Indeks 
 Prethodno 
 Sljedeće 
 Cjeloviti tekst 
Rasprave
Srijeda, 30. siječanja 2019. - Bruxelles Revidirano izdanje

27. Strategije integracije Roma (rasprava)
Videozapis govora
PV
MPphoto
 

  President. – The next item is the debate on the Council and Commission statements on Roma integration strategies (2019/2509/RSP)).

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Melania Ciot, President-in-Office of the Council. – Madam President, honourable Members, Commissioner Jourová, it is a great pleasure for me to join you here today for this important debate.

May I begin by recalling our common objective to promote Roma inclusion at European Union level. This is an objective commonly agreed and which sets the basis for launching a broad and sustained push for action at European level.

Eight years ago the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council joined forces to set up the EU framework for national Roma integration strategies. We did this in order to act, to prevent and discourage any discriminatory action towards this group of vulnerable persons.

We are all aware of the difficulties and challenges faced by Roma citizens in our societies nowadays. From this perspective, we need to ensure the required instruments for properly addressing them. It will take determined efforts by a whole range of stakeholders to see concrete results on the ground within Roma communities and in our societies. It is indeed a challenge that would not be solved overnight but that requires a continuous political will and support from all Member States and European institutions.

It is precisely for this reason that the Council, the Commission and the Parliament agreed on the need for a strategic approach. A sustained strategy is the only way to heal long—neglected communities, to stamp out discrimination and to bring real opportunities to all, including the poorest.

In pursuing this vision, we are guided by our common European values and we are supported by the vigorous actions of the Commission. And it fits perfectly with the political priorities that will guide the Romanian Presidency of the Council of the EU which runs under the motto ‘Cohesion: a common European value’.

Let me thank the European Parliament for taking up this important subject on the EU agenda. In the turbulent times we live in today, a great many social challenges require our attention. Against the loud shouts of populism it is not easy to speak up for the voiceless and the unpopular. Yet we must speak. Social policy should not be at the mercy of headlines, trends and electioneering. Social regeneration takes time. Deeply—rooted disadvantages cannot be wished away in an instant.

The list of challenges that we have sought to address in our common strategic framework spans the whole range of fundamental social needs: employment; housing; health; and education. These four things are the building blocks of a decent life. The deprivation faced by this community is so comprehensive that it seems to defy description. And yet it can be summed up in one word: poverty.

According to the EU Fundamental Rights Agency, the overwhelming majority of Roma, some 80%, live in poverty, but Roma are also one of the groups at greatest risk of discrimination, and these two facts –, poverty and discrimination – are interlinked.

We already have legislation in Europe that outlaws racist discrimination, but as everyone knows legislation is not enough. Rules must be implemented in practice and attitudes must change.

I therefore thank the European Parliament for insisting on this aspect, for leading the call for more action to stamp out racism and discrimination and hate speech. The Council has also highlighted this issue, recognising anti—Gypsyism as a root cause of the social exclusion and discrimination suffered by Roma.

In this context I am pleased to announce that the Romanian Presidency will be hosting a high—level conference on the EU framework for national Roma integration strategies in Bucharest on March 4 and 5. We look forward to welcoming representatives of the Parliament, Member States, civil society and Roma organisations at this event.

The Commission has recently evaluated the effectiveness of our efforts under our shared strategic framework. Our conference will give Member States and other stakeholders the opportunity to reflect on the results of this evaluation and on the best way forward.

To highlight just one topic in its evaluation report, the Commission notes that education is the field in which most progress has been seen. More Roma are now benefiting from schooling. This is encouraging. However, I am sure we all agree that progress has been slow and must be stepped up in all four key areas: education; employment; housing; and health. The added value of cooperation at EU level is very clear. The Council has already called on the Commission to propose a post-2020 strategy. Therefore, let us here today renew our commitment to end marginalisation and exclusion. Together we can make a brighter future for Roma and a better society for all citizens.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Věra Jourová, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, let me start by thanking Parliament for tabling this debate on the implementation of and follow-up to the EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies. It comes at an important time, as the Commission has just concluded its in-depth evaluation of the framework.

I would also like to mention Parliament’s ambitious 2017 report focusing on the fight against anti-Gypsyism. It made a major contribution to the evaluation and will continue to inspire reflection on the post-2020 EU approach that we are now launching with this debate. Further, I would like to thank the Council for having invited the Commission to carry out the evaluation and then to propose a post-2020 strategic approach.

We are all allies in this important quest to make equality and the inclusion of Roma a reality. I would like to thank, EP Vice-President Lívia Járóka and honourable Member Soraya Post, in particular, for their work, and also to thank many of you, honourable Members, who are present here today for your commitment to the cause.

Let me now highlight some of the most important results of the evaluation. It has confirmed that the four priority areas – employment, education, health and housing – continue to be key to Roma inclusion. At the same time, anti-Gypsyism has increasingly been recognised as a root cause of Roma exclusion. The evaluation found that a specific non-discrimination goal and a stronger focus on the suppression of anti-Gypsyism would make the framework stronger.

The report notes that the framework achieved positive EU added value by putting Roma inclusion on the EU and national agendas. It facilitated the development of new structures and increased consistency between the EU policy, legal and funding instruments that have been mobilised and aligned in pursuit of Roma inclusion. These include the European Semester, the Racial Equality Directive and the European structural and investment funds.

The framework provided flexibility for Member States to adapt their objectives to specific national contexts. The evaluation found that this tailored approach also contributed to fragmented implementation, reduced effectiveness and limited progress towards EU-Roma integration goals. The framework, however, had limited capacity to deal with diversity among Roma. It did not pay sufficient attention to targeting specific groups such as Roma women, youth, children as well as EU-mobile Roma.

The evaluation showed that the EU framework is the beginning of a process which, despite many limitations and taking into account the massive task involved, has demonstrated some positive results and an initial change in trends, education, especially, being the area that has seen most progress. It also shows that continued commitment is still needed.

 
  
  

PRZEWODNICTWO: ZDZISŁAW KRASNODĘBSKI
Wiceprzewodniczący

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Lívia Járóka, a PPE képviselőcsoport nevében. – Tisztelt Elnök úr! Tisztelettel és szeretettel köszöntöm a Tanácsot és nagyon örülök, hogy ilyen bátor lépésre elszánták magukat. Köszönjük Romániának, és nagyon fontos szerintem , hogy részt vesznek ebben a háromfázisú új romastratégiai időszakban.

Itt három időszakról beszélünk ugye, az európai elnökség első időszaka most a románok, akiktől azt várjuk el, hogy a meglévő pénzügyi forrásokat a tagállamok jobban használják föl. Ezért a partnership agreementekben írjunk alá velük konkrét, tiszta, papírra fektethető számokat, például a munkahelyteremtés tekintetében szerintem 5 százalékkal országonként lehetne csökkenteni a roma munkanélküliséget.

Nekünk Magyarországon most sikerült. És ugyanígy a többi szakterületen és az oktatásban, lakhatásban, a foglalkoztatásban, az egészségügyben nagyon jó eredményeket lehet elérni.

2010-ben, amikor az Európai Parlament először készített erről komoly jelentést, akkor már hét olyan pontunk volt, amit nagyon fontosnak tartottunk volna, hogy átvegyen a Bizottság és a Tanács. És úgy gondoljuk, hogy mivel azokat a pontokat nem vették át a parlamenti jelentésből, ezért nem működik most teljesen a romastratégia. Ezért, amiket szeretnénk javasolni a holnap készülő jelentésünkben és a februári plenárisra készülő LIBE ötpárti jelentésben, azok a következő pontok, amiket vissza szeretnénk rakni a dokumentumba a következő tervezési időszakra.

Ami viszont már a finn elnökséget szeretnénk, hogy komolyan gondolkodjon arról, hogy egy 120 milliós európai szegénység esetében a 16 millió romának a kérdését kiterjeszthetnénk-e gazdasági integráció szempontjából a többi szegény csoportra is Európában. És aztán szeretnénk, hogyha a horvát elnökség az európai romastratégia kapcsán azt tudná elérni, hogy a balkáni szegényeket bekapcsoljuk, hogyha 2025-ben csatlakozás lesz, akkor ne legyen akkora megdöbbenés, hogy milyen szegények ezek a balkáni roma- és szegénytelepek.

Ugye ezeken a telepeken csak egyharmaduk a szegényeknek cigány. Ma Európában 120 millióból csak 16 millió. Öt évvel ezelőtt vagy hét évvel ezelőtt ez 43 millió volt. Míg Európában emelkedik a szegénység, egy-két kelet-európai országban csökken. Ezért kérem, hogy a következő dolgokat fontolják meg.

Az első pontom az lenne, hogy legyenek aláírt partnership agreementekben szereplő tiszta célszámok, és azokat az országok teljesítsék. Ehhez természetesen kell egy valamifajta jogi alap, hogy szankcionálni lehessen azokat, akik nem értik, hogy a demográfiai hullám következtében a legszegényebb telepeken Európába születnek a jövő nemzedékek munkaerői.

Tehát itt nem egy humanitáriánus kérdésről van szó, hanem egy nagyon erős gazdasági, fejlődési kérdésről az Európai Unió szempontjából. Ötször olcsóbb integrálni a legszegényebbeket, mint nem integrálni őket, hanem szociális segélyt fizetni. Tehát nagyon köszönöm, az Önök elhatározása nagyon-nagyon fontos, és az Európai Parlament mindenben a román elnökség mellett áll, hogy egy nagyon komoly dokumentumot tudjunk lerakni az asztalra. Volt egy erős dokumentumunk másfél éve, Soraya Post írta, és tényleg azokat a kérdéseket is kezeli, amit a „race directive”, változást hozhatna a cigányellenességben. Kérem, ezt vizsgálják meg részletesebben!

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Soraya Post, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, in the European Parliament, we have been working hand in hand with several colleagues across the political spectrum to fight the dehumanisation of Roma in Europe. We have been working hard for years now to ensure that the birth of Roma children will be registered without discrimination, as is the case for non—Roma children; that Roma children have full access to the same education as non—Roma children; that we Roma have easy access to clean and safe drinking water; that we have access to electricity; that we will not be forced to move to another EU country and live on begging; that we do not have to live in fear. We want to end the unacceptable apartheid that so many Roma live under in our otherwise emancipated societies. But in order to achieve this, we need to continue the EU framework after 2020, and we need to do it in an approved format. We need to have a strategic EU framework, with a wider set of priority areas, clear targets, timelines and indicators for monitoring.

Following the 12 pages of demands and recommendations in my anti—Gypsyism report, the fight against anti—Gypsies has to be horizontal and Roma participation has to be safeguarded from the very start of the process. For that, we also need to work on trust building through a true recognition and reconciliation process. This is crucial. We have to mix the communities and we have to create trust. I would like to finish by thanking our Commission colleagues, the Fundamental Rights Agency and also all the NGOs for joining our fight for the realisation of the values compiled in our treaties throughout these years and thank you to the Council. I really appreciate your initiative to have the conference in Bucharest.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Romeo Franz, im Namen der Verts/ALE-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Eine neue EU-Strategie zur Roma-Inklusion – ja, aber nicht so. Warum haben alle Strategien, Pläne, die Roma-Dekade und so weiter versagt? Die beste Strategie nützt nichts, wenn wir die Ursache des Übels nicht erkennen, wenn wir das Haupthindernis der Inklusion einfach weiter ignorieren und tabuisieren, wenn wir den Ursprung des Scheiterns nicht bekämpfen.

Antizyganismus ist in der Mehrheitsgesellschaft und in den Institutionen seit Jahrhunderten felsenfest verankert. Armut ist die Folge, aber nicht die Ursache. Das neue EU-Roma-Framework darf nicht dazu missbraucht werden, dass unsere Menschen als Arbeitssklaven ausgebeutet werden, weil sie Roma sind. Wir brauchen echte gleichberechtigte Teilhabe und Einbeziehung der Menschen mit Roma-Hintergrund von Anfang an und auf allen Ebenen. Wir müssen endlich die Zivilgesellschaft und die Politik sensibilisieren. Der Zugang der NGO zu den Mitteln darf nicht an der Bürokratie scheitern, und wir müssen Strategien zur Bekämpfung von Korruption ausweiten. Leuchtturmprojekte, die bei der Inklusion von Menschen mit Roma-Hintergrund erfolgreich sind und nachhaltig wirken, diese Projekte nehmen wir uns zum Vorbild für ein neues Roma-Framework.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Martina Anderson, on behalf of the GUE/NGL Group. – Mr President, today this Parliament marked International Holocaust Remembrance Day where MEPs remembered all who were slaughtered in one of the world’s most horrendous genocides. Among those are the Roma, who were, and still are, marginalised in every sphere of society. Like other groups, the Roma were rounded up like cattle in an attempt to wipe them out. Today Roma face discrimination in education, health and social welfare systems so they need more than integration strategies. In the north of Ireland, particularly in Belfast, the Roma community face racist slurs, abject poverty and attacks every single day. Entire families live in fear in their homes. This is utterly reprehensible.

I condemn all those who exploit and profit from the systematic discrimination of the Roma. We need to break the vicious cycle of oppression and exploitation that the Roma face by tackling it at source. After all, injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.

(Applause)

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Juan Fernando López Aguilar (S&D). – Señor presidente, comisaria Jourová, qué bien hace este Parlamento Europeo en preocuparse en combatir todas las formas odiosas de discriminación contra minorías vulnerables. Lo hemos visto esta mañana en la Conmemoración del Holocausto.

Hubo también un holocausto gitano, como nos recordó aquí apasionadamente ese memorable miembro de la comunidad gitana europea que fue miembro del Parlamento Europeo, Juan de Dios Ramírez Heredia, y, esta noche, Lívia Jároka y Soraya Post, entre otros ilustres romaníes de la comunidad europea, que continúa padeciendo discriminación en materia de acceso a la vivienda, al empleo, a la educación o a la sanidad. Y esas estrategias nacionales tienen que ser evaluadas no solo hasta el 2020 sino con posterioridad y permanentemente.

Pero es importante que todos los fondos europeos —los fondos de integración, el Fondo de Cohesión, los Fondos Estructurales y también el propio programa Erasmus— tengan un capítulo de integración de esa comunidad vulnerable que continúa padeciendo discriminación en Estados miembros de la Unión Europea. Por eso, comisaria Jourová, cuenta con todo el apoyo de los europarlamentarios comprometidos contra todas las formas de discriminación.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Jasenko Selimovic (ALDE). – Mr President, please excuse me if I’m being too blunt in my speech. I’ve been looking at these strategies and listening to our speeches. I had the privilege of working with the Swedish Strategy for Roma Inclusion and, yes, things are improving. We are doing something. But still, the gap between our speeches and Roma realities is so big that it is actually unnerving. The simple and major reason for that is a lack of political will to do something to help Roma and solve the problems they are facing. Some countries are avoiding doing it, some countries are not prioritising the tasks, and some countries are even consciously not doing anything, hoping that the Roma will move from their country and live in another country. This is the bitter reality. We have a million excuses for why things haven’t been improving and not a single one is good. Not a single one actually explains the reality.

Let us not be too pessimistic. This is a good initiative. I want to thank the Council, the Commission, the people from Parliament – Soraya Post and Madam Vice—President – working on this strategy. Let us hope that the high—level meeting in Bucharest will be the first concrete step towards actually improving the situation, which we can do.

(The speaker agreed to take a blue—card question under Rule 162(8)).

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Maria Grapini (S&D), Întrebare adresată conform procedurii „cartonașului albastru”. – Domnule președinte, doamnă comisar, stimate coleg, vă înțeleg revolta pentru că, așa este, trebuie să înaintăm, să facem ceva concret. Întrebarea mea este - și mă leg de ceea ce a prezentat președinția, că este necesar să punem accent pe educație, și educație nu numai pentru romi, educație și pentru partea cealaltă a populației, pentru că eu cred că o populație educată nu ar stigmatiza alt cetățean, alt vecin de lângă el. Nu credeți că ar trebui să investim mai mult în educație, și Comisia să se gândească la acest gen de educație? Pentru că am cazuri concrete în care, de fapt, neînțelegerea este de la lipsa de educație.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Jasenko Selimovic (ALDE), blue-card answer. – Thank you, Mr President and thank you to Madam Grapini for posing the question.

I do agree with certain things, but I have to say, we have all possible strategies, we have everything, we know what is to be done, we know what should be done. What we are lacking is political will and implementation of the things in order to improve the situation. When we start to do that, we will achieve the results, I’m completely sure of that.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Dietmar Köster (S&D). – Herr Präsident, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Heute haben wir im Plenum an die Befreiung des Konzentrationslagers Auschwitz erinnert. In den Tagen um den 27. Januar 1945 sind viele NS-Verfolgte befreit worden: Jüdinnen und Juden, Widerstandskämpfer, Homosexuelle und eben auch Roma. Mindestens 500 000 Sinti und Roma wurden in der NS-Zeit ermordet. Wir müssen im Europäischen Parlament in Zukunft auch der Sinti und Roma an diesem Tag der Befreiung gedenken.

Der Antizyganismus ist nach wie vor Teil der europäischen Gesellschaft. Dieser Rassismus ist die Ursache dafür, dass Roma bis heute diskriminiert werden. Insbesondere in Ungarn unter dem Regime der Fidesz-Partei, die sich in der Fraktion der Konservativen und der EVP wohl aufgehoben fühlt, werden Roma nach wie vor rassistisch diskriminiert. Im Kampf gegen den Antizyganismus muss ein Perspektivenwechsel stattfinden. Wir brauchen eine Inklusionsstrategie. Demnach stellt sich die Herausforderung, wie sich die gesellschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen für ein gutes Leben für Roma ändern müssen. Das ist die unverzichtbare Aufgabe der Europäischen Union, wenn sie als Wertegemeinschaft ernst genommen werden will.

(Der Redner ist damit einverstanden, eine Frage nach dem Verfahren der „blauen Karte“ gemäß Artikel 162 Absatz 8 der Geschäftsordnung zu beantworten.)

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Lívia Járóka (PPE), blue-card question. – Given that the Commission has made a very big step under the leadership of Ms Jourová for the Roma strategy, do you see any good projects? You were talking about Hungary. Do you know that in Hungary Roma get 10 million forints if they have many children – two or three – to get housing? Do you know that in Hungary at the age of three you have to go to kindergarten? Do you know that in Hungary, in the last three years, 300 000 Roma got jobs? Public work, it’s true, but 100 000 could make it to the normal work spheres. Also, do you know that in Hungary we have stopped school drop—out? Do you know that we have Biztos Kezdet Gyerekházak, which starts at the age of one in settlements? Do you know about these developments in Hungary?

 
  
MPphoto
 

  President. – Excuse me, but the question is long. I have to interrupt it. Do you know about this, Mr Köster?

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Dietmar Köster (S&D), Antwort auf eine Frage nach dem Verfahren der „blauen Karte“. – Vielen Dank für die zusätzlichen Erklärungen. Ich bin ja dankbar, wenn auch in der ungarischen Regierung mittlerweile erkannt wird, dass man gegenüber der massiven Diskriminierung, die es in der Vergangenheit in unterschiedlichen ungarischen Städten gegeben hat, endlich versucht, dies zu ändern. Das kann man nur begrüßen. Ich hoffe, dass hier die Fidesz-Partei zur Besinnung kommt und ihrer Antidiskriminierungsstrategie dann auch wirkliche Taten folgen lässt.

Mir ist natürlich klar, dass die gesellschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen auch in Ungarn gerade für Roma grundsätzlich verbessert werden müssen. Es kann nicht sein, dass Roma in Stadtteilen, in Ghettos mit schwierigen gesellschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen leben müssen. Es muss hier vor allen Dingen etwas gegen den Antiziganismus in Ungarn getan werden. Dann, glaube ich, sind wir in Europa und auch in Ungarn auf einem guten Weg.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Julie Ward (S&D). – Mr President, this week as we commemorate the Holocaust, we should take the time to remember all Roma and Sinti victims of this tragedy. Their erasure from history books shows how little consideration is given to their suffering. Witness, for example, the site at Lety in the Czech Republic, which was, until recently, a pig farm.

To this day, the widespread and systematic discrimination faced by Roma people is one of Europe’s greatest shames. The social issues faced by Roma and Sinti people, such as unemployment, poor access to education, health and housing, come from a particular form of racism called anti-Gypsyism – essentially this is a human rights issue. It’s time to stop ignoring the problem and focus all our efforts into combating discrimination and stigma, taking positive measures to support and uplift our Roma siblings. It’s also necessary to tackle multiple discrimination that many face, such as Roma women, who are marginalised because of their ethnicity and also because of their gender. And as a children’s rights campaigner, I want to highlight the plight of Roma children, who are unfairly treated and segregated on a daily basis in the EU. We can see from the award—winning Roma Versitas organisation that through support and training, Roma children and youth can achieve against all the odds.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Ana Gomes (S&D). – Senhor Presidente, a integração da minoria cigana exige um esforço transversal na educação, na saúde, na habitação, no trabalho. Não se pode continuar a deixar a marginalização invisível, escondida.

E quero prestar aqui homenagem à colega Soraya Post pelo seu trabalho fundamental para estabelecer o quadro europeu para as estratégias nacionais de integração do povo roma até 2020.

É um instrumento crucial, mas é preciso que seja medido o seu cumprimento por cada Estado-Membro, designadamente no quadro do Semestre Europeu, como bem disse a Comissária Jourová. E é preciso dar incentivos e capacitar as mulheres ciganas para liderarem a mudança, é preciso mais financiamento para as ONG no terreno, é preciso dar voz à comunidade. É crucial sensibilizar os media para este combate, para mostrarem casos de sucesso de projetos de integração nas escolas, nos bairros, no trabalho.

Só assim se dará confiança à comunidade para se dar a conhecer e quebrar a barreira da discriminação e do esquecimento que persiste na Europa.

O preço a pagar pela falta de integração, pela nossa inação nos roma, portanto, quanto à integração dos roma, é o fortalecimento dos chauvinistas do racismo e da xenofobia que realmente ameaçam destruir a nossa Europa.

(A oradora aceita responder a uma pergunta formulada ao abrigo do procedimento “cartão azul” (artigo 162.º, n.º 8, do Regimento))

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Romeo Franz (Verts/ALE), Frage nach dem Verfahren der „blauen Karte“. – Ich möchte einmal noch etwas Grundsätzliches dazu sagen, zu Ungarn. Wir müssen auch fragen, in welche Schulen kommen die Roma-Kinder? Denn oft sind es segregierte Schulen. Welches Lernniveau herrscht da? Und die Arbeitsbeschaffungsmaßnahmen, wie werden diese bezahlt? Wie hoch ist der Lohn? Denn da liegt der Hase im Pfeffer bei der ganzen Geschichte. Und ich sage Ihnen eins: Diese Roma-Strategie, dieses neue Roma-Framework – wenn wir die Betroffenen nicht mit einbeziehen, gleichberechtigt schon hier in der Entwicklung, wird es beim zweiten Mal genauso ein negatives Ergebnis geben, wie es das schon mal gab.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Przewodniczący. – Na tym niestety musimy skończyć procedurę blue card, dlatego że czas nas goni. Przepraszam, Pani ma jeszcze prawo do odpowiedzi.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Ana Gomes (S&D), blue-card answer. – I fully concur with my colleague, Mr Franz. Real integration is not ghettos and is not separation. You can have fantastic housing in a ghetto and you’re not integrated. You can have a separated school and you’re not integrated if the Roma children are not together with the other children and the other children don’t appreciate the cultural wealth that it is for Europe to have Roma and Sinti communities.

 
  
 

Zgłoszenia z sali

 
  
MPphoto
 

  José Inácio Faria (PPE). – Senhor Presidente, Senhora Comissária, meio ano depois de debatermos nesta casa a aplicação e acompanhamento das estratégias nacionais que favorecem a integração das comunidades ciganas, chegamos à conclusão de que os Estados—Membros continuam a falhar no combate à discriminação e ao preconceito de que é vítima esta minoria étnica.

A verdade é que os relatos que nos chegam revelam que os roma ainda vivem à margem da sociedade, com um acesso limitado, para não dizer inexistente, à educação, ao emprego, à saúde, à habitação que, consequentemente, os torna mais vulneráveis à pobreza e à exclusão social e reforça os estereótipos negativos associados à comunidade.

Caros colegas, foi em 2011 que os Estados-Membros se comprometeram a adotar as estratégias nacionais de integração dos ciganos até 2020, mas a verdade é que ainda hoje continuamos a denunciar uma intenção que, em muitos casos, nunca se chegou a concretizar na prática.

Perante os desafios do populismo e do ataque brutal e cobarde contra as instituições e os valores democráticos na Europa, importa desde já que, de forma mais ambiciosa e integrada, a União Europeia responda às necessidades da comunidade cigana que conta com mais de dez milhões de pessoas, a maioria das quais cidadãos dos Estados-Membros da União Europeia.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, νομίζω ότι η συζήτηση που γίνεται σήμερα για την κοινωνική ένταξη των Ρομά είναι ιδιαίτερα επίκαιρη, αν θυμηθούμε ότι πριν λίγες ώρες αποτίσαμε τιμή στα θύματα του Ολοκαυτώματος. Δεν πρέπει να ξεχνούμε ότι μεγάλος αριθμός, ένα εκατομμύριο τουλάχιστον Ρομά, βρέθηκαν στα στρατόπεδα συγκέντρωσης των ναζί και εκτελέστηκαν. Νομίζω ότι η σημερινή συζήτηση πραγματικά αποδίδει, αν θέλετε, τιμή και σε αυτούς οι οποίοι ήταν θύματα του ρατσισμού.

Αλλά, φυσικά, υπάρχουν κοινωνικές προκαταλήψεις κατά των Ρομά. Υπάρχουν στερεότυπα και νομίζω ότι εκεί πρέπει να κατευθυνθούμε. Η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση πρέπει να προσέξει στα θέματα της εκπαίδευσης και στα θέματα της κατάρτισης και πολύ περισσότερο πρέπει να δοθεί η ευκαιρία στους Ρομά για κοινωνική ένταξη, για παιδεία, για υγεία και για πόσιμο νερό. Από την άλλη, θα ήθελα να απευθύνω και μια έκκληση στην ίδια την κοινότητα των Ρομά να αναλάβουν και αυτοί τις δικές τους ευθύνες, για να μπορέσει πραγματικά να υπάρξει μια πολύ σοβαρότερη ένταξη των Ρομά στην κοινωνία.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  James Carver (EFDD). – Mr President, speaking as a grandson of a Romany gypsy, I have to say that her Majesty’s government’s failure to produce a UK national Roma strategy is a clear indictment of their lack of willingness to tackle the inequalities facing my country’s Gypsy, Roma, Traveller communities.

Instead of the current review of the eviction powers taking place in the UK, which will probably only lead to a further consultation process and more indecision, the time has come to properly address serious issues such as the lack of accommodation and negotiated stopping sites, and poor access to health care and education, which British gypsies face on a daily basis.

A ‘one cap fits all’ approach to Romany, Showmen, Travellers, Roma and New Age travellers is never going to work. It will not satisfy these very different groups nor indeed the British public, who I sincerely believe would come to better understand and respect these marginalised communities were they to be treated as equally as other minorities in my country.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Stanislav Polčák (PPE). – Pane předsedající, já bych chtěl poděkovat zejména paní ministryni za to úvodní prohlášení, že skutečně tato otázka bude i předmětem toho kongresu. Myslím, že je to dobrý počin, a chci vám za to skutečně poděkovat. Já myslím, že žádný občan EU by se neměl cítit vydělen, někde stát na okraji.

Sociální koherence je jedno z našich základních témat, objevuje se v řadě dokumentů primárního práva. Pro nás chudoba, sociální deprivace, samozřejmě nedostatečné vzdělání nebo také diskriminace, to jsou naprosto nepřípustné jevy. Z tohoto úhlu pohledu já bych chtěl podpořit ty aspekty, o kterých tu hovořili i kolegové v oblasti integrace Romů. Já znám řadu Romů, kteří myslím, že splňují naše očekávání o spořádaných lidech, na druhou stranu znám i lidi, kteří porušují v romské komunitě všechna možná pravidla.

Souhlasím s panem Selimovičem, že potřebujeme především přidat v té implementaci. Pokud jde o sdělení k táboru Lety, já chci říci, že ten problém byl v ČR snad vyřešen, pevně v to doufám a ti, kteří hovořili nepřijatelně, jsou např. i trestně stíháni ohledně tohoto tábora. Týká se to i některých poslanců. Česká justice funguje.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Ruža Tomašić (ECR). – Poštovani predsjedavajući, integracija nacionalnih manjina poseban je test za svako društvo, a naročito ona homogena koja u svom dosadašnjem razvoju nisu imala iskustva s tim procesom.

Ne iznenađuje što je u takvim društvima stopa nerazumijevanja drukčijih ljudi nešto viša i što integracijski proces često nailazi na otpor. No, hrvatski primjer pokazuje i obrnute tendencije da politički predstavnici nacionalnih manjina zagovaraju autosegregaciju kako bi na izostanku integracije utvrđivali svoju moć i gradili političku karijeru.

Iz ovog Doma moramo poslati snažnu poruku da nijedan oblik segregacije nije dobrodošao na tlu Europe. Što se tiče izričito romske manjine, ja bih ipak voljela kad bi se i oni malo više trudili da integracija u državama u kojima žive bude uspješnija, a prvo pravilo integracije trebalo bi biti da je zakon jednak za sve.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Csaba Sógor (PPE). – Tisztelt Elnök úr! Az Unió alapértékei között szerepel az állampolgárok közti egyenlőség, amely alapján minden egyes, az Unióban élő embert egyenlő jogok és lehetőségek illetnek meg. Ennek ellenére ma azzal a helyzettel állunk szemben, hogy az európai szegénység mértéke aggasztó tendenciákat mutat. Ebben pedig különösen érintettek a romák, akiknek az integráció a tagállamok és az EU egyik fő feladata kell hogy legyen.

A legtöbb tagországban a romák továbbra is általános megkülönböztetéstől, nyomorúságos életkörülményektől, az alapvető szociális szolgáltatások hiányától, valamint rendkívül magas arányú írástudatlanságtól szenvednek. Ezek a tendenciák pedig tovább erősítik a társadalmi kirekesztettségüket. Ez a helyzet pedig fokozottan érvényes a jelenlegi tagjelölt országokra is.

Az Uniónak minél előbb rá kell ébrednie arra, hogy nem újabb tanulmányok, meg konferenciák kellenek, hanem kézzelfogható és folyamatosan ellenőrzött aktív cselekvés. A romák befogadását és integrációját célzó hiteles, átfogó és megfelelően finanszírozott hosszú távú stratégiák kidolgozása, krízispolitika jegyében nyújtott támogatások jobb ellenőrzése és folyamatos párbeszéd. Ezek csak az első lépést adják abban a folyamatban, amelynek a végén remélhetőleg az európai roma állampolgárokat ki tudjuk emelni a jelenlegi helyzetükből.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Cristian-Silviu Buşoi (PPE). – Mr President, Roma integration is a very complex process and we need to support it as one of the priorities at EU level. We need a genuine political will and a strategy in the medium and long term. We need to fight against discrimination and stereotypes, not only in central and eastern Europe, but in all EU countries. Education is very important as investment and access to proper education today will bring a lot of benefits tomorrow to Roma communities. In many cases, Roma communities are poor ones, with little access to quality healthcare policies, so we need health policies targeted to these vulnerable groups. We are now the debating the next Multiannual Financial Framework and we need to make sure that EU funds will offer opportunities in financing projects in the area of Roma integration.

 
  
 

(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Věra Jourová, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, this debate today marks a strong symbolic moment, because here, this afternoon, we had the Holocaust Remembrance Ceremony, commemorating not only the Holocaust which affected Jewish communities, Jewish people, but also the Roma Holocaust. It was a touching moment: we saw the pictures drawn by children from the ghetto of Terezin, which is in my country, and the records of the children’s lives ending with the number 1944. It is always shocking when we see these things and when we hear survivors, the direct witnesses.

One would like to say ‘This happened 75 years ago.’ We heard from Dr Knobloch, who spent her childhood hidden in the cellar – her way of surviving the Holocaust. We heard from her the list of people who were Holocaust victims and inhabitants of concentration camps – Jews, Roma people, LGBT people, people belonging to other minorities, handicapped people, people with some kind of ‘otherness’. And I realised that, yes, this was more than 70 years ago, but it brought me back to the immediate present.

Honourable Members, next week I will get from the big IT companies, starting with Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Twitter and others, the data they acquired through the exercise that we call the Code of Conduct, through which we want them to delete hate speech from their online sphere and from social media. I call this data – which I can identify to specific Member States – either a ‘map of hatred’ or a ‘map of evil’. I have already seen the previous data – I will see the fresh data next week – and it’s shocking. We have obtained again the same list of groups of people who are affected by hatred, by verbal violence which could have the potential to spill over into real violence in the real world. Today we have some additional groups – refugees, people with political opinions, in some Member States we have judges, everywhere we have journalists – who are the targets of the hatred that has occupied this space, this easy, comfortable space, in the online world.

One thing is really worrying. When we look at the sources of this hatred, at who the authors of this production of dirt are, we are not talking about extremists. We are not talking about the members of some semi-prohibited parties or some strange communities. We are talking about Europeans –honest Europeans. When such cases come to court, when some of the people who send these hate messages – which are covered by criminal law – try to defend their actions, they say ‘We were not aware of the responsibility, we are honest people.’ And there are honest people there, with good jobs and a good education. So, we have a problem in Europe and we will have to find the right way to address it.

As the Minister said before, and many of you repeated it, we have to speak out. It already requires a lot of courage to speak, but now there is a further task out there. Some years ago, defending fundamental rights and anti-discrimination might have been termed ‘business as usual’. But now it requires real political will and political courage to speak in defence of minorities, including Roma – to speak against the anti-Gypsyism which is clearly seen in online spheres.

There is a lot to be done and I very much appreciate the Romanian Presidency for organising this high-level conference. I would say ‘the more such events the better’, but we have to be careful that it is not a matter of the same people always speaking to the same audience. We have to be careful that everything we say at such conferences will reflect in real life. And that reflection, I have to say, must happen at a local level. Our task is to create the right conditions for local politicians, local organisations and the Roma people themselves, because our policy will never be successful if it is ‘for Roma, about Roma, but without Roma’. We have to create the right conditions and we have to keep repeating that we mean it seriously. This is a problem we have to solve.

I know I have spoken for a long time, so I will add just a last few comments regarding the possible future strategy, which I am committed to preparing for my successor in this position. There will be a lot of proposals repeated from the current strategy: the things which are inevitable, the things which we have to continue doing to improve the situation in education, housing, and the world of work, which has not improved over the past few years of growth. I don’t understand why, still, we have a high unemployment rate among Roma people in a situation in which we have workforce needs in all the Member States. We need to improve too, by traditional methods, the situation in health.

However, as I see it, we now have to add two big new things. We need to do much better on explaining how to use public money, something about which Ms Járóka spoke. We are doing something wrong here. A lot of money has been invested and the results are very limited. We have to be objective and reconsider the methods and the channels – how we distribute the money – and encourage more the people at local level to come forward for the money. We have to simplify the rules. I think that the first steps have been taken here, because in the Financial Regulation a lot of simplification has already been proposed.

The second thing: we have to reflect the digital revolution, because when you realise how difficult it is for many Europeans to keep up to speed with technological changes, and how easily a gulf could open if you do not help communities like the Roma to do this, we risk making a fatal mistake. We have to help children and young people, especially young Roma people, to go digital and not to lose this opportunity, because it is a fantastic opportunity. As I said, if we miss this moment it will be a horrible and fatal mistake.

We will have to reflect on the new things. We will have to drop the things which do not work – which are only a waste of time and money – and we must do better, not just with talk but with action. I am ready to do this until the end of my term of office and I count on your support and the cooperation of this Parliament, because it has always been very encouraging.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Melania Ciot, President-in-Office of the Council. – Mr President, thank you for this useful discussion.

In closing, I would like to stress three points. The first is purely economic. As we all know, the Roma community numbers some four to six million EU citizens. It is our largest ethnic minority. However, Europe’s Roma are not only a minority but also our fellow citizens, deserving of the same opportunities as everyone else. Exclusion is economically inefficient. Europe cannot afford to waste the potential of so many of its people. Promoting integration is both socially fair and economically sensible.

Secondly, let us not forget that women and girls make up half of this enormous community and their situation is particularly difficult. Our policies should be gender sensitive. This is an issue that the Commission has highlighted in its recent evaluation report. The Council and Parliament have also acknowledged this aspect and I wish to reaffirm it here today.

Thirdly, we must never forget the importance of involving the Roma themselves in our strategic efforts. Social change can never be effective from the top down. We must empower Roma communities and work together with Roma decision makers, including, of course, the esteemed colleagues who sit in this House.

In 2019 it is unacceptable that anyone should be born into deep poverty and condemned to a life of rejection, hopelessness and discrimination. The deep poverty that continues to exist in our midst harms the social fabric, betrays our values and damages our common future. It will take time to put this matter right: more time, more effort and more commitment. That is why both the Council and the Parliament have called for the strategic efforts to be continued beyond 2020. We have already planted the seeds for a better future but we must plant more seeds and we must nurture the plants that are growing.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Przewodniczący. – Zamykam debatę.

Głosowanie odbędzie się podczas następnej sesji miesięcznej.

 
Posljednje ažuriranje: 17. svibnja 2019.Pravna napomena