците.

Защото става дума за защита на онези млади хора, чиито родители са се възползвали от фундаменталното право на свободно придвижване или пък чиито родител, ако става дума за смесени бракове, и чието естествено владеене на майчиния език не е оценено по достойнство, особено когато става дума за майчин език, който е официален на Европейския съюз.

Този дебат, тръгнал от комисията по петиции показва, че когато имаш кауза, когато имаш аргументи, гласът ти ще бъде чут от Европейския парламент, а както стана видно от отговора на комисар Наврачич, ще бъде чут дори от Европейската комисия. Защото става дума за принцип – принципът на равнопоставеността на всички официални езици. Няма връщане назад. Нещо повече, от чутото досега мисля, че Комисията и Европейският парламент ще изпреварят държавите членки в тази посока.

 
  
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  Петър Курумбашев, от името на групата S&D. – Основната цел на тази петиция, за която говори г-н Малинов и за която Асоциацията на българските училища заслужава поздравление, е в определени училища във всички държави членки да се предлагат изпити в края на средното образование на всички официални езици на Европейския съюз. Няма логика този въпрос да бъде решаван на ниво двустранни отношения между две отделни държави членки. Именно това е смисълът на Европейския съюз и на европейското право – този въпрос да бъде решен за всички официални езици във всички държави членки.

Всеки човек би искал децата му, независимо от това къде живеят или колко езика знаят, да говорят на неговия собствен език, на официалния език на неговата държава. Всеки език е врата към една култура. Твоят собствен език е врата към твоята собствена култура. Ние много се гордеем, че като българи дадохме третата азбука в Европейския съюз след латиницата и гръцката азбука, и аз много се надявам, че българските деца ще могат да четат и да пишат на кирилица навсякъде, във всяка държава-членка на Европейския съюз.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς, εξ ονόματος της ομάδας ECR. – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η Επιτροπή Αναφορών είναι η επιτροπή στην οποία απευθύνονται οι πολίτες και έχουν τη δυνατότητα να θέσουν τα θέματα που τους απασχολούν. Το θέμα το οποίο εξετάζουμε σήμερα υπό μορφή ερώτησης είναι πραγματικά καθοριστικό, διότι η δυνατότητα των πολιτών να έχουν γλωσσικές ικανότητες, να μπορούν να μιλούν δύο επιπλέον γλώσσες εκτός από τη μητρική τους γλώσσα, είναι κάτι πολύ σημαντικό και καθοριστικό, ιδίως σε μια φάση όπου χιλιάδες νέοι από τον ευρωπαϊκό Νότο και την ευρωπαϊκή περιφέρεια, ακριβώς λόγω των πολιτικών λιτότητας και φτώχιας που υπάρχουν στις περιοχές αυτές, αναγκάζονται να έρχονται προς τις χώρες του σκληρού πυρήνα.

Είναι λοιπόν βασικό να δοθεί η δυνατότητα στη νεολαία, μέσω του Εrasmus και των ευρωπαϊκών κονδυλίων, να έχει αυτές τις γλωσσικές ικανότητες, αλλά φυσικά πρέπει να υπάρχουν και διαδικασίες αναγνώρισης των γλωσσικών ικανοτήτων τις οποίες αποκτούν οι νέοι μας. Θεωρούμε σημαντικές τόσο αυτές τις πρωτοβουλίες όσο και τη στήριξη των καθηγητών ξένων γλωσσών.

 
  
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  Илхан Кючюк, от името на групата ALDE. – Искам да благодаря на всички, които работиха по темата, но преди всичко бих искал да благодаря и на Асоциацията на българските училища в чужбина, чиято петиция положи основите на този устен въпрос, който дискутираме тази вечер.

Знам, че Европейската комисия в такива случаи казва: „Въпросът е в компетенциите на държавите членки.“ И ние това го знаем много добре. В държавите членки се осъществяват специфичните езикови политики. В случая обаче не става въпрос само за образование, а за мобилност. За мобилност и свободно движение на най-ценния ни капитал – знанието. И наистина, какъв по-ценен капитал има от уменията и знанията на подрастващите поколения? Езиковата компетентност е част от този капитал. Придобиването ѝ се насърчава като ключова компетентност.

Оказва се, че при мобилност може да се обезцени и загуби вече езиковата компетентност. Давам ви пример. Ученик от България с два чужди езика, английски и френски, пристига във Франция и остава само с един чужд език. Българският му вече не се брои, не се вписва никъде, не се признава, не се оценява. Това обезценяване води до неподдържането му и до загуба. Местната система всъщност казва: „Този език ти е излишен.“ Така казват много администрации за много езици, а излишни ли са наистина те? Не им ли трябват на държавите членки с тези редки познания, за да станат именно хората на още по-тясната интеграция на пазари и култури.

Тук не говорим за хармонизация, нито за образователни системи, нито за изпитни системи, нито за езикови политики. Необходим е механизъм, който да предаде стойност на придобитите езикови познания, независимо на кой език, как и къде са придобити. Не хармонизация, а механизъм по избор на държавите – дали с национални изпити, дали с признаване на сертификати или по друг начин. Подобен механизъм ще се яви като административна мярка, а не като образователна.

В заключение бих казал, че въпросът не стои само пред българските ученици и родители, а пред стотици хиляди европейски граждани. Мобилността означава отворени врати, а загубата на език затваря врати.

 
  
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  Liadh Ní Riada, thar ceann an Ghrúpa GUE/NGL. – A Uachtaráin, cuirim fáilte gan dabht roimh an díospóireacht seo mar ceapaim gur maith an rud é aitheantas a thabhairt dár n-éagsúlacht teanga. Is díospóireacht bheo leanúnach í cearta teanga san Eoraip agus sa bhaile in Éirinn. Mar shampla, tá ár rialtas féin ag déanamh faillí ar ár bpobal Gaeilge le heaspa seirbhísí agus easpa aitheantais, easpa múinteoirí agus easpa tacaíochta, go háirithe dúinne atá inár gcónaí sa Ghaeltacht.

Tá dearcadh rialtas na Breataine scannalach i dtaobh ár dteanga dhúchasach agus nílid toilteanach comhaontú Chill Rímhinn a chomhlíonadh maidir le hAcht na Gaeilge. Tá sé tábhachtach mar sin go seasfaimid mar Fheisirí go láidir ar son cearta teanga agus son cearta daonna i ngach gné dár saol. Tá ár dteangacha tábhachtach, ní hamháin dár bhféiniúlacht ach dár bhféinmhuinín, dár n-éiceolaiocht, dár gcultúr agus níos mó ná san.

Ach mar fhocal scoir, agus samhlaím go bhfuil sé tábhachtach é seo a ardú agus sinn ag caint ar chúrsaí teanga ar ndóigh: tá deacrachtaí ag na hateangairí le riarachán sa Pharlaimint seo agus táim ag labhairt go díreach leis na hateangairí atá anseo trathnóna chun a rá libh go bhfuilimidne in éineacht libh, táimid ag éisteacht libh, táimid in éineacht in bhur dtroid ar son cearta agus ar son bhur gcearta oibriúcháin. Beirigí bua, seasfaimid an fód libh.

 
  
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  Dominique Bilde, au nom du groupe ENF. – Monsieur le Président, dernièrement des voix s’élevaient aux Pays-Bas, pourtant chantre de la mondialisation heureuse, contre la suprématie de l’anglais dans l’enseignement supérieur. Un réveil tardif à l’heure où pour l’étudiant international lambda, les journées sont rythmées par des cours en anglais et des conversations sur Skype dans la langue maternelle.

Les objectifs de Barcelone de maîtrise de deux langues étrangères comme gage de diversité auront fait long feu tant, de Bologne à Maastricht, le globish règne sans partage.

Comment s’en étonner alors que les institutions européennes entretiennent elles-mêmes un double discours permanent entre éloge du multilinguisme et une hégémonie de l’anglais disproportionnée au regard de son poids démographique au lendemain du Brexit.

Derrière la question de principe se profile celle de la considération accordée à des nations comme la France, État fondateur et contributeur net, alors que le renouveau des patriotismes essaime les ferments d’un printemps des peuples européens. De la réponse à cette question dépend la légitimité de l’Europe mais également sa survie.

 
  
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  Pál Csáky (PPE). – Elnök Úr, Biztos Úr! A Petíciós Bizottságot a nyelvhasználatot illetően számos európai polgár kereste meg, ennek alapján kérdezzük ma a Bizottságot és a Tanácsot a felvetett kérdésekről. Előrelátó elgondolásnak tartom a két intézményhez címzett kérdésben megfogalmazottakat, ugyanis ha egy nyitott, egymás megértésére és megismerésére képes Európát akarunk, akkor azt a fiatalok oktatásával kell kezdenünk. Nyelvtudás nélkül nehezebb kultúráink megismerése, bonyolultabb az utazás és bonyolultabb a külföldi tanulás is.

Ezért is fontos, hogy erőteljes uniós támogatást kapjon minél több olyan kezdeményezés, amely a nyelvi sokszínűség erősítése céljából születik. Az Európai Unió sokat segíthet a tanulóknak, például a más tagállami nyelvvizsgák és bizonyítványok gyorsabb és rugalmasabb elfogadásával, vagy a más tagállami nyelvek oktatására specializálódott intézmények jobb támogatásával. Itt megállnék egy pillanatra, mert úgy gondolom, hogy hasonló, vagy talán még nagyobb támogatásra van szükségük a kisebbségi, vagy regionális nyelveket beszélő tanulóknak és diákoknak is. Ezért kérem a Bizottságot és a Tanácsot, hogy jövőbeli intézkedéseikben ne feledkezzenek meg az európai kisebbségi nyelveket beszélő fiatalokról sem.

 
  
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  Clara Eugenia Aguilera García (S&D). – Señor presidente, me parece de una gran oportunidad este debate sobre esta pregunta oral de la Comisión de Peticiones.

Creo que la mejora del aprendizaje de lenguas es una obligación y, aunque se han referido otros colegas a que, efectivamente, es una competencia de los Estados, yo creo que desde la Unión Europea, desde el Consejo y de la Comisión se pueden hacer más cosas. Somos el mayor espacio político común con mayor número de idiomas. Tenemos ahí países como Rusia o Estados Unidos con un único idioma, prácticamente. Es decir, por lo tanto, nosotros somos un gran espacio político con un gran número de idiomas, y eso es un valor compartido. Por tanto, hay que tomar iniciativas. Me han parecido interesantes las del Consejo, también las que ha anunciado la Comisión.

Yo soy de un país ―España― con una lengua oficial pero con tres lenguas más oficiales en su territorio, y creo que eso es una riqueza. Hay que proseguir esas iniciativas y que las competencias de los Estados sean generosas con el hecho de que la Unión Europea favorezca el lenguaje y el aprendizaje de estos idiomas.

 
  
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  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE). – Pane předsedající, děkuji také panu komisaři za jeho zprávu a pozornost, kterou věnuje otázce jazykového vzdělávání. Myslím, že zájmem EU je, aby se lidé mezi sebou domluvili. K tomu potřebují nepochybně linguu francu, to je dnes angličtina, a pokud jsou nadaní, určitě zvládnou ještě další cizí jazyk.

EU musí také podporovat vzdělávání v mateřském jazyce. Samozřejmě, že to je v zájmu členských států, aby byly aktivní, podporovaly jazykovou gramotnost svých občanů, ale vzhledem k mobilitě je právě i na EU, aby jim pomohla, aby koordinovala jazykové vzdělávání, a proto navrhujeme mechanismus pravidelného transparentního hodnocení jazykových kompetencí napříč členskými zeměmi. EU by měla podporovat vzdělávací instituce, které zajišťují výuku v úředních jazycích EU pro občany, kteří žijí mimo svůj vlastní členský stát.

V neposlední řadě také bychom měli pomoci k dostupnosti univerzitního vzdělávání prostřednictvím on-line systému přeshraničního uznávání a potvrzování jazykových osvědčení pro účely osvědčení o ukončení školní docházky. Měli bychom k tomu také využít kompetenci, kapacity, které má třeba OECD. Chci v této chvíli poděkovat kolegovi Malinovovi za jeho iniciativu a panu komisaři za jeho spolupráci.

 
  
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  Csaba Sógor (PPE). – Elnök Úr! Az anyanyelvünk által meghatározott kereten való túllépés és az idegen nyelvek elsajátítása számos kulturális, szociális és nem utolsó sorban, gazdasági előnnyel jár. Ugyanakkor az idegen nyelvek ismerete, és ebből kifolyólag a minőségi nyelvoktatás egyre inkább szükségszerűséggé válik a mai multikulturális világunkban. Sehol sem nyilvánvaló annyira ez, mint az Európai Unióban. Ezáltal adódik lehetőség egymás kultúrájának megismerésére, az egyes nemzetek közötti kapcsolatok elmélyítésére, de ezáltal valósul meg az EU egyik alapelve: a munkaerő szabad áramlása is, amely idegen nyelv gyakorlásának hiányában nem lenne lehetséges hatékonyan.

Ebből adódóan fontos, hogy az EU minden intézkedésével támogassa a nyelvoktatás korszerűsítését célzó elképzeléseket, hogy biztosítani tudjuk a korszerű nyelvoktatáshoz szükséges körülményeket. Fontosnak tartom azt is, hogy az alapnyelveken kívül nagyobb hangsúlyt fektessünk a szomszédos országok közötti kapcsolatok nyelvoktatás általi szorosabbá fűzésére is. Hasznosnak bizonyulhat, ha egy adott országban az alap idegen nyelven kívül oktatott idegen nyelv az adott ország valamelyik szomszédos országának a nyelve. Ezáltal a szomszédos országok közötti kommunikáció, és a kölcsönös gazdasági előnyökkel járó mobilitás is hatékonyabbá válhat.

 
  
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  Момчил Неков (S&D). – На територията на Съюза има редица семейства, чиито членове живеят, работят и учат в друга държава членка. Изборът да живееш, работиш или учиш на друго място не трябва да става за сметка на връзката с родния език и култура, а напротив, точно обратното. За съжаление, децата в тези семейства често губят връзката си с родния език. Това се дължи отчасти на факта, че повечето държави-членки на Европейския съюз, не предвиждат възможност за явяване на матуритетен изпит по така наречените малки европейски езици като българския, което е чиста проба дискриминация.

Културната и езиковата идентичност на всеки гражданин на Европейския съюз, независимо от това дали е роден в България или Англия, е нещо, което трябва да браним, и Европейският съюз трябва да играе ключова роля в този процес. Достъпът до равни възможности е нещо, с което не можем да правим компромис. След като имаме взаимно признаване на дипломи, смятам, че трябва да имаме и взаимно признаване на езикови компетентности.

 
  
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  Асим Адемов (PPE). – Една от политиките на Европейския съюз е да стимулира изучаването и разпространението на официалните езици в Съюза. В този смисъл, всеки един език извън основните като английски, френски, немски и испански, заслужава да бъде признат в образователните системи на страните-членки на Съюза. Но повечето от страните членки не признават изпити, дипломи и сертификати за езици, различни от изброените, което е дискриминация срещу учениците, владеещи т.нар. малки езици.

Все повече семейства с деца вече се установяват в друга страна-членка на Съюза, и за тях е важно децата да запазят връзката си с родния език. Стимул за тях ще е, ако знанията им по родния език се оценяват и оценките или сертификатът се признава при кандидатстване във висше учебно заведение. Трябва да се даде възможност на учениците, които говорят т.нар. малки езици и чиито родители са извън родната си страна, да изучават майчиния си език.

По статистически данни само от България има над 200 хиляди ученици в чужбина, но само 15 хиляди от тях са обхванати от български училища. Необходимо е да се осигури правна възможност за полагане на матура или друг изпит по всеки един от официалните езици на Европейския съюз. В това число и на българския език и резултатът от такъв изпит да се вписва в дипломата за завършен етап от обучение на съответната образователна система на държавата-членка на Европейския съюз.

Това, например, се прави вече в Съединените американски щати. Нормално е да се прави и в страните-членки на Съюза. Този проблем засяга не само българските ученици, но и учениците на всички страни членки. Владеенето на още един език ще е плюс за развитието на личността, за да бъде тя конкурентоспособна на пазара на труда.

 
  
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  Anna Záborská (PPE). – Vážený pán predsedajúci, Európska únia prispieva k rozvoju kvalitného vzdelávania podporovaním spolupráce medzi členskými štátmi. Ak je to potrebné, podporuje a dopĺňa činnosti členských štátov. Pritom by mala plne rešpektovať ich zodpovednosť za obsah výučby, organizáciu vzdelávacích systémov a kultúrnu a jazykovú rozmanitosť. Programy ako Erasmus sú dobrým príkladom šírenia tejto rozmanitosti a porozumenia naprieč celou Úniou.

Znepokojuje ma však, že jazykové skúšky nie sú rovnocenne uznávané všetkými štátmi Únie. Bežnou praxou je, že ak študent získa štátnu skúšku alebo iný ekvivalent certifikátu z anglického jazyka napríklad na Slovensku, má následný problém s jeho uznávaním v rámci ostatných krajín EÚ.

Tento týždeň sme hovorili o stratégii vzdelávania v Európskej únii. V rámci tejto stratégie je nutné prelínanie sa vysokoškolského vzdelávania za predpokladu vzájomného uznávania jazykových certifikátov. Je to práve mobilita študentov v EÚ, ktorá pomáha zvyšovať odbornú prípravu mladých ľudí a v konečnom dôsledku ich zamestnanosť na trhu práce.

Každý členský štát má jedinečnú kultúrno-jazykovú identitu, ktorú by sme mali rešpektovať. Všetky štáty sú si podľa práva Únie rovné, a preto by aj prax uznávania jazykových kompetencií mala byť v tomto zmysle zosúladená.

 
  
 

Zgłoszenia z sali

 
  
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  Sirpa Pietikäinen (PPE). – Arvoisa puhemies, kielillä ja kielitaidolla on aivan erityinen merkitys osana eurooppalaisen identiteetin muodostumista ja myöskin ihmisten vuorovaikutusten parantamista ja eurooppalaisen politiikan ja dialogin kehittämistä sekä luonnollisesti myöskin edellytyksenä muuttaa työmarkkinoilla toisiin jäsenmaihin.

Siksi osana tätä eurooppalaista koulutusaluetta olisikin aivan erityisesti panostettava kieltenopetuksen lisäämiseen kaikilla koulutusasteilla. Kun puhun kielten, tarkoitan kahta kolmea erilaista kieltä. Samassa yhteydessä olisi myöskin tarpeen edistää näiden standardoitujen eurooppalaisten kielitestien leviämistä eri jäsenmaihin ja eri koulutusmuotoihin niin, että voimme osoittaa kielitaidon tason yhteismitallisesti eri jäsenmaissa. Nämä ovat toivomukset komissiolle kielialueen vahvistamisen ja kielitaidon vahvistamisen osalta.

 
  
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  Julie Ward (S&D). – Mr President, I welcome the initiative for further promoting language learning, including ‘the mother tongue plus two’ ambition. Being able to speak several languages improves one’s employability and increases the likelihood of getting a qualified job. It is also a way to internationalise one’s career, which is very useful in a globalised world. Learning another language is also an incredibly enriching cultural experience which provides learners with social skills – in particular intercultural skills – and the ability to adapt to different social and cultural environments.

When you learn a language, you do not only learn about grammar and vocabulary, you begin to understand someone else’s vision of the world. Learning openness to other perspectives and being willing to learn a language yourself are amongst the most transferable skills that young people will need in a fast-changing globalised and diverse world.

Finally, as a disability rights champion and as a qualified BSL signer, I also want to mention the need to promote sign-language learning for a true and inclusive language diversity.

 
  
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  Ангел Джамбазки (ECR). – Един език не може да бъде голям или малък. В тази връзка не може, не е редно и не трябва да бъдат разделяни езиците в Европейския съюз на големи и на малки, защото езикът не се измерва с големината на територията. Територията се е променяла и се променя. Ако един език има поезия на него, ако един език може да прави изкуство, значи той е голям. Моят език има 1300 години история само на Балканите в Европа. Това е българският език. А азбуката, която сме създали и запазили, е създала, запазила и пренася хилядолетно културно наследство.

Ние сме част от Европейския съюз, всеки един то нас е различен, всеки един от нас носи част от своята култура, от своята памет. Затова езиците трябва да бъдат пазени и затова идентичността, самосъзнанието и самочувствието трябва да бъде запазено през запазването на езика, което става, когато даваме възможност на всеки един гражданин на държава от Европейския съюз да полага своите матуритетни изпити и да пази езика си. Това трябва да направим в Европейски съюз.

 
  
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  Ana Miranda (Verts/ALE). – Senhor Presidente, como falamos de línguas quero dar o meu apoio aos intérpretes das 24 cabines desta câmara europeia para reivindicar o seu direito à greve e como falamos de línguas explicar que não há línguas grandes nem línguas pequenas, há línguas vivas ou línguas mortas.

O multilinguismo, o reconhecimento das competências linguísticas tem muita importância. Acabámos de aprovar uma iniciativa da cidadania europeia sobre as línguas minoritárias.

E quero chamar a atenção para que se apoie também as línguas minoritárias, as línguas maternas, línguas como a minha, a língua galega, que perde falantes, em especial nas crianças. Não se esqueçam, Comissão Europeia e Conselho, das línguas co-oficiais, co-oficiais de muitos povos europeus.

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. – Ja bym się jeszcze upomniał o takie języki tzw. martwe jak łacina.

 
  
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  Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski (PPE). – Panie Przewodniczący! W Komisji Kultury jesteśmy wszyscy zgodni: uznawalność kompetencji językowych to jest cel, to jest pewne wyzwanie i to jest pewne dobro, do którego powinniśmy dążyć. Zgodni jesteśmy także z panem komisarzem. Notabene jakbym wiedział, co pan komisarz powie, może nie zabierałbym głosu. Ale jeden element nam ucieka cały czas: my mówimy tak, jakby nie było adresata tego postulatu. Ponieważ wiemy, że przynależy to do kompetencji poszczególnych państw, warto wymienić te państwa, z którymi mamy największy problem, gdzie nie uznaje się dyplomów, gdzie nie kategoryzuje się także uznawalności tego wszystkiego, co mieści się w obszarze kompetencji. Powinniśmy o tym mówić.

Byłem ministrem kultury przez siedem lat i wiem, że to jest niezwykle mobilizujące – wskazywanie wad, błędów, pokazywanie dokładnie adresu, który powinien zreformować albo zrealizować określone przedsięwzięcie, jest efektywne. Dlatego też mam prośbę do pana komisarza: mówmy, gdzie mamy największe problemy.

 
  
 

(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)

 
  
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  Tibor Navracsics, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, thank you for having this debate here in the Parliament, because it’s reinforced our fundamental message that education is really probably the most powerful vehicle of social integration and social inclusion, and the language aspect of this vehicle is even more important in the European Union, which is a multi-lingual community. So it has its own social role, and the education of languages, both majority official languages and also the minority languages for the minority communities, is of utmost importance from the point of view of the future of Europe. But it is also the economic aspects of the education of languages. The more languages we know, the more competitive we are, and it can be one of the most important underpinning of the single market and the economic aspects of the European Union and also the future competitiveness of the European Union. So thank you for this very fruitful debate. I rely on you in the future when we encourage the Member States for closer cooperation to have the mutual recognition of diplomas and school papers and language certificates and working towards a European education area.

 
  
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  Monika Panayotova, President-in-Office of the Council. – Mr President, I would like to thank the honourable Members for this important and enriching debate. I believe that there is a very wide consensus regarding the importance not only of learning foreign languages, but also of preserving the so—called smaller languages. This is not only key to the ambition of creating a European education area, but even more crucial to the task of building Europe for the future, based on common values and mutual understanding of our diverse traditions. Parliament can be sure that the Council will advance quickly on this agenda. Now please allow me to say a few words in my mother tongue.

– Бих искала да се обърна на български към всички Вас, тъй като това е последното ми участие в пленарна зала, последният дебат в качеството ми на министър за българското председателство, вземащ участие от името на Съвета.

Бих искала сърдечно да благодаря през изминалите шест месеца за изключително добрия дух и диалог на сътрудничество, който имахме; за привилегията и честта да участвам в наистина важни дебати от европейския дневен ред, важни както за бъдещето на европейските политики, които са важни най-вече за бъдещето на европейските граждани. Така че за мен бе наистина чест да говоря от името на Съвета и да бъда с Вас в пленарна зала и с радост ще предадем щафетата от юни месец на колегите от Австрия.

Удоволствие е, че имах възможност именно последния дебат, в който взимам участие, да бъде посветен на младите хора, на образованието, на културното и езиковото многообразие, които са основата всъщност за изграждането на обща европейска идентичност на всички нас. И показваме, че всъщност, когато трите институции работят заедно в една посока, наистина съединението прави силата, което е и девизът на българското председателство. Благодаря Ви, наистина бе удоволствие за мен. Надявам се да е взаимно.

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. – To zawsze miło jest odczuć wspólnotę językową języków słowiańskich.

Zamykam debatę.

Oświadczenia pisemne (art. 162)

 
  
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  Andrea Bocskor (PPE), írásban. – Először is szeretném megköszönni Malinov kollégámnak, hogy felkarolta ezt a kezdeményezést. Mint az EP Kulturális és Oktatási Bizottságának alelnöke nagyon fontosnak tartom, hogy a nyelvekről, a nyelvtanulásról, a nyelvek és diplomák elismeréséről az Európai Unió szintjén is beszéljünk. A nyelv a gyermek kognitív és szociális fejlődésének alapja, ezért elsődlegesen az anyanyelven való tanulás fontos. E mellett a többnyelvűség kompetenciájának is vannak előnyei az élet valamennyi területén.

A kisebbségi és többségi nyelvek és kultúrák egyaránt hozzájárulnak Európa sokszínűségéhez, erről konszenzus van. A kisebbségek védelme hozzájárul Európa etnikai, kulturális és nyelvi sokszínűségéhez. A demokratikus társadalmakban az anyanyelv oktatása, illetve az anyanyelven történő tanulás minden ember alapjoga, beleértve az őshonos nemzeti kisebbségeket is. Ezen jogot az államnak biztosítania kell. Annál is inkább, hogy az anyanyelv a legjobb eszköz az oktatásban, hisz a diákok saját nyelvükön tudják legeredményesebben teljesíteni az iskolai követelményeket. Nemrégiben az Európai Bizottság által közzétett A nyelvtanítás és a nyelvtanulás megközelítéséről c. javaslatban sajnos nem kaptak kellő figyelmet a kisebbségi és regionális nyelvek.

A szubszidiaritás elvével összhangban kérem az Európai Bizottságot és a Tanácsot, hogy dolgozzon ki javaslatokat a nyelvvizsgák és diplomák kölcsönös elismerésére, ezáltal is támogatva nem csak a nagyobb európai nyelvek terjedését, de a kisebb, regionális vagy őshonos kisebbségek által beszélt nyelveket is Európában.

 
  
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  Krystyna Łybacka (S&D), na piśmie. – W kontekście debaty nt. poprawy sytuacji w zakresie nauczania języków i wzajemnego uznawania kompetencji językowych w Unii Europejskiej podkreślam znaczenie umiejętności językowych dla zwiększenia mobilności w UE. W tym aspekcie zwracam się do Komisji, aby w ramach programu Erasmus umożliwić wszystkim beneficjentom programów dostęp do testów i kursów językowych. Takie rozwiązanie mogłoby przyczynić się zarówno do zwiększenia mobilności kadry naukowej i administracyjnej w ramach tego programu, jak również do poprawy kompetencji językowych wszystkich jego uczestników. Umożliwienie wszystkim nauki języków w ramach Erasmusa stanowiłoby istotny wkład Unii na rzecz promowania wielojęzyczności i nauki języków obcych.

Ponadto w nawiązaniu do przygotowanego przeze mnie sprawozdania nt. modernizacji edukacji w Unii podkreślam konieczność większego włączenia nauki języków obcych do programów kształcenia i szkolenia zawodowego.

 
Laatst bijgewerkt op: 20 september 2018Juridische mededeling