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A8-0035/2016

Разисквания :

PV 09/03/2016 - 20
CRE 09/03/2016 - 20
PV 24/10/2018 - 20
CRE 24/10/2018 - 19
CRE 24/10/2018 - 20

Гласувания :

PV 10/03/2016 - 7.6
CRE 10/03/2016 - 7.6
Обяснение на вота
PV 25/10/2018 - 13.4

Приети текстове :

P8_TA(2016)0088
P8_TA(2018)0420

Разисквания
Сряда, 24 октомври 2018 г. - Страсбург Редактирана версия

19. Внос на движими културни ценности (разискване)
Видеозапис на изказванията
PV
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  Πρόεδρος. – Το επόμενο σημείο στην ημερήσια διάταξη είναι η συζήτηση επί της εκθέσεως των Alessia Maria Mosca και Daniel Dalton, εξ ονόματος της Επιτροπής Εσωτερικής Αγοράς και Προστασίας των Καταναλωτών, σχετικά με την πρόταση κανονισμού του Ευρωπαϊκού Κοινοβουλίου και του Συμβουλίου όσον αφορά την εισαγωγή πολιτιστικών αγαθών (COM(2017)0375 - C8-0227/2017 - 2017/0158(COD)) (A8-0308/2018)

 
  
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  Alessia Maria Mosca, relatore. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, dopo lunghe trattative ci troviamo finalmente oggi a discutere dell'approvazione del regolamento sull'importazione di beni culturali. Vorrei anzitutto ringraziare tutte le colleghe e i colleghi per il duro lavoro fatto in questi mesi.

Alcuni studi indicano che il traffico illecito di opere d'arte è secondo solo a quello di armi e di stupefacenti. Le immagini delle distruzioni del sito di Palmira ad opera dell'Isis sono ancora vive nei nostri occhi, ma parlare di distruzione è impreciso. Si è trattato di uno smantellamento vero e proprio: i reperti più preziosi sono stati trafugati e venduti sulla piazza europea. Dopo aver privato il popolo siriano della propria storia e della propria cultura, gli acquirenti europei hanno contribuito al finanziamento diretto di un'organizzazione terroristica.

Il traffico illegale di opere d'arte è un crimine contro l'umanità perché ci depriva del nostro comune patrimonio artistico e della nostra storia, ma esso minaccia anche la sicurezza dei cittadini europei, contribuendo al finanziamento di attività terroristiche. Non solo: favorendo evasione fiscale e riciclaggio, il commercio illegale di opere d'arte minaccia il nostro modello sociale.

Il nuovo regolamento contribuirà dunque a questa triplice battaglia, imponendo trasparenza e maggiori controlli. Non è stato un compito facile. Pur condividendo tutti l'urgenza di agire, abbiamo avuto difficoltà nell'identificare il giusto equilibrio fra la necessità di porre un freno a questi traffici illeciti e l'obiettivo di non caricare di inutili lungaggini burocratiche gli operatori privati e le dogane.

Abbiamo quindi introdotto agevolazioni per le piccole e medie imprese, un sistema di registrazione elettronico in grado di facilitare le procedure e soglie di valore che permetteranno un'applicazione più mirata, imponendo i controlli solo sulle merci più preziose.

In più, a partire dalla Convenzione UNESCO del 1970, il testo da noi proposto sarà più coerente con le convenzioni internazionali e i regolamenti dell'Unione. Applicando lo stesso allegato al regolamento per le esportazioni e sfruttando l'esperienza degli addetti doganali e dei mercati d'arte, l'implementazione sarà così più semplice.

Il testo finale è equilibrato e lo dimostra la larghissima maggioranza che lo ha sostenuto. L'Unione europea si doterà di uno strumento all'avanguardia, in grado di combattere il traffico illegale senza frenare il commercio lecito, fonte di lavoro e di crescita.

Dopo l'approvazione dovremo vigilare affinché l'applicazione sia il più uniforme possibile. Non possiamo permettere che la competizione interna tra i porti europei crei delle zone franche. Dobbiamo combattere le frodi interne come quella perpetrata, per esempio, dalle autorità britanniche al bilancio comunitario a partire dal 2011: è per questo che inseriremo un sistema di due diligence, ossia un elenco di documenti uguali per tutti che le autorità doganali saranno obbligate a richiedere.

Agli amici britannici spaventati per gli effetti che il regolamento sortirà sul mercato dell'arte londinese dopo la Brexit vorrei ricordare che non si può godere dei benefici di una comunità senza farne parte e se si vogliono evitare doppi controlli si deve far parte del mercato unico.

Ancora una volta la politica commerciale europea si propone come un'alternativa sia al protezionismo che al liberismo sfrenato. Una strategia che si fonda sui nostri valori: il commercio, infatti, non può essere svincolato dai diritti sociali, umani e ambientali.

Con il voto di domani aggiungeremo alla politica commerciale europea un ulteriore elemento di sostenibilità, un altro mattone per rendere la nostra casa comune più degna per gli uomini e le donne che la abitano, un ulteriore sforzo per rendere la globalizzazione un processo più equo e umano.

Questa è l'Europa che vogliamo, un'Europa che protegge senza chiudersi in se stessa.

 
  
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  Daniel Dalton, Rapporteur. – Mr President, we’ve had some tough negotiations over the last few months, thatʼs fair to say, and the text weʼre voting on tomorrow is not perfect. But our discussion showed that we all share the same goal: workable legislation that targets the illicit importing of cultural goods for terrorist financing without overburdening customs authorities or small businesses.

For that reason – unlike the Commission – we recognise the need for value thresholds on most items. We already have value thresholds in the export regulation. For imports, clearly, higher-value items are of greater interest for terrorist financing. So for the Commission not to follow that precedent and to have no value thresholds on a regulation that applies to the whole world – low- as well as high-risk areas – made little sense. Customs authorities are already overwhelmed and unable to check most imports. So to work, this regulation needs to focus on higher-value, higher-risk goods. That is how we deal with customs issues throughout our legislation: risk-based, intelligence-led checks.

This proposal – let’s not forget – was originally drawn up in light of Isis’s control of large areas of Syria and the potential for them to traffic antiquities to fund their activities. Global strife, however, constantly evolves, so our work here needs to be better than just press-release politics, and legislation needs to be fit for changing risks. Importantly, in the Parliament text we also recognise that there are legitimate movements of goods for museums and art fairs that we shouldn’t in any way hinder. Creating long delays to imports would have simply moved these fairs outside Europe, where there is often less oversight.

In the Parliament we agreed from the start on a digital-led approach. Cultural objects cross borders repeatedly, so information needs to be exchanged to allow previously-vetted goods to circulate freely. A fully-electronic system is therefore critical and, given these rules will not be applied until the early 2020s, continuing with a paper system, I think, would look ridiculous.

We also recognise that small businesses will need help in complying with this regulation. Many cultural goods, such as sub-genres of books or types of antiquities, are sold by highly-specialised companies, so micro- and family businesses are at the heart of the trade. The scope is fundamental to the potential burden of this regulation, but we have also proposed targeted measures to further help small companies meet the demands on them. Cooperation with third countries will also be vital to tackling illicit trade.

So I strongly support the provisions we introduced in this regulation to bolster efforts being made to improve the capacities of countries that are struggling to preserve their cultural heritage. By complementing those efforts with sensible import rules, we can act to resolve the whole supply chain for illicit goods rather than just isolating Europe from a global problem.

As I said at the start, although we’ve made significant improvements, this text is not perfect. For example, there is still some potential difficulty in cases where provenance is hard to determine – of which there will be many when dealing with ancient artefacts. This is particularly the case for low—value archaeological items, which fall under the scope of the final text, regardless of whether they are from high- or low-risk areas. It should be possible to import items which have been held legitimately for decades without the cooperation of source countries which lack documentation to judge the original export’s legitimacy. Otherwise, we risk overburdening customs authorities and importers with an unachievable proof requirement that could clog up the system and fail to deliver on the regulation’s aims.

I am optimistic, though, that, through constructive negotiations with the Council, using their first—hand knowledge of customs operations, we can streamline this proposal and emerge with a final law fit for purpose. We want to avoid a ʻfortress Europeʼ approach and unworkable requirements that might prevent the profiteering of Isis but also devastate the responsible family businesses that make up the vast majority of the trade in Europe.

If I can just make one point in response to Ms Mosca’s points: for the UK this is a classic case in point. If these rules are too overburdening for European producers and the UK is outside that market, I can guarantee you that the trade will move to the UK, and no one in Europe or the UK will be thankful for that. I won’t. I want to see us working closely together, and this text is absolutely vital to make sure we get this right in order to do it.

 
  
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  Santiago Fisas Ayxelà, ponente CULT. – Señor presidente, este Reglamento es una propuesta novedosa, ya que no existía legislación al respecto, solamente el Reglamento de exportación, que se refiere únicamente a bienes europeos. Y considero que es especialmente relevante al ser este año, 2018, el Año Europeo del Patrimonio Cultural.

En la Comisión de Cultura y Educación teníamos dos objetivos: por un lado, evitar que el terrorismo, el crimen organizado y el blanqueo de capitales se financiasen con la compraventa ilegal de bienes culturales de terceros países; y por otro, asegurar la preservación del patrimonio cultural de estos países. Además, debíamos compaginar estos objetivos fundamentales, para que el mercado de arte europeo no se viera perjudicado por una reglamentación demasiado estricta, lo que complicaría el mercado legal y habitual de los comerciantes, casas de subastas y museos europeos.

No ha sido una tarea fácil, ya que había muchos intereses contrapuestos, pero creo que hemos logrado consensuar un texto equilibrado, por lo que nos felicitamos de que los objetivos que señalaba antes se hayan cumplido.

 
  
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  Violeta Bulc, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, in recent years, the world has witnessed the destruction of priceless archaeological sites and monuments and the looting of cultural artefacts by warring factions and terrorist entities worldwide.

There is evidence that some of those artefacts are sold and brought into the Union, with their proceeds potentially used to finance terrorist activities. For instance, early in 2018, a Spanish antiques dealer was arrested in Barcelona for his alleged participation in a wide international network trafficking antiques. The investigation appears to show that these works of art were stolen from archaeological sites in Libya. They were looted by the terrorist organisation Islamic State and were especially intended for the financing of terrorism.

Another example is the seizure by French customs authorities two years ago at Charles de Gaulle Airport of looted cultural goods which probably came from the war region in Iraq and Syria. The Commission is very engaged on the issue of cultural goods trafficking.

The Commission is also fully engaged in the fight against terrorist financing and presented an action plan aiming to reduce the sources of revenue of terrorist organisations in February 2016. Within this context, the Commission made proposals to the Council and Parliament to strengthen customs controls in two areas, one on the control of cultural goods at import and another one on controls on cash entering and leaving the European Union.

The proposal on cash controls has led to the adoption of an amended regulation, soon to be published in the Official Journal. The Commission welcomes the successful effort of the co-legislators on that matter.

On cultural goods, the Commission adopted in July 2017 a proposal to prevent the import and storage, including in free zones, in the EU of cultural goods illicitly exported from third countries. The measure aspires to protect cultural heritage, to combat illicit trade in cultural goods, especially archaeological objects and parts of dismembered monuments, and to strengthen the fight against terrorist financing. At the same time, the right balance between safeguarding of common cultural heritage and avoiding undue burden on trade was fully taken into account.

At present, the EU applies common rules on the export of cultural goods and the return of cultural objects unlawfully removed from the territory of a Member State. However, with the exception of two specific measures prohibiting trade in cultural goods with Iraq and Syria, no common rules exist regarding the import of cultural goods into the EU customs territory.

The Commission’s proposal came as a response to a call for action from the European Parliament and the Council, from international organisations and from governments of the Member States. Our proposal provides a common definition of cultural goods deriving from the 1970 Unesco Convention and the 1995 Unidroit Convention, listing categories of objects which are of importance for archaeology, prehistory, history, literature, art or science.

Furthermore, a minimum age threshold of 250 years for such objects is introduced. This allows focusing on cultural goods considered to be the most affected and vulnerable to illicit trade. It also minimises the impact on national authorities and the art market in terms of operational and compliance costs as they already have experience with these thresholds, which exist in US legislation. The proposed regulation establishes a system of import licences and import statements that are required, depending on the category of the cultural goods concerned. The import licence, which implies a higher level of scrutiny, would target the cultural goods most at risk.

Exceptions to this rule are introduced in the case of the temporary admission of an object for scientific or academic research purposes and cultural exchange, or for cultural goods at minimum risk of destruction sent to the Union for safekeeping by a third country’s public authorities.

In order to improve the ability of customs officials to recognise suspicious shipments and to cooperate more efficiently with other law enforcement authorities in preventing illicit trade in cultural goods, the proposal also provides for the organisation of training and capacity—building activities for customs and other law enforcement authorities and awareness-raising campaigns aimed at potential buyers in the Union.

The brief summary I have set out focused on the main elements of the proposal. Let me recall that this is an essential piece of legislation to combat trafficking in cultural goods, deprive terrorists of a source of income and protect cultural heritage.

Before I conclude, please allow me to thank both rapporteurs, Ms Mosca and Mr Dalton, for their constructive cooperation. I am happy to give you the floor and I am looking forward to your interventions.

 
  
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  Jarosław Wałęsa, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Mr President, during our work on this file, our objective was to prevent the import into and storage in the EU of cultural goods illegally exported from third countries, but also to reduce trafficking and combat financing of terrorism and, obviously, to protect cultural heritage, especially archaeological objects in countries affected by armed conflict.

During our work the most important and, at the same time, the most challenging issue was the scope. Luckily, we managed to achieve a good compromise, covering all those goods that deserve special protection, but at the same time limiting the scope as much as possible to those cultural goods most affected by illegal trafficking. I believe that it is extremely important not to overburden market actors and disturb the licit trade of cultural goods in the EU, therefore, I am very happy that red tape for the art market will be avoided, in particular for SMEs. This will be possible through the establishment of an economic threshold in addition to the 250—year threshold, which means that not all goods with zero value will be covered by this regulation. To give you an example, without an economic threshold, books from the 18th century which are worth nothing would fall under the scope and administrative costs would probably be higher than the value of the book itself, and that would kill the market. We need common rules to ensure effective protection against the loss of cultural goods and the prevention of terrorist financing through the sale of looted cultural heritage to buyers in the EU. This is the first step towards well-balanced legislation which will protect cultural heritage while enabling the stakeholders concerned to keep trading without barriers.

 
  
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  Arndt Kohn, im Namen der S&D-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident, liebe Frau Kommissarin, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Morgen wird über das Trilogmandat für die Verordnung über die Einfuhr von Kulturgütern abgestimmt. Warum kümmert sich das Europäische Parlament um den Import von illegalen Kulturgütern aus Drittstaaten? Nach Drogen und Waffen gilt der illegale Handel mit Kulturgütern als eines der lukrativsten Geschäfte auf dem Schwarzmarkt, dient möglicherweise auch zur Terrorismusfinanzierung. Aber hier geht es doch hauptsächlich darum, dass jahrhundertealte Zeugnisse menschlicher Zivilisation möglicherweise für immer verloren gehen, auf dem Schwarzmarkt verkauft werden oder an Freihäfen oder in Kellern verschwinden. Wir spielen nicht die Weltpolizei, aber das Prinzip muss gelten: Kultur ist überall auf der Welt schützenswert. Wir dürfen daher nicht zulassen, dass schützenswerte Kulturgüter unrechtmäßig in der Europäischen Union auf den Markt gelangen. Bessere Zollbestimmungen helfen bei der Bekämpfung von organisierter Kriminalität, Geldwäsche und Steuerhinterziehung.

Der Text, wie er im Ausschuss abgestimmt wurde, ist meiner Meinung nach ausgewogen und berücksichtigt alle Interessen gleichermaßen. Der bürokratische Aufwand für den Kunsthandel wird relativ gering sein. Es wird nur für einen Bruchteil aller Importe eine Importlizenz vorgelegt werden müssen, denn es betrifft hauptsächlich archäologische Güter. Es gehört bewusst nicht jedes Familienerbstück dazu. Für alle anderen Kulturgüter gilt eine Alters- und Wertgrenze. Für diese müsste lediglich eine Selbsterklärung vorgelegt werden, mit der dann rechtssicher gehandelt werden kann. Und auch die Beamtinnen und Beamten beim Zoll müssen eine rechtssichere Handlungsgrundlage haben, um illegal importierte Kulturgüter aus dem Verkehr ziehen zu können. Dieses Dossier leistet gerade im Jahr 2018, dem Jahr des europäischen Kulturerbes, einen wertvollen Beitrag dazu.

 
  
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  David Campbell Bannerman, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Mr President, as Chair of the Delegation for relations with Iraq, I of course share the objective of tackling terrorist financing. However, I cannot share enthusiasm for this report. Its excessive scope captures too large a volume of cultural goods, with the potential to create disruption to legitimate trade, not to mention burdensome, even unworkable, customs procedures.

The original aim has been totally lost amid a desire to control the art market. This is of course of considerable concern to the UK with its prominence in the art world. Items that bear no relation to stemming terrorist finance, even for example a map of 1900s America, would be caught up in this regulation. It is a sledgehammer to crack a nut.

I had initially proposed to limit the scope of the proposal by recommending an age and value threshold. Instead, this requires an extensive list of documents to prove origin, otherwise they will be treated as illicit imports. Overall, I wish we had a more balanced approach that would help combat terrorist financing, but without creating such impractical red tape.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 162(8))

 
  
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  David Coburn (EFDD), blue-card question. – Thank you, David, for taking my question. I liked what you said, a lot of what you said made sense. Would you agree with me that there is an enormous danger that ordinary people dealing in the art market in small ways – in ‘déballages’ in France, in small markets – are going to be crucified by this ludicrous law, again, this neurosis about terrorism. It is pure Orwell!

There are ways of doing this. At the moment if auction houses see something that should not be on the market, they will inform the authorities. Surely, do you not agree with me that there is enough legislation, we do not need more?

 
  
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  David Campbell Bannerman (ECR), blue-card answer. – Thank you, Mr Coburn, I know that you deal with antiques and are an expert in this area. Yes, I am worried. I have a wonderful grandfather clock. I have no idea how old it is, it is probably 17th century, and I could never prove where it has come from if I were to move it somewhere under these new laws. I also have some stuff from a prime minister, I am related to a former prime minister from before 1900.

So I feel that this is going too far and is impractical, it won’t work and it really doesn’t help. I’m all in favour of cracking down on terrorist financing. This does not help.

 
  
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  Marietje Schaake, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, let me begin by expressing my amusement at hearing two Brexiteer colleagues being worried about red tape. I guess they would prefer to roll out the red carpet for terrorists. That is something that we should not do.

We have to be very serious about the problem that the trade in illicitly obtained cultural goods presents. Over the last few years, we’ve seen that, for terrorist groups like Daesh in search of income, actually, there has been a prospering market of stolen cultural artefacts that links organised crime, money laundering and the financing of terrorist activities across the world. Europe and also the United Kingdom are not free of the risk of becoming a part of such schemes. That is why we had to take action. Only in 2016, for example, two Syrian freezers were seized at an airport in France. Daesh has emerged as one of the key players. It is also destroying, looting and trading cultural goods for profit, but let’s not forget that they also do this to stamp out cultural identities as part of ethnic cleansing, which is among the most significant crimes that we know of.

We need to tackle the illicit trade in cultural goods with trade measures and by harmonising rules and building on what we already know without burdening galleries and museums. We have come to a common definition of what cultural goods are and identified those most at risk, and are making sure that we have checks on the origin licensing schemes without placing unnecessary burdens on sellers and SMEs. It’s a success in the fight against terrorism.

 
  
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  Eleonora Forenza, a nome del gruppo GUE/NGL. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, intervengo come relatore ombra della commissione INTA per il gruppo GUE/NGL.

Già nella fase del lavoro congiunto delle due commissioni INTA/IMCO ho accolto con favore la proposta della Commissione europea di regolare l'importazione da parte dell'Unione di beni culturali, con lo scopo di prevenire e bloccare lo scambio illecito di opere d'arte.

Ribadisco la necessità di una simile regolamentazione anche nell'occasione del voto in plenaria. Penso che il testo sia stato migliorato dall'elaborazione delle due commissioni: per esempio l'età minima di 250 anni per le opere d'arte proposto dalla Commissione è stato rimosso e ciò ci permette di avere un margine più ampio di controllo sulle opere d'arte figurative, ad esempio, che possono essere più recenti ma non per questo di minor valore.

Abbiamo convenuto anche sull'alleggerimento delle procedure, passando dalla procedura della doppia licenza a un'unica. Un sito internet verrà predisposto se la Commissione, come mi auguro, vorrà recepire la posizione del Parlamento perché le ricerche di informazioni diventino facilmente accessibili.

Vorrei soltanto aggiungere una valutazione di ordine politico e culturale. L'accesso alla fruizione di opere d'arte è una delle forme della costruzione della cittadinanza. Rendere questo accesso fruibile a tutti e a tutte e non lasciare che le arti diventino beni di contrabbando, soprattutto in quei paesi che soffrono di situazioni di conflitto, è un dovere di queste istituzioni, è un dovere delle istituzioni europee.

 
  
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  Tiziana Beghin, a nome del gruppo EFDD. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, l'importazione di reperti, artefatti e opere d'arte in Europa è un processo molto delicato perché senza controlli si possono importare beni contraffatti, oggetti rubati o addirittura venduti per finanziare organizzazioni terroristiche.

Mentre prima ogni paese applicava regole diverse, con questo regolamento istituiremo un sistema standardizzato di identificazione, daremo adeguati strumenti alle autorità doganali per riconoscere e fermare le frodi e i prodotti illegali, chiedendo stessi controlli e stessa formazione in tutta l'Unione.

Vogliamo inoltre assicurare l'adeguata assistenza a quelle piccole imprese che operano nel mercato dell'arte perché possano continuare il loro lavoro onesto senza essere oberate dalla burocrazia.

Grazie a questo regolamento speriamo di fermare il mercato nero dell'arte. Per questo ringrazio i correlatori e assicuro il supporto mio e della mia delegazione.

 
  
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  France Jamet, au nom du groupe ENF. – Monsieur le Président, mes chers collègues, vous voulez donc aujourd’hui protéger le patrimoine de la Syrie et de l’Irak. Cela pourrait presque prêter à rire si ce n’était pas aussi tragique. Si vous vouliez protéger le patrimoine culturel dix fois millénaire de ces régions, il ne fallait pas le jeter sous les bombes, ni le laisser à la merci de Daech et de barbares islamistes grimés pour l’occasion en rebelles.

D’autre part, il semble que la Commission ne se préoccupe même plus de contrôler l’entrée sur le territoire des personnes et des biens, mes chers collègues, cela relève de la compétence des États. C’est un navrant paradoxe! Vous qui encouragez chaque jour l’immigration clandestine et le libre-échange dogmatique, vous faites ici profession d’un «presque» protectionnisme qui laisse rêveur.

Comment entendez-vous faire appliquer ces mesures parfaitement dérisoires?

Par l’abaissement des États-nations, vous avez réduit leurs administrations douanières à néant. Elles seules auraient pu agir, en vérité, seuls les États pourraient agir. Vous n’aurez pas les moyens de votre futile politique, vous ne vous en donnez pas les moyens, vous avancez au gré de vos pulsions ou de vœux pieux sans hommes ni moyens. Alors peut-on se contenter de noter, de relever ou d’apprécier cet acte ou ces efforts. Je ne crois pas.

Monsieur le Président, mes chers collègues, c’est effectivement l’année du patrimoine culturel, alors vous vous posez en défenseur du patrimoine culturel de l’humanité alors que vous bradez celui de l’Europe, vous bradez celui de mon pays et de ma France. Nos villages, nos clochers, notre histoire, nos monuments, nos arts et métiers sont pillés et vous les négligez, vous les bradez par aveuglement et souvent par mépris. Alors autant dire qu’il ne s’agit pas ici du… (le Président retire la parole à l’oratrice)

(L’oratrice accepte de répondre à une question «carton bleu» (article 162, paragraphe 8, du règlement)

 
  
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  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE), question «carton bleu». – Madame Jamet, j’ai une question.

Pensez-vous qu’il ne faut rien faire, qu’il vaut mieux attendre et laisser le marché sans régulation, sans observer ce qui va servir au terrorisme? Croyez-vous que c’est mieux?

 
  
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  France Jamet (ENF), réponse «carton bleu». – Bien sûr que non Madame, je pense que ce n’est pas suffisant. Je pense que charité bien ordonnée commence par soi-même et je pense également que l’écrivain a dit: «Dieu se rit des hommes qui déplorent les effets dont ils chérissent les causes».

 
  
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  Sabine Verheyen (PPE). – Herr Präsident, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Zunächst einmal möchte ich mich für die gute und konstruktive Zusammenarbeit an diesem Dossier bedanken. Auch wenn wir alle im Grunde ein gemeinsames Ziel hatten, war es sicherlich nicht immer einfach, in diesem Dossier Kompromisse zu finden. Aber ich glaube, dass wir einen sehr ausbalancierten Text vorliegen haben – der nach ECR-Meinung sicherlich noch den ein oder anderen Mangel hat, aber ich glaube, dass wir hier insgesamt ein sehr gutes, konstruktives und ausgewogenes Ergebnis haben.

Mit der Importverordnung wollen wir eine Harmonisierung der Einfuhrregeln von Kulturgütern in der EU erreichen, deren Ursprung nicht in der EU liegt. Auch dies wurde in der Vergangenheit immer wieder falsch dargestellt. Wir müssen das hier nochmal besonders deutlich machen, dass es eben genau um Kulturgüter geht, die ihren Ursprung in einem Drittland und nicht in der EU haben, und da mag dann die Uhr des britischen Großonkels oder Großvaters vielleicht nicht darunterfallen.

Ziel ist es generell, die rechtswidrige Einfuhr von Kulturgütern aus einem Drittland sowie die Lagerung dieser Güter in der EU zu verhindern und den illegalen Handel mit Kulturgütern einzudämmen sowie die Finanzierung von Terrorismus zu bekämpfen und das kulturelle Erbe – nicht nur unser eigenes, sondern das der Menschheit insgesamt – auch zu schützen. Ich finde es richtig, dass wir den Anwendungsbereich soweit wie möglich auf die Kulturgüter beschränkt haben, die am stärksten von illegalem Handel betroffen sind und die auch besondere Bedeutung für das kulturelle Erbe haben. Dadurch wird unnötiger bürokratischer Aufwand für den Kunstmarkt, für kleine und mittelständische Unternehmen sowie für Zollbehörden und nationale Behörden verhindert. Wir haben ein Mindestalter eingeführt, wir haben finanzielle Schwellenwerte eingeführt, und es gelten zudem auch noch die Roten Listen des Internationalen Museumsrates ICOM als zusätzlicher Filter, um uns wirklich auf die schützenswerten Güter zu beschränken. Somit haben wir ein ausbalanciertes Ergebnis erzielt, mit dem sicherlich alle leben können. Ich hoffe, dass wir so schnell wie möglich mit dem Rat in Verhandlungen treten können, um hier zu einer schützenden und guten Gesetzgebung zu kommen.

 
  
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  Nicola Danti (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor commissario, voi sapete che il commercio illecito di beni culturali ha caratterizzato la storia di tutti i conflitti. Oggi più che in passato tale commercio è fonte di finanziamento di organizzazioni criminali, di terrorismo, di gruppi armati, come purtroppo ha dimostrato la guerra in Siria.

Questo provvedimento è un ulteriore tassello di una strategia che la Commissione e questo Parlamento hanno messo in atto in questa legislatura sulla tracciabilità dei beni che entrano nell'Unione europea, a partire dal provvedimento che abbiamo fatto sui minerali provenienti da zone di conflitto.

Solo tramite alcune procedure doganali specifiche e armonizzate a livello europeo e un coordinamento efficace tra le autorità competenti noi riusciremo a impedire l'entrata di beni culturali illeciti all'interno del nostro mercato unico e, cosa non meno importante, anche a tutelare il patrimonio culturale dei paesi terzi da cui questi provengono.

Infine permettetemi di ringraziare per il lavoro svolto la correlatrice Alessia Mosca e il relatore della mia commissione e del mio gruppo Kohn.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η πολιτιστική κληρονομιά συγκαταλέγεται μεταξύ των βασικών στοιχείων πολιτισμού. Συμβάλλει στη διατήρηση της ιστορικής μνήμης και των εθνικών παραδόσεων. Για τον λόγο αυτό, τα πολιτιστικά αγαθά πρέπει να προστατεύονται από την παράνομη ιδιοποίηση, από τη λεηλασία, από την παράνομη εξαγωγή τους, και αυτό ισχύει, κατά τη γνώμη μου, και πρέπει να αφορά όλα τα λεηλατηθέντα πολιτιστικά αγαθά, ανεξάρτητα από χρονικό περιορισμό, ακόμη κι αυτά που βρίσκονται στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Γιατί μιλούμε για το Ιράκ, αλλά ξεχνάμε και κλείνουμε τα μάτια στο τι συμβαίνει εδώ, στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Για άλλη μια φορά, θέτω το ζήτημα της επιστροφής των λεηλατηθέντων από τους Ναζί αρχαιολογικών θησαυρών της Ελλάδας κατά τη διάρκεια της γερμανικής κατοχής του 1941 έως 1944. Οι λεηλατηθέντες αυτοί θησαυροί βρίσκονται σε μουσεία στη Γερμανία. Ήδη από το 1946 το ελληνικό Υπουργείο Παιδείας έχει συντάξει αναλυτικό κατάλογο των αρχαιολογικών αυτών θησαυρών που εκλάπησαν από τους Ναζί. Βάσει της Σύμβασης UΝΕSCΟ Unidroit 1970, αλλά και της οδηγίας 93/7/ΕΟΚ, πρέπει οι λεηλατηθέντες αυτοί αρχαιολογικοί θησαυροί να επιστρέψουν στην Ελλάδα. Σας ερωτώ, λοιπόν, κυρία Bulc: τι πρόκειται να κάνει η Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή προκειμένου να επιστραφούν στην Ελλάδα οι λεηλατηθέντες από τα γερμανικά στρατεύματα κατοχής ελληνικοί αρχαιολογικοί θησαυροί; Θέλω μια απάντηση στο θέμα αυτό. Να μη μιλούμε μόνο για το Ιράκ. Να δούμε τι γίνεται και εδώ στην Ευρώπη.

 
  
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  Jasenko Selimovic (ALDE). – Mr President, the illicit trafficking of antiquities is estimated at USD 6 billion per year, of which part is certainly contributing to the financing of terrorism. We have rules to prohibit the trade of cultural goods with Iraq and Syria and we also have legislation that regulates the export of cultural goods, but no rules regulating the import of cultural goods into the EU. This gap obviously has to be filled.

Unfortunately, the text we have in front of us today is far from perfect. I would prefer a less detailed text that did not impose on the art importers the requirement to provide documents that sometimes they cannot have, and that lets customs authorities concentrate on the goods that can – and could – contribute to the financing of terrorism. I hope these flaws will be corrected in trilogue, introducing smooth dialogue and user—friendly procedures for art importers that will allow them to safely import cultural goods into the EU and, for the goods that run a higher risk of being exposed to illicit trade, setting up a more thorough procedure so that custom authorities have the power and means to properly check the goods in question.

 
  
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  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE). – Pane předsedající, kolegyně a kolegové, já velmi podporuji přijetí tohoto nařízení, které je jasně zaměřené. Nemůže řešit situaci řeckých archeologických památek, ale považuji je za velmi důležitou součást opatření, teď, právě teď, kterými řešíme boj proti financování terorismu. Je třeba si uvědomit, že obrovské množství kulturních artefaktů pochází z oblasti Blízkého východu, což je kolébka také naší civilizace. A jak tedy řekla jedna kolegyně – je smutné sledovat utrpení lidí, kteří prchají z Blízkého východu, ale je také velmi smutné sledovat, jak mizí nenahraditelné kulturní hodnoty v těchto oblastech a jak jsou zneužívány na financování Islámského státu a jiných teroristických skupin. Bohužel právě v této oblasti je největší problém s teroristickými skupinami.

Letos máme Evropský rok kulturního dědictví a právě mnohé kulturní památky z antiky, z počátku křesťanství jsou předmětem nelegálního nakládání v zemích mimo EU, jako je Sýrie, Irák, a my je chápeme jako součást širšího kontextu kulturního dědictví Evropy. Nařízení ve verzi Evropského parlamentu velmi dobře definuje různé kategorie kulturních statků, zohledňuje doporučení UNESCO uplatnit jako časový limit pro starší památky 100 let právě pro ty nejohroženější statky. Tedy toto nařízení, myslím, že stojí za to, abychom je podpořili, a bude to jeden z možných nástrojů, jak omezit financování terorismu.

 
  
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  Dietmar Köster (S&D). – Herr Präsident! Der Gesetzesvorschlag der Kommission zum Schutz von Kulturgütern zielt vor allem darauf ab, die Finanzierung des Terrorismus zu unterbinden. Das ist ohne Frage eine ganz zentrale und wichtige Aufgabe. Aber wir müssen einen Schritt weiter gehen, denn der Raub und der Handel von historischen Kulturgütern führen zu irreparablen Schäden für die gesamte Menschheit und ihr kulturelles Gedächtnis. Solange es möglich ist, mit illegal erworbenen historischen Kulturgütern lukrativ zu handeln und ohne große Risiken Geld zu verdienen, werden Plünderungen auch in Zukunft fortgesetzt. Folglich setzt der Schutz von historischen Kulturgütern dort an, wo sie nachgefragt werden, also auf dem europäischen privaten Sammlermarkt.

Es geht vor allen Dingen darum, dass die Öffentlichkeit das Zugangsrecht zu Objekten hat, die für das kulturelle Erbe relevant sind. Diese Objekte müssen für Bildung und auch für die akademische Forschung genutzt werden können. Ich bin froh, dass die Forderung des LIBE-Ausschusses nach Restitution aufgenommen wurde. Die Rückgabe von illegal ausgegrabenen, entwendeten und gehandelten Objekten wäre damit gesichert.

 
  
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  Czesław Hoc (ECR). – Panie Przewodniczący! Delegacja polska popierała dotąd oryginalny tekst Komisji, ponieważ uznajemy, że rabowanie dzieł sztuki, zwłaszcza z terenów objętych konfliktami zbrojnymi, jest haniebnym procederem, który dodatkowo może służyć finansowaniu międzynarodowego terroryzmu. Ale w Parlamencie ten tekst Komisji został popsuty, m.in. nadmiernie rozszerzono zakres rozporządzenia o cały handel międzynarodowy, co może spowodować paraliż organów celnych. Nałożono też na Unię dodatkowe zobowiązania w postaci ochrony dziedzictwa kulturowego w państwach trzecich, co jest nieprecyzyjne i może na przykład implikować finansowanie podejrzanych projektów z budżetu Unii, co więcej bez odpowiedniego nadzoru nad nimi.

Dodatkowo, co podnosi zwłaszcza Polska, brak jest na przykład odpowiedniego systemu teleinformatycznego do rejestrowania i procedowania deklaracji importowych. Podsumowując, co do zasady popieramy walkę z nadużyciami i przestępstwami handlu artykułami stanowiącymi dobra kultury, ale należy wypracować rozwiązania realne, którym nasze instytucje będą w stanie sprostać. Stąd nasze wstrzymanie się od głosu nad tekstem Parlamentu.

 
  
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  Stanislav Polčák (PPE). – Pane předsedající, vážená paní komisařko, nelegální obchodování s kulturními statky je závažný problém v rámci EU, a to v globálním měřítku. Je důležité zintenzivnit boj proti tomuto nebezpečnému jevu mimo jiné i legislativními prostředky. Proto je dobře, že návrh mandátu Evropského parlamentu pro vyjednávání v trialogu s Radou představuje rozšíření stávající právní ochrany kulturního dědictví v členských státech EU i na kulturní dědictví třetích zemí, neboť pravidla dovozu ze třetích zemí nejsou na úrovni EU harmonizována. Naproti tomu společná pravidla pro vývoz kulturních statků již existují ve formě nařízení EU. Pokud jde o dovoz kulturních statků, na úrovni EU jsou v platnosti pouze dvě konkrétní omezující opatření, a to ve vztahu k Sýrii či Iráku. Zdá se tedy, že skutečně všeobecná úprava chybí a dost silně.

Od předloženého návrhu si slibuji přetržení vazby mezi nelegálním obchodem s kulturními statky a organizovaným zločinem a financováním terorismu a současně právní jistotu legálnímu trhu s uměleckými díly. Potřeba koordinovaného a účinného postupu na úrovni EU je vyvolána i tím, že příslušné orgány třetích zemí nemají dostatek kapacit k boji proti nedovolenému a nezákonnému obchodu s kulturními statky a bývají také vystaveny často korupci nebo jiným formám nesprávného úředního postupu. Je třeba si uvědomit, že jsou-li kulturní statky vytrženy z daného prostředí, přichází místní obyvatelé o své zvyky a památky nebo památná a bohoslužebná místa. V zájmu účinného uplatňování společných pravidel je také vhodné, aby dovoz zvláště cenných kulturních statků podléhal při vstupu na celní území Unie jednotným kontrolám.

 
  
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  Luigi Morgano (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il patrimonio culturale di un paese, in particolare i suoi reperti archeologici, le sue opere d'arte così come i suoi oggetti più antichi, rappresentano le radici, la memoria storica, l'identità di un popolo.

Con l'adozione del regolamento relativo all'importazione dei beni culturali nell'UE il Parlamento europeo, facendo propria la linea espressa dalla commissione CULT, dà concretezza a queste parole.

L'Unione europea ha il dovere di contrapporsi all'importazione illegale di beni culturali e di dotarsi di norme armonizzate per tutelare e proteggere non solo i propri, ma anche i beni culturali provenienti da paesi terzi, in particolare quelli in conflitto.

Peraltro i beni culturali, non di rado, vengono trafugati e contrabbandati per finanziare il terrorismo ma anche a scopo di riciclaggio ed elusione.

Emendando sostanzialmente la proposta della Commissione, che proponeva una soglia minima di età di ben 250 anni per definire un bene culturale che rientrasse nel campo di applicazione di questo regolamento, abbiamo abbassato il limite a 100 anni, allineandoci così alle principali convenzioni internazionali (UNIDROIT, UNESCO, Convenzione dell'Aia) nonché al nostro regolamento vigente relativo all'esportazione di beni culturali.

Proprio perché i beni culturali non sono una merce qualsiasi, abbiamo introdotto la necessità di stabilire una procedura semplificata elettronica e una serie di regole e di documenti per dimostrare la liceità della loro importazione in Europa.

(Il Presidente toglie la parola all'oratore.)

 
  
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  Jiří Pospíšil (PPE). – Pane předsedající, já zde zopakuji to, co říkali moji vzácní předřečníci, krásně to řekl pan kolega Polčák i paní kolegyně Šojdrová. Vítám a podporuji tento návrh nařízení, který při projednávání ve výborech, ve výboru IMCO, jehož jsem také členem, nabral ještě určitých podle mě pro praxi užitečných změn. Je zjevné a ty důvody zde byly řečeny, já to tedy pouze zopakuji, že potřebujeme jednotnou úpravu pro Evropskou unii ve chvíli, kdy máme jednotnou úpravu vývozu kulturního zboží, je třeba mít jedna pravidla pro dovoz takovýchto kulturních statků.

V posledních letech intenzita potřeby takovéto regulace narůstá. Není to totiž jen o tom, že se odněkud nelegálně vyvážejí kulturní statky a poškozuje se kulturní dědictví určitých zemí, zvláště zemí třetího světa, ale jak už zde bylo řečeno a zdůrazněno, obchod s kulturními statky se v posledních letech stává způsobem k financování různých teroristických a jiných nelegálních aktivit. A je tedy třeba mít přísnější úpravu, jasnější úpravu, úpravu, která bude aplikovaná ve všech částech EU stejně. K tomu je tedy třeba jednotného nařízení, které zde máme na stole. Jak už jsem řekl, vítám úpravu, kterou přinesla projednávání tohoto nařízení v příslušných výborech. Výbor IMCO přispěl k tomu, že určitá méněcenná díla nebo méně stará díla jsou z toho návrhu vyloučena, a to je podle mě určitě ku prospěchu věci.

 
  
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  Sergio Gaetano Cofferati (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signora commissario, come Lei ha sentito i due correlatori hanno definito con grande precisione e con grande efficacia le dimensioni di questo mercato, le sue caratteristiche e soprattutto i fenomeni distorsivi che dentro il mercato si sono realizzati in questo arco di tempo.

Vorrei per questo limitarmi a sottolineare tre aspetti, rapidamente. Il primo è che finalmente superiamo il paradosso per cui in Europa non esisteva e non esiste ancora (spero per brevissimo tempo) un assetto, un quadro europeo per regolare l'importazione dei beni culturali. Che non ci sia qui è davvero significativo, purtroppo.

Il secondo è che questa mancanza ha consentito attività illecite come quelle che sono state ricordate dai colleghi. Allora, assicurare per le importazioni le stesse condizioni che per le esportazioni ci serve a camminare nella giusta direzione.

La terza cosa, da non sottovalutare, è che un sistema legislativo come quello che stiamo discutendo consentirà anche su questo versante di combattere fenomeni di evasione ed elusione fiscale che tanto hanno penalizzato l'economia europea.

 
  
 

Διαδικασία «catch the eye»

 
  
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  Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski (PPE). – Panie Przewodniczący! Wraz z Silvią Costą z grupy S&D byliśmy wnioskodawcami w 2017 r. programu pilotażowego, który zakładał zbudowanie takich modułów edukacyjnych, zwłaszcza dla policji, w zakresie poruszania się właśnie na tym rynku nielegalnego obrotu dziełami sztuki. Bardzo się cieszę, że ten program jest realizowany w 2018 r., ale warto go poszerzyć. Natomiast wracając do dzisiejszej debaty, podkreślę cztery elementy, które, według mojej oceny, są niezwykle wartościowe i zostały zawarte w dokumencie. Po pierwsze, ustanowienie wspólnej definicji dóbr kultury przy przewozie – to ważna sprawa. Zapewnienie, aby importerzy zachowywali staranność przy zakupach dóbr kultury pochodzących z państw trzecich. Trzeci element – określenie standardowych informacji na użytek poświadczenia legalnego pochodzenia dóbr kultury. I na końcu – wprowadzenie skutecznych środków odstraszających, przede wszystkim zniechęcających do nielegalnego handlu.

 
  
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  Julie Ward (S&D). – Mr President, it is the first time that you have adopted common rules aiming to halt the illegal import and trafficking of cultural goods from outside the EU, often linked to terrorist financing and other criminal activity. These new laws will make it harder for criminal elements to profit from the export of cultural goods from conflict areas, as has previously happened with treasures looted from Iraq and Syria. Cultural appropriation, modification or destruction as a result of occupation is never acceptable.

I wish to mention a specific example from occupied Crimea, where culture is a matter of great concern, especially regarding the conservation of Ukrainian cultural heritage, the illicit trafficking of cultural property and illicit archaeological excavations. The Russian occupying authorities have registered the illegal appropriation of the 32 historic buildings of Khan’s Palace in Bakhchysarai, and launched large-scale restoration works in total defiance of international law, including UNESCO conventions. This threatens the integrity of the palace, which constitutes a site of national significance for Ukraine, as well as an integral part of the cultural heritage of the Crimean Tatar people.

 
  
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  Kateřina Konečná (GUE/NGL). – Pane předsedající, vážené kolegyně, vážení kolegové, je smutnou pravdou, že válka, kromě mnoha jiných hrůzných zločinů, které ji doprovází, vede i k drancování kulturního dědictví. Svou zkušenost s tím mají i české země, které dodnes musí nejmenovaný stát Evropské unie prosit, aby nám na dobu omezenou půjčil náš vlastní majetek.

Problém drancování kulturního dědictví má dnes však další a temnější rovinu, a tou je, že souvisí s financováním terorismu. Teroristům už nestačí obchodovat s drogami, zbraněmi, lidmi a obchodují nyní i se vzácnými artefakty, čímž okrádají budoucí generace. Na první pohled se to nemusí jevit příliš důležité, obchod s lidmi je samozřejmě mnohem závažnějším zločinem, ale památky jsou často symboly, které souvisí s naší identitou. Kulturní dědictví představuje jednu ze základních součástí civilizace a patří ke kulturní paměti lidstva. Teroristé nemají kulturu a nepatří k civilizaci, a proto by neměli na památkách jakkoliv profitovat a my jim v tom musíme jakýmkoliv způsobem zabránit.

 
  
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  David Coburn (EFDD). – Mr President, well Iʼve listened to this and I cannot believe my ears. Everyone says, ‘it’s all about terrorism’. Pure George Orwell. The best way to prevent the theft of archaeological objects is to rely on auction houses and the antiques trade, and bringing in all these regulations will simply destroy the antiques trade. It won’t help it. It won’t help you get these things back. It’s total nonsense. I don’t really know what you think you’re talking about. You really don’t understand it. It’s really about socialists terrified that people might pass their wealth on, through antiques, to their children. The gentleman up there mentioned that earlier. He was the only one that told the truth. That’s what you are all worried about. You’re terrified somebody might pass on something to their children, and that’s why you’re so worried.

But in the meantime, you’re going to destroy a lot of pleasure for a lot of people. A lot of people like to go to flea markets at the weekend and buy things. Well, that’s all going to be destroyed if, every time somebody sells a horse brass or a candlestick, they have to get 500 years’ worth of provenance on it. It simply won’t work. This shows no common sense, no understanding and there’s utter paranoia about terrorism. If the terrorists want to make money, go short on the markets just before they commence an act of terror. That will make the money for them.

(The President cut off the speaker)

 
  
  

PRZEWODNICTWO: BOGUSŁAW LIBERADZKI
Wiceprzewodniczący

 
  
 

(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)

 
  
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  Violeta Bulc, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, first let me thank again both rapporteurs and all of you for your active participation in this debate. Allow me to stress one more time that with the legislation we are discussing, we cover only antiques and valuable works of art from impoverished or war—torn countries and regions, which are often illegally acquired, sold and imported into the European Union. In addition to damaging or destroying the archaeological sites and the artefacts themselves, illicit trade in looted cultural goods has also been identified as a source of income for organised crime groups and terrorists.

Before I conclude today’s discussion, please allow me to respond to some of your comments.

First, regarding old books. These are not, I repeat, not, placed under import licence requirements. Only a signed declaration or minimum information will be required.

On the topic of value thresholds, the proposed regulation does not provide for minimum value thresholds, but provides for a high age threshold of 250 years instead. Neither Unesco nor Unidriot nor the Hague Convention provide for minimum age limits. Parliament’s proposal for shorter minimum age limits comes from the EU Regulation on the export of cultural goods and ranges from 50 up to 200 years. That being said, the Commission could consider minimum value limits as well.

Mr Campbell, you do not need to worry about the grandfather clock. The proposed regulation’s scope does not include European cultural goods created or discarded in the territory of the Member States, so no worries about that.

Let me also stress that the proposed regulation does not concern the cultural heritage of Iraq and Syria. On those we have EU measures prohibiting trade – an embargo basically. The comment related to Iraq was, therefore, completely misplaced.

I would also like to stress again that there is already EU legislation about the return of EU cultural goods between Member States. However, the Directive in question does not have retroactive effect and could not be used for the return of looted art during the Second World War. In this particular case, this would be a matter of negotiation between two Member States and can take place anytime.

A common EU-level approach based on everything that we have heard so far is necessary to ensure that imports of cultural goods are subject to uniform controls along the EU’s external borders. The Commission proposal is a follow—up to other EU initiatives aimed at strengthening the fight against terrorism financing, indeed precisely to prevent the import and storage in the EU of cultural goods that have been removed from a third country illegally and thereby combat trafficking in cultural goods, deprive criminals, terrorists and other warring factions of a source of income, and protect cultural heritage.

From what I have heard today in the debate, I can say that the Commission welcomes most elements of Parliament’s position, which will be put to the vote in the plenary tomorrow.

 
  
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  Alessia Maria Mosca, relatore. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, ringrazio tutti i colleghi per l'interessante discussione, che ha dimostrato il largo sostegno alla proposta avanzata.

Certamente tutto è migliorabile ma, come più volte è stato sottolineato dai colleghi nel dibattito, abbiamo cercato di introdurre uno strumento innovativo che inserisca modalità di raccolta e scambio delle informazioni, che potrà costituire una buona pratica, e questo senza gravare sulle piccole e medie imprese, garantendo invece un commercio giusto ma soprattutto garantendo la tutela del patrimonio culturale dei diversi popoli, che è la radice dell'identità e della coesione delle società.

Mi spiace che alcuni colleghi parlino di nevrosi del terrorismo, vorremmo fosse una nevrosi. Intanto noi riteniamo che limitare le forme di finanziamento sia un nostro dovere, prima di tutto, e una strada efficace per contrastare la diffusione di queste organizzazioni.

Siamo perciò fiduciosi che anche in Consiglio si possa raggiungere presto un testo di compromesso e che si possa a breve dotare l'Unione europea di questo importante strumento.

 
  
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  Daniel Dalton, Rapporteur. – Mr President, I would like to thank colleagues for all their statements. We all have the same goal here, namely to tighten rules to prevent the illicit import of cultural goods, and there is clearly consensus for that across the House. But that doesn’t mean that we support all and every measure that is proposed, particularly those that could punish legitimate traders or keep European cultural heritage out of Europe. That’s what a lot of this text does, and we’ve got to be very careful to make sure it doesn’t do that.

The grandfather clock, for example: if that goes outside Europe, you may well not be able to bring it back in. Similarly with the point that Mr Marias was making: if those go out of Europe and you can’t get the approval of the source country to get a licence to bring them back in, under these proposals you’re going to struggle to get European goods back into Europe. No one wants that. I know no one in this House wants that. That’s the point that I’ve been trying to make in these whole discussions, and that’s the problem we still have with this file as it is now. Yes, we need to be very, very strong on terrorist financing and we need to make sure we clamp down on that illicit and serious organised crime route into Europe. But let’s not punish legitimate arts traders, people that have got books – because some books are still covered by this – and a whole range of other European artefacts that we want to make sure can come back into Europe legitimately.

That’s all I’ve asked throughout this process. We have a proposal on the table that I’m not 100% happy with. I’m not going to oppose it and I hope that, in the negotiations with the Council, we can come together to get a final agreement that does look along those lines: do what everyone in this room wants to make sure that we hammer down that potential loophole on terrorist financing but that we do not hurt legitimate traders and legitimate people that have legitimate European cultural heritage.

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. – Zamykam debatę.

Głosowanie odbędzie się w czwartek 25 października 2018 r.

Oświadczenia pisemne (art. 162)

 
  
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  Isabella Adinolfi (EFDD), per iscritto. – Il traffico di beni culturali – dagli scavi archeologici illeciti fino al trafugamento di opere in territori vittime di conflitti bellici – costituisce uno dei principali commerci criminali (nonché una fonte di finanziamento del terrorismo), ma anche una seria minaccia per il patrimonio culturale mondiale. Questo regolamento introduce finalmente una serie di misure volte a impedire l'importazione illecita in UE di beni culturali esportati illecitamente o trafugati da paesi terzi, rafforzando in primo luogo il controllo doganale alle frontiere e richiedendo poi agli importatori di comprovare la provenienza lecita dei beni culturali importati, ossia la legittimità dell'esportazione dal paese di origine o di esportazione. Molto importante inoltre la norma che prevede strumenti di assistenza tecnica e finanziaria alle PMI che operano nel mercato dell'arte per garantire l'effettiva attuazione del regolamento, nonché le misure di cooperazione telematica tra gli Stati membri e le loro dogane. Fermare il mercato nero dei beni culturali non significa soltanto contrastare un'attività illegale, ma soprattutto proteggere il patrimonio culturale dell'umanità, quindi la storia, le tradizioni e l'identità di tutti noi.

 
  
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  Dominique Bilde (ENF), par écrit. –Comment oublier la mise à sac méthodique et savamment planifiée du musée de Bagdad, riche d’une Histoire millénaire? Les drames de cette ampleur ne sont hélas plus rares, notamment dans un Moyen-Orient déstabilisé par une ingérence occidentale systématique. Le dernier avatar étant le pillage par l’État islamique, qui aurait tiré environ 20 % de ses revenus du trafic d’œuvres d’art, notamment du site de Palmyre, élevé par l’UNESCO au patrimoine mondial de l’humanité.

Du reste, même le fameux «printemps arabe» a vu le musée du Caire dépouillé de cinquante-quatre objets inestimables. L’étendue et l’opacité des réseaux tentaculaires à l’œuvre dans ce trafic exigent de nous une réponse concertée, européenne, mais aussi internationale. Je pense notamment aux résolutions des Nations unies instaurant des moratoires sur les œuvres en provenance d’Irak, puis de Syrie, alors qu’aujourd’hui d’autres régions du monde traversent des tragédies similaires.

Je pense aussi aux conventions existantes, alors que la principale, celle de l’UNESCO de 1970, n’a été ratifiée à ce jour que par environ 120 États. Assurément, ce texte est un pas dans la bonne direction, et est équilibré et sans préjudice pour la filière de l’art et ses petites entreprises.

 
  
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  Lidia Joanna Geringer de Oedenberg (S&D), na piśmie. – Bardzo znaczący jest fakt, że Parlament Europejski i Rada przyjęły Europejską agendę bezpieczeństwa na rzecz zwalczania nielegalnego handlu dobrami kultury. Inicjatywa ta ma na celu zapobieganie importowi i składowaniu w UE dóbr kultury nielegalnie wywiezionych z państw trzecich, co zapewne przyczyni się do ograniczania nielegalnego handlu tymi towarami oraz ochrony dziedzictwa kulturowego zwłaszcza w krajach dotkniętych konfliktami zbrojnymi.

W tym celu powyższe rozporządzenie proponuje ustanowienie wspólnej definicji dóbr kultury, określenie standardowych informacji potwierdzających legalne pochodzenie produktu, wprowadzenie skutecznych środków, które miałyby zniechęcać do nielegalnego handlu dobrami kultury, oraz propagowanie aktywnego zaangażowania zainteresowanych stron w ochronę dziedzictwa kulturowego.

Ponadto, co ważne, sformułowano zasadę, zgodnie z którą wprowadzenie dóbr kultury na obszar celny Unii jest dozwolone tylko w przypadku, gdy uzyskane zostało pozwolenie na ich przywóz lub złożone zostało oświadczenie od importera. W celu uniknięcia obchodzenia przepisów w przypadkach, kiedy kraj wywozu nie jest państwem, w którym przedmiot powstał, należy dokonać rozróżnienia, czy jest ono sygnatariuszem Konwencji UNESCO z 1970 r., w której istnieje zapis o zwalczaniu nielegalnego handlu dobrami kultury, czy też nie.

 
Последно осъвременяване: 8 януари 2019 г.Правна информация