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Mercredi 13 juin 2018 - Strasbourg Edition révisée

21. Fermeture du marché européen de l’ivoire pour lutter contre le braconnage (débat)
Vidéo des interventions
PV
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  Przewodniczący. – Kolejnym punktem porządku dziennego jest oświadczenie Komisji w sprawie zamknięcia unijnego rynku kości słoniowej w celu zwalczania kłusownictwa (2018/2750(RSP)).

 
  
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  Tibor Navracsics, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, thank you for putting this important matter on the agenda. It is a very timely debate, given the developments in relevant international forums, in particular the CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and also in some of the EU Member States and, of course, at EU level.

A number of measures have been taken since we learned about the latest increase in elephant poaching in several African countries. We have seen some encouraging signs since then, but many elephant populations are still at risk. The greatest danger certainly comes from the trafficking of ivory from source countries in Africa to consumer markets in East Asia.

Some EU Member States are unfortunately used as transit hubs by the traffickers. Of all the ivory that is being seized by national customs authorities, by far the biggest share concerns such transit shipments from Africa to Asia. Under the EU Action Plan against Wildlife Trafficking, we have worked with Member States since 2016 towards the tightening of controls and increasing of relevant capacities.

We are also working with third countries at both ends of the trade flow: to help them fight poaching on the ground in Africa and to reduce demand for ivory in Asia. In addition, we have increased the development cooperation budget to fight elephant poaching and with contributions to the African Elephant Fund.

The current discussion about domestic ivory markets in the EU and elsewhere must be set against this broader global background. The Conference of the Parties to the CITES Convention adopted a resolution on this at its last meeting in 2016. The resolution calls on countries to close their domestic markets for commercial ivory trade if there is a legal market that is contributing to poaching or illegal trade. Already we have in place strict rules on ivory trade in the European Union: imports of ivory into the EU and exports from the EU have been banned since 1975 in respect of Asian elephants, and since 1990 in respect of African elephants. For ivory items that have been in Europe for a long time, domestic trade is strictly regulated with a system of certificates and demonstration of legal origin by traders.

The rules were tightened further in May 2017 with the adoption of a specific Commission guidance document. Since then, the export of old raw ivory from the EU has no longer been possible. EU Member States have unanimously supported this additional tightening of the rules and are following the guidance very closely, thereby ensuring uniform application of the rules. With this measure, the risk that ivory exported from Europe could fuel the demand in destination markets, and indirectly also the poaching in Africa, has been significantly reduced.

But we did not stop there. Towards the end of last year the Commission organised a public consultation to gather relevant data and to consult widely on possible additional measures regarding exports and sales of ‘Old World’ ivory items. The consultation attracted many responses and a clear majority of respondents called for far-reaching measures against domestic ivory trade. Those calls are often based on the precautionary principle, rather than on any specific evidence for systematic links between the legal ivory trade in the EU and elephant poaching in Africa.

On the other hand, EU stakeholders, such as makers of musical instruments or antique dealers, used the consultation to highlight the impact of any additional restrictive measures on their sources of livelihood.

The Commission is currently reflecting on the way forward and it will report to Parliament and the Council in the context of its progress report on the Wildlife Trafficking Action Plan.

 
  
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  Sirpa Pietikäinen, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Mr President, Africa’s elephant population is drastically declining and, at the same time, globally the legal ivory trade is – and remains – at the same level that it was at six years ago, even though different kinds of attempts have been made globally. The record for seizures of illegal ivory was, actually, in 2016. We have fewer than 440 000 elephants today and poachers kill an estimated 55 elephants per day. So we need drastic and good actions.

I would like to thank the EU Member States and the Commission for taking these steps forward, but this is not yet adequate. Illegal poaching and the illegal ivory trade will not stop as long as legal trade in any form is open. We need to close the domestic markets. The EU is still the largest domestic market for ivory in the world and, by the way, we are also a major transit point for illegal trading in wildlife goods.

China has banned the ivory trade domestically, the UK has one of the most stringent bans and the same goes for the USA and Hong Kong. What is actually needed now is for the EU to close its domestic markets totally. Exclusion through special permits would be allowed for some antique instruments or issues like that, but normal domestic trade should not continue anymore.

 
  
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  Jacqueline Foster, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Mr President, I echo the remarks made by our former speaker, well done.

In April 2015, I sponsored an exhibition in the Brussels Parliament for the Born Free Foundation. The actress Virginia McKenna spoke passionately for an end to wildlife trafficking and a ban on the ivory trade. Prince William’s speech in China endorsed our position, and last week in the British House of Commons, they voted for what will soon be one of the toughest bans on the trade of ivory in the world. This UK ban will be tougher than America’s and China’s, but nations acting alone cannot succeed in closing the market. Only global action can stamp out the trade in ivory and turn back the tide towards elephant extinction, and not forgetting the rhinoceros. We in the UK have consistently taken the lead; we were the first country to ban cosmetics testing on animals in 1998, but it took the European Union six years. With 20 000 animals slaughtered annually, waiting six years is not an option, Commissioner.

As long as Europe has a large market for ivory, the poaching of elephants will continue. I want future generations to be able to enjoy our world’s diverse wildlife, not just read about it in history books. So if we act together now and close down this European ivory market, we can make a huge contribution towards saving these magnificent animals and stop the criminals who currently profit from the trade.

I therefore implore you Commissioner, to do something and act now and follow Britain’s lead in abolishing this abhorrent practice.

 
  
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  Catherine Bearder, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, the slaughter of elephants for their ivory continues, and it’s abhorrent. We all know that, the public knows it, and it has to stop. But the EU is sitting still while others are taking real action. China and Hong Kong have closed their ivory markets, and even the UK, as we have just heard, is now coming forward with a total ban on all ivory. Yet the EU is still the largest exporter of so-called ‘legal ivory’ in the world.

That’s the problem. We all assume the ivory we are exporting is legal. We assume that if an ivory carving, a knife handle or a snooker ball has paperwork saying it is pre-1947, it is legal and can be sold as antique – but that’s not always the case. An Oxford University study to be released later this month shows that over two thirds of ivory sold legally on the EU market is in fact not pre-1947. It’s clear that illegally-poached ivory is getting into the legal markets, and it’s the marketplace that’s driving demand, and that is driving the killing. Criminal gangs control this profitable trade. They forge paperwork and they get their new or reworked ivory onto the market. The only place where ivory belongs or should have any value is on the front of a live elephant.

So Commissioner, no half measures. All ivory trade is driving slaughter. Thousands of tonnes of ivory representing thousands of elephants – for what? Trinkets and criminality. We need a full and comprehensive EU-wide ban on ivory, with appropriate exemptions, now. I will not stand by while elephants die. The Members of this House support this position, as do the citizens of Europe. The Commission and its Member States must send this clear message to the rangers who protect and to the customers who buy: ivory has no monetary value any longer. Ivory in Europe is not for sale.

 
  
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  Benedek Jávor, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Mr President, elephants are under huge pressure, and poaching is the leading cause for that. While we are having this discussion here in the European Parliament, two elephants are being killed out there in Africa. They may be extinct within ten years in the wild.

Poaching is fuelled by the illegal ivory trade, which has increased dramatically recently, and the illegal trade in ivory is also closely connected to legal trade. Our current regulation is not sufficient and not effective. There are the problems of documentation, the green zone, on-line trade, and so on and so forth. As a sign, in 2016 two tonnes of illegal ivory was seized in the EU. Organised crime networks are closely related to wildlife crimes and the illegal trade in ivory.

Drastic steps are needed, and Parliament called on the Commission to make them. This is a popular cause; almost 70 % of European citizens support a complete ban on the ivory trade in the EU. We must listen to them; we must act.

 
  
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  Anja Hazekamp, namens de GUE/NGL-Fractie. – Dank u wel, Voorzitter. Ivoorstropers zijn gewelddadige criminelen die ervoor gezorgd hebben dat de olifantenpopulaties in de afgelopen eeuw zijn gedecimeerd. De ivoorhandel heeft de olifanten aan de rand van de afgrond gebracht. Het is bijna onvoorstelbaar, maar nog elke dag worden 55 olifanten gedood.

Europa speelt hierbij een dubieuze rol. Handel in ivoor is al bijna 30 jaar verboden. Toch staat Brussel nog steeds uitzonderingen toe voor zogenaamd oud ivoor. Daardoor kunnen bijvoorbeeld nog sieraden, schaakstukken en biljartballen hier op de markt komen en blijft de vraag naar ivoor bestaan. Europa vormt een heuse spil in de illegale ivoorhandel. De stropers opereren in georganiseerd verband en deinzen er niet voor terug om de olifanten uit te roeien.

Commissaris, wees duidelijk. Laat geen enkele twijfel bestaan en verbied alle handel in ivoor. Als u dat niet doet, dan kunnen we samen toekijken hoe olifanten op brute wijze worden uitgemoord.

En voorts ben ik van mening dat de Europese landbouwsubsidies moeten worden afgeschaft. Dank u wel.

 
  
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  Cécile Kashetu Kyenge (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario, il numero degli elefanti vittime di bracconaggio è aberrante. Si stima infatti che per soddisfare la domanda mondiale di avorio vengano uccisi circa 30 000 elefanti africani all'anno. Questo fa di certe fasce territoriali africane un vero e proprio cimitero degli elefanti.

Certo, il bracconaggio non riguarda solo gli elefanti, ma tutta una serie di animali. Di fronte a un tale disastro riconosciamo il fatto che il piano d'azione dell'Unione europea contro il traffico di fauna selvatica, entrato in vigore lo scorso anno, costituisce un primo passo verso il contenimento della piaga del traffico d'avorio.

Tuttavia, le misure più restrittive adottate da Stati Uniti, Cina e Hong Kong risultano molto più efficaci. L'Unione europea dovrebbe alzare il livello di guardia adottando misure altrettanto severe. Occorre interrompere il ciclo di morte che coinvolge non solo gli elefanti ma anche le guardie forestali che dedicano la vita alla loro protezione.

Dall'Africa e dai cittadini europei ci è giunto un appello a cui dobbiamo rispondere. La lotta per la salvaguardia della biodiversità e della conservazione faunistica passa anche dalla fermezza nel combattere il mercato illegale dell'avorio.

 
  
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  Mark Demesmaeker (ECR). – In 2016 werkte ik als schaduwrapporteur mee aan de resolutie over de bestrijding van illegale handel in wilde dieren en planten. Ik pleitte toen voor een Europees verbod op ivoorhandel, zónder achterpoortjes. Want illegaal ivoor vindt altijd wel zijn weg naar het legale circuit.

Ik herhaal vandaag mijn pleidooi. Ivoorhandel is dodelijk voor de biodiversiteit en dreigt van olifanten en neushoorns 'levende dinosaurussen' te maken. Maar de ivoorhandel heeft nog andere desastreuze en vaak dodelijke gevolgen. De handel brengt jaarlijks miljarden euro's in handen van criminelen, milities en terroristische organisaties en creëert dus onveiligheid en instabiliteit. Bovendien neemt de handel in ivoor spectaculair toe en zijn we als Europese Unie betrokken partij als afzetmarkt en als draaischijf.

Een forse bestrijding van deze criminele activiteiten en het sluiten van onze ivoormarkt zijn nodig om de bescherming van de soorten en onze veiligheid te garanderen. De Europese Unie kan en moet het verschil maken.

 
  
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  Stefan Eck (GUE/NGL). – Herr Präsident, Herr Kommissar! Alle zwanzig Minuten wird ein Elefant von Wilderern ermordet. Die EU ist der größte Exporteur von Elfenbeinprodukten, obwohl wir doch alle wissen, dass jeglicher Handel massiv dazu beiträgt, dass das grausame Abschlachten weitergeht. Nur ein ausnahmsloses EU-Handelsverbot für Elfenbein könnte die Elefanten vor dem Aussterben retten. Keine Ausnahmen, sage ich!

Oder wollen Sie Ihren Kindern und Enkelkindern irgendwann einmal sagen, dass es keine Elefanten mehr gibt, weil unsere Entscheidungen nicht konsequent genug waren? Haben Sie den Mut, Ihren Kindern und Enkelkindern auch die ganze Wahrheit zu sagen, dass nämlich das politische Establishment sich aus wirtschaftlichen Überlegungen zu Mittätern dieser abscheulichen Verbrechen gemacht hat? Elefanten leben seit zehn Millionen Jahren auf diesem Planeten. Wir dürfen einfach nicht zulassen, dass diese wunderbare Tierart für den Profit ausgerottet wird. Es ist höchste Zeit, den planetaren Vernichtungsfeldzug unserer Spezies zu stoppen.

Wir haben nur eine Erde. Sie zu bewahren, ist unsere oberste Pflicht, nicht der Wirtschaft zu dienen! Jetzt erwarten die Bürgerinnen und Bürger eine klare politische Antwort. Da gibt es nichts mehr, aber auch gar nichts mehr zu verhandeln, denn uns läuft die Zeit davon. Machen Sie endlich Nägel mit Köpfen! Ich sage Ihnen: keine Ausnahmen!

 
  
 

Zgłoszenia z sali

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η αγορά του ελεφαντοστού είναι μια αγορά τεράστια. Εκατομμύρια παίζονται γύρω από αυτή την υπόθεση. Όπως αναφέρθηκε, 55 ελέφαντες την ημέρα σκοτώνονται, ουσιαστικά δολοφονούνται, προκειμένου να υπάρξει στήριξη στο παράνομο εμπόριο ελεφαντοστού. Αυτή η τεράστια λαθροθηρία έχει σημαντικές συνέπειες στο οικοσύστημα, στην ανάπτυξη, ταυτόχρονα δε οδηγεί σε διαφθορά και στηρίζει το οργανωμένο έγκλημα. Και, ενώ οι Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες, η Κίνα, το Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο έχουν λάβει σκληρά μέτρα, εδώ στην Ευρώπη αφήνουμε τα πράγματα να τρέχουν.

Πρώτα από όλα πρέπει να ληφθούν πολύ σκληρά μέτρα και να σταματήσει το ενδοενωσιακό εμπόριο ελεφαντοστού. Δεύτερον, πρέπει να γίνει έλεγχος για τα διερχόμενα είδη που υπάρχουν εδώ στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Επομένως χρειάζεται αποφασιστικότητα, χρειάζονται μέτρα τα οποία πρέπει να ληφθούν εδώ και τώρα.

 
  
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  Kateřina Konečná (GUE/NGL). – Pane předsedající, i přes mezinárodní platný zákaz vývozu slonoviny dosáhl nezákonný lov slonů a obchod se slonovinou rekordních úrovní. Odhaduje se, že obětí pytláků se každoročně stane 20 až 30 tisíc afrických slonů.

Jednou z hlavních příčin tohoto vzestupu nezákonného obchodu je rostoucí poptávka po produktech ze slonoviny v Asii. Musíme si však přiznat i my, že stejně tak roste poptávka po slonovině v EU.

Během své práce na zprávě o palmovém oleji jsem mohla sama zjistit, jak EU až příliš často přihlíží tomu, kterak se podílíme na ničení přírody a biodiverzity. Tady se ovšem nevyplácí dívat se na druhou stranu, když to může zavinit vyhynutí živočišných druhů.

EU má své závazky a musí je dodržovat. Není jiné cesty, pokud si vážíme přírodního bohatství, není jiné cesty, pokud si chceme vážit sami sebe.

 
  
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  Eleonora Evi (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il commercio illegale di avorio minaccia l'esistenza di elefanti e rinoceronti selvatici e alimenta inevitabilmente quella domanda di manufatti di avorio ottenuti per vie illegali che mina ogni tentativo di controllo e riduzione degli scambi.

Ci siamo già rivolti alla Commissione su questo tema, in ultimo con una lettera il 3 maggio scorso, e torniamo qui a chiedervi – e lo faccio anche io insieme ai colleghi – come state valutando questo problema e questo aspetto in particolare del problema, quindi del commercio legale e di quanto appunto impatti su quello illegale. La comunità scientifica è unanime nel riconoscere che l'abbattimento illegale degli elefanti per mano dei bracconieri a caccia di avorio è la prima causa del loro declino e in Africa sono uccisi al ritmo allucinante di 30 000 esemplari all'anno.

Signor Commissario, la triste realtà è che fino a quando ci sarà il mercato dell'avorio, ci saranno anche il bracconaggio e i traffici illeciti. Per questo motivo, sono d'accordo con quanto richiesto dai colleghi: è necessario vietare totalmente le importazioni nell'Unione. Non c'è altro tempo da perdere, i tempi sono maturi e dobbiamo agire.

 
  
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  Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski (PPE). – Panie Przewodniczący! Nie spodziewałem się obecności pana komisarza Navracsicsa przy tym punkcie. To jest inne portfolio. Dlatego też zwrócę się do pana komisarza z jednym problemem, ale żeby nie było nieporozumień, zacznę od elementu dla mnie najważniejszego.

Nie jestem w stanie zaakceptować obecnej sytuacji, w której świat traci na handlu nielegalnymi elementami pochodzenia zwierzęcego od 8 do 20 mld euro rocznie. Nie jestem w stanie zaakceptować sytuacji, w której o 7000% wzrosła ilość polowań na nosorożce i co roku zabija się do 30 tys. słoni w Afryce – to niebywałe. Tu nie jesteśmy skuteczni. Ale muszę powiedzieć, że skuteczni jesteśmy gdzie indziej: w ściganiu albo utrudnianiu artystom przemieszczania się między kontynentami, wtedy kiedy posługują się instrumentami historycznymi, które są zrealizowane z palisandru brazylijskiego, z drzewa różanego z Madagaskaru lub zawierają inne elementy pochodzenia zwierzęcego. Zwracam uwagę na tę rozpiętość pomiędzy walką z patologią a utrudnianiem – w tym wypadku artystom – przemieszczania się między kontynentami.

 
  
 

(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)

 
  
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  Tibor Navracsics, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, honourable Members, thank you for those valuable contributions to the debate. We have taken good note of your views and Mr Zdrojewski’s remarks as well.

We are very much aware that the EU is expected to continue playing a leading international role in the fight against ivory trafficking. We are, of course, also aware of the measures taken by the United States, China and by some of the EU Member States. We are looking closely at those measures in our reflection on the EU regime on the ivory trade.

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. – Zamykam debatę.

Oświadczenia pisemne (art. 162)

 
  
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  Pavel Poc (S&D), písemně. – Jednoznačně podporuji uzavření trhu EU se slonovinou. USA, Čína, Hongkong a Velká Británie již přijaly opatření k uzavření svých domácích trhů, která jsou mnohem přísnější než ta, která v současnosti platí v EU. Slon africký Loxodonta africana i slon indický Elephas maximus jsou uvedeni v přílohách Úmluvy o mezinárodním obchodu ohroženými druhy volně žijících živočichů a planě rostoucích rostlin (CITES). Podle stávajícího režimu úmluvy CITES je sice mezinárodní obchod se slonovinou zakázán, vnitrostátní obchod se slonovinou nicméně úmluva CITES neupravuje. Proto Evropský parlament opětovně požaduje uzavření trhu EU se slonovinou EU. Je potřeba si uvědomit, že nezákonný obchod se slonovinou se od roku 2007 více než zdvojnásobil. Nezákonný lov dosáhl v posledních letech vysoké úrovně. Uuvádí se, že pytláci denně zabijí 55 slonů. Od roku 2011 bylo každý rok usmrceno 20 000 až 30 000 slonů afrických. Přestože je obchod se slonovinou v EU přísně regulován prostřednictvím nařízení EU o obchodu s volně žijícími a planě rostoucími druhy a dovoz slonoviny do EU a obchod s ní uvnitř EU a její vývoz z EU není pro obchodní účely obecně povolen, má EU na celé situaci zásadní podíl. Pokud nedojde k uzavření trhu EU se slonovinou, nemůžeme čekat žádné zlepšení.

 
Dernière mise à jour: 20 septembre 2018Avis juridique