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Процедура : 2018/0082(COD)
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Етапи на разглеждане на документа : A8-0309/2018

Внесени текстове :

A8-0309/2018

Разисквания :

PV 11/03/2019 - 20
CRE 11/03/2019 - 20

Гласувания :

PV 25/10/2018 - 13.3
CRE 25/10/2018 - 13.3
PV 12/03/2019 - 9.18
CRE 12/03/2019 - 9.18
Обяснение на вота

Приети текстове :

P8_TA(2019)0152

Разисквания
Понеделник, 11 март 2019 г. - Страсбург Редактирана версия

20. Нелоялни търговски практики в отношенията между стопански субекти по веригата за доставка на храни (разискване)
Видеозапис на изказванията
PV
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  Przewodniczący. – Kolejnym punktem porządku dziennego jest sprawozdanie sporządzone przez Paolo De Castro w imieniu Komisji Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi w sprawie wniosku dotyczącego dyrektywy Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady w sprawie nieuczciwych praktyk handlowych w relacjach między przedsiębiorstwami w łańcuchu dostaw żywności (COM(2018)0173 – C8-0139/2018 – 2018/0082(COD)) (A8-0309/2018).

 
  
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  Paolo De Castro, Rapporteur. – Signor Presidente, signor Commissario, onorevoli colleghi, ci sono voluti quasi 10 anni di dibattito, è stato necessario che venti paesi legiferassero sul tema, sono state soprattutto necessarie l'insistenza di questo Parlamento e le nostre due risoluzioni, l'ultima delle quali (per la quale ringrazio ancora una volta la Vicepresidente Mairead McGuinness) approvata a maggioranza schiacciante nel giugno 2016: ci è voluto tutto questo per arrivare oggi al voto finale sulla direttiva contro le pratiche commerciali sleali nella filiera agroalimentare.

È un risultato straordinario, reso possibile grazie al protagonismo e all'ambizione di questo Parlamento. Un'ambizione che si è concretizzata in miglioramenti cruciali rispetto alla proposta iniziale. Solo per citarne alcuni: l'estensione dell'ambito d'applicazione, che arriva adesso a proteggere il 100 % degli agricoltori e oltre il 95 % delle aziende agroalimentari dell'Unione, con il passaggio da 50 a 350 milioni di euro di fatturato; l'inclusione anche degli acquirenti basati al di fuori dell'Unione tra i soggetti che dovranno attenersi alla direttiva; l'inclusione di tutti i prodotti agricoli e non solo alimentari, proteggendo settori strategici come il floro-vivaismo e la mangimistica, il mangime per gli animali domestici; il rafforzamento e il raddoppio delle pratiche proibite, passate da 8 a 16, con l'inclusione, per esempio, dei ritardi di pagamento per i prodotti non deperibili, il rifiuto di concedere contratti scritti, o la minaccia di ritorsioni commerciali nel caso di denuncia; la migliore salvaguardia della confidenzialità dell'identità del denunciante, al fine di superare il fattore paura che troppo spesso obbliga i nostri produttori ad accettare queste pratiche, con il diritto di denuncia esteso a tutte le associazioni; l'obbligo di agire e di porre fine alle pratiche sleali per le autorità di contrasto nazionali, alle quali abbiamo garantito anche maggiori poteri sia in fase investigativa che in termini di sanzioni; senza dimenticare la rafforzata cooperazione tra le varie autorità nazionali che dovranno incontrarsi almeno una volta all'anno e scambiarsi informazioni e buone pratiche per garantire un'applicazione il più omogenea e ambiziosa possibile della direttiva.

Vale la pena ricordare che si tratta infatti di un'armonizzazione minima, e che gli Stati membri potranno prevedere nelle loro legislazioni nazionali sia l'estensione dei soggetti coinvolti, che la lista delle pratiche sleali da vietare.

Per poter raggiungere questo risultato, cari colleghi, in soli undici mesi dalla pubblicazione della proposta della Commissione ad oggi, nonostante i diversi tentativi di bloccare ancora una volta questa direttiva, è stata necessaria una forte volontà politica da parte di tutti. Per questo voglio ringraziare tutti coloro che hanno reso possibile questo risultato, a partire ovviamente dai colleghi della Commissione, a partire dal Commissario Hogan, che ringrazio, i relatori ombra, tutto il team negoziale del Parlamento europeo, i servizi, la Presidenza austriaca, la ministra Elisabeth Kostinger, Presidente di turno del Consiglio, senza dimenticare il fondamentale lavoro svolto da tutti i gruppi tecnici e naturalmente anche dal mio team.

Presidente, cari colleghi, questa direttiva è l'Europa che dimostra di saper essere al fianco degli operatori economici più deboli, come gli agricoltori, e di tutti i cittadini. Una filiera caratterizzata da comportamenti sleali e quindi da una distribuzione inefficiente delle risorse mette infatti sotto pressione tutti i produttori, in una corsa al ribasso dei prezzi che deprime sia la qualità dei prodotti che arrivano sulle tavole di famiglie e cittadini, sia la qualità del processo di produzione, incentivando sfruttamento del lavoro e pratiche produttive non sostenibili.

Al contrario, superando queste distorsioni all'interno della filiera agroalimentare, la direttiva sarà un punto di riferimento per raggiungere mercati più trasparenti ed equi, mercati più efficienti capaci di generare benefici per tutta la società, e in particolar modo per i consumatori.

 
  
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  Marc Tarabella, rapporteur pour avis de la commission du marché intérieur et de la protection des consommateurs. – Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, cette directive est sans nul doute une des grandes avancées de cette législature.

En effet, il était de notre devoir de lutter contre le déséquilibre entre les petits producteurs face aux secteurs de l’agroalimentaire et de la distribution, très concentrés. Cette pression sur les prix de la part des marchés est une des causes de la souffrance actuelle du monde agricole, alors que l’alimentation européenne doit être une priorité absolue. Cette directive tant attendue abolit les pratiques commerciales déloyales dans la chaîne d’approvisionnement alimentaire, tout en renforçant la transparence et en luttant contre le chantage des multinationales. À ce propos, je tiens à saluer chaleureusement l’excellent travail de mon collègue et ami Paolo De Castro, avec qui nous avons travaillé de concert dans un délai très serré afin que ce texte, ô combien important pour nos agriculteurs, soit finalisé avant la fin de cette mandature.

Enfin, j’insiste pour que tous les États membres aillent encore plus loin dans leur législation nationale afin d’éradiquer, une fois pour toutes, ces pratiques déloyales extrêmement dommageables, tant pour les agriculteurs que pour les PME alimentaires, mais aussi pour les consommateurs européens.

 
  
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  Phil Hogan, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, this debate and this week’s vote are very important, as Mr De Castro has said, not alone for what they represent but for what they will deliver. What this debate and the vote represent is an acknowledgment that, for far too long, the farmer and other smaller operators in our food supply chain have been disadvantaged by their relative weakness; but, more importantly, what this debate and the vote will deliver is protection for these farmers and suppliers of agri-food products further downstream.

Many Members of this House have been consistent and vocal in calling for greater protection for the position of farmers in the agri-food supply chain – and rightly so. Without that influence, I have no doubt in saying, today might never have happened. I am pleased therefore that the Commission – and, of course, a very good Commissioner for Agriculture – could finally, and for the first time, response positively with a legislative proposal to ban certain unfair trading practices.

Before reflecting briefly on the contents of the directive on which you are about to vote, I want to congratulate the rapporteurs for Parliament and the Austrian Council Presidency for their efforts in reaching these landmark achievements – particularly Mr De Castro, for Parliament, and Ms Köstinger and the Austrian team on behalf of the Council. I would like to thank all the shadow rapporteurs and all the other committee people who have been involved: Mr Tarabella, on behalf of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection; Ms McAvan on behalf of the Committee on Development; and Ms Pilar Ayuso on behalf of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Consumer Protection. I would include, as well, the shadow rapporteurs, Ms McGuinness and Ms McIntyre, and Maria Heubuch, Elsi Katainen, Matt Carthy, Marco Zullo and Jacques Colombier. All of you have played a remarkable part in ensuring that we are discussing this milestone legislation here this evening.

It’s worth recalling, as Mr De Castro has done, that only eight months passed between the adoption of the Commission’s proposal in April and the conclusion of the political agreement in December, so it demonstrates very clearly that if there is the political will a lot can happen in almost all respects in this House. It will now be up to the Member States to transpose the directive, and I want to assure you that the Commission will follow this process carefully and closely and I trust that this House will do so as well.

The final agreement is one that safeguards our initial objectives and our rationale behind the legislation, which is to protect the weak from possible abuses of buyer power by the strong. For the first time, rules will be introduced at a European level that target unfair trading practices and provide protection for all EU farmers, as well as most agri-food businesses, against practices that are contrary to good faith and fair dealing. The directive will introduce a minimum EU level of protection against unfair trading practices that occur in the food supply chain. That level will apply in all the Member States – which will remain free to go further, subject to internal market rules.

For the first time, there will be a ban on 16 unfair trading practices which are imposed unilaterally by one trading partner on another. Other practices will be permitted only if they are subject to a clear and unambiguous upfront agreement between the parties involved. The agreement that we reached in December will apply to anyone involved in the food supply chain with a turnover of EUR 350 million, with differentiated levels of protection provided below that threshold.

It is important to see this directive as part of a wider initiative to strengthen the position of farmers in the food supply chain. Indeed, the Agricultural Markets Task Force, under former Minister for Agriculture Cees Veerman, called for a better legal framework on producer cooperation, as well as improved market transparency. I am pleased to be able to tell the House, and to be able to report to you, that we have also achieved significant progress in these two areas through the Omnibus Regulation, in which Parliament was instrumental, including with the involvement of Mr De Castro and Mr Dess, and through the development of our market observatories.

As you are aware, the Commission is working too on a proposal to extend our transparency initiative to cover the processing and retail sector end of the food supply chain and I expect to be in a position very shortly to announce more details of this initiative. Together, these three policy adaptations will allow farmers to seize greater opportunities as they present themselves in a market-orientated environment, and to defend themselves against market failures.

In conclusion, can I reiterate my appreciation to all the Members of the House, to the rapporteurs in particular, and to the Austrian Presidency, which has shown very strong support for this initiative that will protect not only the interests but in some cases the very survival of our farmers, as Mr Tarabella has said. Nobody in the food chain has anything to fear from this legislation if they are behaving fairly.

 
  
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  Pilar Ayuso, ponente de opinión de la Comisión de Industria, Investigación y Energía.

Señor presidente, señor comisario, dentro de la cadena alimentaria indudablemente los agricultores son el eslabón más débil y teníamos que protegerlo. Si queremos una agricultura suficiente y una autosuficiencia de alimentos para la Unión Europea, no teníamos más remedio que proteger a los agricultores porque, así como la distribución está muy concentrada, la producción agraria está muy atomizada y necesitaba un apoyo.

Por lo tanto, yo, en primer lugar, quiero felicitar a la Comisión por haber hecho esta propuesta, y también al Consejo y al señor Paolo De Castro, así como a todos los ponentes alternativos que han sido capaces de llevarla adelante.

A pesar de que la posición del Parlamento Europeo era bastante más estricta de lo que al final hemos conseguido, creo que vamos a llegar a un acuerdo muy bueno para los agricultores y para la agricultura en general. En España tenemos una ley de la cadena alimentaria y puedo asegurarle que funciona muy bien.

Es verdad que no se han conseguido algunos objetivos —como, por ejemplo, la inclusión de la venta a pérdidas dentro de las prácticas prohibidas—, pero sí otros que usted mismo ha mencionado y que son muy importantes.

Por lo tanto, no me queda más que felicitar al Parlamento, felicitarme a mí misma y felicitarnos todos, porque esto era una necesidad importante y hoy, por fin, vamos a darle respuesta.

Hace ya muchos años, la señora McGuinness lideró un grupo de trabajo que, al final, ha obtenido sus frutos.

 
  
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  Mairead McGuinness, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Mr President, I would like to say to the Commissioner that it is very true that the pleas of the farming community through the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development (AGRI) did not fall on deaf ears because we have been looking for this for some time. You, as Commissioner, took it seriously and came forward with a proposal. So thank you for that. I think it is very significant. Of course, it will be tested in the Member States. I do welcome your comments that you will keep a close eye on implementation, because I see already in some Member States a hesitancy, questioning how it will be done. It’s got to be done without too much bureaucracy, and it’s got to be effective so that those with a genuine complaint can come forward and get results.

But for me today is much bigger than the sum total of those unfair trading practices that will be banned. This is about the sustainability of the food-supply chain and we hear a great deal about that – about the challenge of climate, biodiversity, air quality and water quality. I think Mr De Castro was very right when he said that the current system operates in a very incorrect way. It results in a race to the bottom because farmers’ margins are constantly being tightened.

So I very much welcome this as a first step towards a more sustainable food-supply chain. I read comments from Arla, who talk about their drive for more sustainable farming, where they say that consumers are willing to reward the most sustainable dairy farmers. I hope that is the case and that those who are dealing between consumers and farmers ensure that the farmers get a sustainable price for the work that they do. I had Irish dairy representatives over last week in Brussels and we spoke about issues around welfare and environment, and the challenges generally. They pleaded, because they said that the farmer is not getting rewarded sufficiently to deliver on all of those things.

So tonight is a first step. Thank you, Commissioner. Thank you to the colleagues who listened when others would not. Together, I think we’ll make a difference.

 
  
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  Nicola Caputo, a nome del gruppo S&D. – Signor Presidente, signor Commissario, onorevoli colleghi, con la direttiva sulle pratiche commerciali sleali nei rapporti tra imprese nella filiera alimentare finalmente raggiungiamo risultati attesi da oltre dieci anni e mi complimento con il relatore Paolo De Castro per il grande lavoro che ha svolto, tant'è che l'accordo ottenuto in sede di trilogo migliora considerevolmente la protezione degli agricoltori e delle piccole e medie imprese agroalimentari.

Aumentano in modo significativo il numero di pratiche sleali, con otto ulteriori pratiche rispetto alla proposta della Commissione, che vanno dalla cancellazione last minute degli ordini ai ritardi nei pagamenti, dalle modifiche unilaterali dei contratti ai mancati pagamenti ai fornitori per la merce invenduta da parte delle grandi centrali di acquisto.

Uno dei punti di forza è senza dubbio la denuncia anonima a difesa della confidenzialità del fornitore durante la procedura investigativa non solo in merito alla sua identità, ma anche a tutte le altre informazioni che il fornitore stesso individua come sensibili. Le norme contenute nella direttiva restituiscono finalmente dignità al mondo agricolo europeo, rafforzando la posizione dei produttori nei confronti della grande distribuzione.

 
  
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  Anthea McIntyre, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Mr President, for far too long, farmers and growers have been in the most precarious position in the food supply chain. For far too long, large retailers across the EU have been able to abuse their powerful position.

This directive on unfair trading practices used as one of its bases the UK’s grocery supply code of practice. This is a legally binding code. The UK found that purely voluntary systems didn’t work. Voluntary codes didn’t change buyers’ behaviour, and that is why legislation is needed. I would like to thank our rapporteur Paolo De Castro and my fellow shadows, and Commissioner Hogan, for all the work they have put into this directive to deliver fairer treatment for our farmers.

At Parliament’s insistence, the directive now includes all agricultural produce not just food. So that means that cut flowers, which are just as perishable as fruit and veg, are covered. We also extended the threshold so that suppliers with a turnover of up to EUR 350 million will be protected. That means all EU farmers are covered, and all producer organisations in the UK are covered too.

I am also glad that the directive covers suppliers who are outside the EU, so not only will farmers in Kenya and Peru be protected, but in a post-Brexit world, UK farmers and growers will continue to be protected while selling into the EU. This is good news for farmers and consumers across the EU and beyond, and I am delighted to support it.

 
  
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  Elsi Katainen, ALDE-ryhmän puolesta. – Arvoisa puhemies, haluan kiittää maatalouskomissaari Hogania ja esittelijä De Castroa sekä kaikkien ryhmien neuvottelijoita erinomaisesta yhteistyöstä tämän tärkeän direktiivin saattamiseksi maaliin määräajassa. Me saamme äänestykseen todella tasapainoisen lainsäädäntötekstin, mikä todistaa, että kun poliittista tahtoa on, niin vaikea asia saadaan eteenpäin lyhyessäkin ajassa, vaikka toisaalta taustat ovat pitkät.

Kannattavuusongelmissa olevat tuottajat saavat direktiivistä konkreettista vahvistusta asemaansa elintarvikemarkkinoilla. Tämä on EU:lta tärkeä viesti – juuri tuottajille, joilta vaaditaan yhä enemmän ja jotka ovat joutuneet valitettavien leikkausten kohteeksi. Itsekin sen viljelijänä tiedän, että tulos halutaan ennemmin markkinoilta kuin tuesta.

Minulta on usein kysytty, mitä tämä direktiivi sitten konkreettisesti viljelijälle tarkoittaa. Sen voisi tiivistää kolmeen asiaan. Ensinnäkin tuottajat voivat valittaa kotimaan valvontaviranomaiselle myös muissa maissa sijaitsevien ostajien toiminnasta. Tämä madaltaa elintarvikeviennin kynnystä huomattavasti. Toiseksi direktiivi luo vahvan ohjausvaikutuksen, koska sanktioita seuraa, jos ei sääntöjä noudateta. Ja ehkä tärkeimpänä: direktiivi antaa myös vahvan selkänojan kansallisille parlamenteille tehdä omaa lainsäädäntöä, joka voi todella olla vielä tätäkin direktiiviä kovempaa. Toivon todella, että tämä saa täyden kannatuksen ja tuen tältä parlamentilta.

 
  
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  Maria Heubuch, im Namen der Verts/ALE-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Es ist wirklich sehr gut, dass die EU nun eine einheitliche Regelung verabschiedet, um die Macht der Supermarktketten gegenüber den Lebensmittelproduzenten zu begrenzen. Ich bedanke mich auch bei Paolo de Castro und bei allen Beteiligten für die wirklich sehr gute Zusammenarbeit.

Wichtig ist mir nun, dass Europa hier nicht stehenbleibt, denn es sind noch längst nicht alle Probleme gelöst. Bäuerinnen und Bauern, aber auch die Arbeiterinnen auf den Feldern, in den Gewächshäusern, die Arbeiter in den Schlachthöfen sowie die kleinen Lebensmittelverarbeiter stehen von unterschiedlicher Seite unter Druck, nicht nur von Seite der Supermarktketten, sondern auch von der Seite des vorgelagerten Bereichs – wenn ich nur an die Saatgut-, Düngemittel-, Futtermittel- oder Pestizidindustrie denke. Und genau in all diesen Branchen beobachten wir eine zunehmende Konzentration von Macht. Die Fusion von Bayer und Monsanto ist nur das letzte Beispiel dafür.

Damit landwirtschaftliche Betriebe mit ihrer Arbeit wirklich ein faires Einkommen erwirtschaften können, muss diese Machtkonzentration sowohl im vorgelagerten Bereich als auch in den nachgelagerten Sektoren bekämpft werden, und das geht nur über eine Reform des Wettbewerbsrechts. Herr Kommissar Hogan, wären Sie bereit, auch das Wettbewerbsrecht unter die Lupe zu nehmen? Würden Sie dafür sorgen, dass bei künftigen Fusionen die Auswirkungen auf Umwelt, Klima und Gesundheit, aber auch auf das bäuerliche Einkommen berücksichtigt werden? Denn genau das war beim Deal mit Monsanto und Bayer nicht der Fall. Ich glaube, Europa braucht hier ein ambitioniertes Projekt, und hier könnten wir gemeinsam ambitioniert vorwärtsgehen.

 
  
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  Matt Carthy, on behalf of the GUE/NGL Group. – Mr President, the situation whereby those who do the greatest amount of work in producing the food we eat receive the least amount of the profits has been getting worse every single year. Retailers and processors have been exploiting their position, while our farmers are expected to work on ever-tightening profit margins and often at a loss. Many of us had hoped that the EU would step up to the mark and that we would be able to deliver legislation on unfair trading practices (UTPs) that would rebalance the scales, recognise the importance of our farming communities and stand up to the corporate giants.

This was the opportunity to do so: unfortunately that opportunity has been wasted. I cannot support this proposal because I cannot look farmers in the eye and tell them that their situation will improve as a result of its enactment. The failure to include a ban on below-cost selling of foodstuffs is just the most glaring of the deficiencies in the proposed legislation. One-third of the UTPs banned can continue if supermarkets manage to insert them into contracts.

I hope that I’m proved wrong, that the implementation of this legislation will prove a game changer for our family farmers. I fear, though, that it will not, and that either we will have to return to this work or we will continue to see more farmers leave the land and our rural communities suffer for want of ambition and vision at EU level.

 
  
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  Marco Zullo, a nome del gruppo EFDD. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, grazie al relatore per il buon lavoro fatto. L'approvazione della direttiva sulle pratiche commerciali sleali rappresenta un grande traguardo, così che finalmente si possa avere una redistribuzione del valore economico più equa nella filiera agroalimentare, in modo da garantire un miglior reddito alle piccole aziende agricole, ma anche una migliore qualità dei prodotti disponibili alla vendita.

Questa direttiva è un atto dovuto per ristabilire equilibrio nella catena commerciale, fornendo protezione a chi, per le ridotte dimensioni, rischia troppo spesso di trovarsi schiacciato dagli abusi di attori più grandi.

La carenza di potere contrattuale obbliga molte piccole imprese a vendere i propri prodotti sottostando a clausole vessatorie, subendo accordi economici che impoveriscono e accollandosi costi e rischi di impresa altrui. Grazie ora a norme chiare a livello europeo si condannano senza ambiguità tutte quelle pratiche commerciali messe in atto da soggetti economici senza scrupoli che finiscono per stritolare gli agricoltori piccoli e onesti. Una volta per tutte, saranno fermate e punite le pratiche commerciali sleali come le modifiche unilaterali e retroattive ai contratti di fornitura, le ritorsioni commerciali e il pagamento per servizi non resi.

Stiamo consegnando uno strumento importante ed efficace agli Stati membri. Se ben applicate queste regole restituiranno equità e dignità alle piccole imprese, ovvero agli anelli più deboli della filiera agroalimentare.

 
  
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  John Stuart Agnew, on behalf of the ENF Group. – Mr President, I wondered if the reason you’re a little late for the debate was because Theresa May is in town and she was twisting your arm to persuade you to support Ireland leaving the European Union, which would solve the problem of having an EU border on the island of Ireland, but maybe that’s too much to hope for. You might also be wondering, with 18 days to go to Brexit, why a British MEP is actually bothering to talk here, but I honestly think that this flag will be in this Parliament in a year’s time. I really do believe that, and so for that reason, I want to say something about this report. I’m quite happy with the sentiment of it, but what worries me is that we have in Britain somebody called the Groceries Code Adjudicator. Her name is Christine Tacon and she is doing the work that you are talking about. Now, what I’m worried about is that she is going to be undermined by this legislation. Supermarkets will say to her, ‘ah yes Ms Tacon, but the EU rule says XYZ’, and they will then go to the European Court of Justice to undermine what she’s doing. Various staff of yours have assured me that this won’t happen, but over the last 30 years, the Commission has had a horrible way of always putting its legislation ahead of the British legislation.

Please prove to me that I’m going to be wrong, but I would far rather have the status quo in Britain as we have it.

(Applause)

(The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 162(8))

 
  
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  Mairead McGuinness (PPE), blue-card question. – Mr Agnew knows I am easily provoked, so well done. Don’t worry about Ms Tacon: she’s a strong woman and well able to deal with this legislation.

You said that you’re likely to be back with your flag in this Parliament and you said it almost with joy, which leaves me wondering: would you miss us if you have to go? We’re not pleading with you to stay, but maybe you have a soft spot for us after all. This is incredible news. Please clarify.

 
  
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  John Stuart Agnew (ENF), blue-card answer. – Right, Mairead, I’m quite happy to clarify. What’s amusing me and making me laugh is the total incompetence of our politicians: nearly three years after a vote of the British people to leave this place, they still haven’t managed to do it. That is what causes me some amusement.

Now, you raised another point, didn’t you? I’m just trying to recall what it was. Oh yes, that she’s a strong woman. I’m not talking about Theresa May; I’m talking about Christine Tacon. Yes, she is, and she shouldn’t be undermined by this place, and that is what’s worrying me.

 
  
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  Dobromir Sośnierz (NI). – Panie Przewodniczący! Polski myśliciel, Stefan Kisielewski, powiedział kiedyś, że socjalizm jest to taki ustrój, w którym bohatersko zwalcza się problemy nieznane w żadnym innym ustroju. No i właśnie ta dyskusja jest tego doskonałym przykładem. To jest tak: najpierw zaczyna się od tego, że pazerne rządy próbują zbierać jak najwięcej podatków i w związku z tym pobierać prowizje od całego ruchu gospodarczego na swoim terenie, a wobec tego obciążają wszystkich obowiązkiem ewidencjonowania całego tego ruchu, bo chcą wiedzieć, ile mogą ze wszystkich wycisnąć.

W związku z tym powstają dodatkowe koszty, utrudnienia w działalności. Centralizuje to rynek, eliminuje mniejszych sprzedawców, wprowadza się dodatkowe regulacje, które centralizują rynek, bo centralizacja jest na rękę rządowi, ponieważ łatwiej mu go kontrolować. Efektem tego jest na końcu zakaz sprzedaży detalicznej dla rolników, osłabienie ich pozycji negocjacyjnej, co powoduje niekorzystne kontrakty i niskie ceny w skupie. Efektem tego nie jest, jak w naszym przypadku, wycofanie się z tych głupich regulacji, tylko regulacje kolejne, więc następnym razem spotkamy się po to, żeby zastanawiać się, dlaczego ceny produktów rolnych poszły w górę. Już się nie mogę doczekać.

 
  
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  Czesław Adam Siekierski (PPE). – Panie Przewodniczący! Mojego kolegę z kraju zapraszam na dyskusję. Może wyjaśni mu wiele problemów. Szanowni Państwo! Po wielu latach pracy komisji rolnictwa wreszcie możemy ogłosić, że mamy europejskie ramy prawne służące zwalczaniu nieuczciwych praktyk w łańcuchu dostaw żywności. Chciałbym podziękować komisarzowi Hoganowi za jego propozycję dyrektywy oraz sprawozdawcy Paolo De Castro, sprawozdawcom cieniom za ich pracę, która pozwoliła na wyjątkowo sprawne wypracowanie porozumienia i przyjęcie go jeszcze w tej kadencji. Nie sposób również nie wymienić pani przewodniczącej McGuinness, która trzy lata temu przygotowała opinię dla naszej komisji popartą następnie przez plenum. Dziękuję wielu, wielu innym osobom.

Chcę wskazać na jedną z przyczyn słabej pozycji rolnika w łańcuchu żywnościowym, jaką jest duże rozdrobnienie producentów rolnych. Szacuje się, że tylko niecałe 10 % gospodarstw ma możliwości konkurowania wielkością ekonomiczną na rynku. Stąd tak ważne dla poprawy pozycji rynkowej jest łączenie się producentów rolnych za pośrednictwem organizacji producentów i spółdzielni. Duża liczba małych gospodarstw nie ułatwia procesów powstawania zorganizowanych struktur gospodarczych, takich jak choćby wspomniane grupy producenckie.

Chcę jeszcze podnieść problem potrzeby dialogu gospodarczego pomiędzy uczestnikami łańcucha żywnościowego. Wydaje się, że przedstawiciele sektorów rolnictwa, przetwórstwa, handlu częściej rozmawiają za pośrednictwem mediów niż bezpośrednio. Myślę, że to zadanie powinno spoczywać na Komisji Europejskiej, a także na Parlamencie.

Na koniec chcę powiedzieć, że dyrektywa ta jest dużym kompromisem, który osiągnął komisarz Hogan w Komisji Europejskiej. Kompromisy, jak to kompromisy, nie zawsze rozwiązują wiele problemów. Mamy dobry początek. Są wreszcie możliwości prawodawstwa krajowego, które mogą pójść dalej i rozwiązać wiele problemów.

(Mówca zgodził się odpowiedzieć na pytanie zadane przez podniesienie niebieskiej kartki (art. 162 ust. 8 Regulaminu))

 
  
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  Dobromir Sośnierz (NI), pytanie zadane przez podniesienie niebieskiej kartki.

Wielokrotnie tutaj w tym Parlamencie były głosowane rezolucje, w których stwierdza się, że utrzymanie małych rodzinnych gospodarstw jest tutaj naszym priorytetem. Przed chwilą powiedział Pan, że rozdrobnienie gospodarstw jest przyczyną słabej pozycji rolników. Słusznie. Jak więc Pan głosuje, kiedy Parlament uchwala takie bzdury, że chce utrzymywać tę nieefektywną strukturę małego rolnictwa?

 
  
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  Czesław Adam Siekierski (PPE), odpowiedź na pytanie zadane przez podniesienie niebieskiej kartki. – Tak, ja problemem zajmuje się dosyć głęboko i od dłuższego czasu. Byłem autorem raportu dotyczącego drobnych gospodarstw. Drobne gospodarstwa trzeba wspierać. One mają swoją wartość. A jednocześnie przebiega proces koncentracji, co znacznie poprawia, daje większe możliwości łączenia się większych podmiotów, które mają większą produkcję. Przez to mogą mieć większy wpływ na rynek w ujęciu towarowym niż bardzo rozdrobnione gospodarstwa. To jest pewien proces, który przebiega i trzeba wspierać drobne gospodarstwa, ale także trzeba wspierać w ujęciu socjalnym i wspierać rozwijanie produkcji towarowej.

 
  
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  Clara Eugenia Aguilera García (S&D). – Señor presidente, como todos han dicho, estamos de enhorabuena. Es una gran iniciativa. Quiero felicitar a mi colega, Paolo De Castro, a todos los ponentes alternativos, de las Comisiones de Agricultura, Mercado Interior y Protección del Consumidor o Medio Ambiente, y quiero felicitar muy especialmente al comisario Hoogan porque, después de diez años, algunos más, por primera vez un comisario de Agricultura se atreve y saca adelante en el Colegio de Comisarios una directiva de este tenor. Otros no han sido capaces. Por lo tanto, tiene un valor que es justo reconocer.

Hemos vivido una gran falacia. La gran falacia es que la cadena estaba bien porque había que contener los precios para los consumidores. Eso son mentiras. La cadena está distorsionada, hay prácticas comerciales desleales que hay que corregir y, por tanto, hay que proteger a los más débiles. Esto se va a hacer así.

Y saben, señor comisario, compañero Paolo, hoy hay que trasladar un mensaje a todos: «Europa se pone del lado de los agricultores y de los consumidores». Hasta ahora no ha sido posible. Por eso, fuera esa falacia de otros sectores y vamos a trabajar. Esto es el principio. Hay que seguir avanzando en la normativa europea, pero es un magnífico comienzo.

 
  
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  James Nicholson (ECR). – Mr President, my congratulations as well. I wouldn’t have expected anything less of Paolo De Castro than the report he has brought forward, but I also congratulate all involved on the remarkable speed with which this agreement was reached.

The dominant bargaining power of large operators in the food supply chain has left farmers squeezed between the processors and the large multiples. Unfair trading practices have been a continuous problem for farmers across Europe and it is sensible to introduce extra protection for farmers. I am pleased this will be done in conjunction with already existing frameworks in Member States. For too long, we have seen – and continue to see – power concentrated in the hands of the buyers. This has resulted in an uneven playing field whereby farmers have had little influence to exert in the marketplace and been subject to unfair practices to cut their margins when you look at the fact that across Europe, farmers receive an average of 21% of the final price of the agricultural product. The various measures in this directive, such as banning late payments for perishable goods and banning late cancellations, will go a long way to restoring the imbalances, give farmers extra protection and keep food at the highest standards and quality.

But we must not – and I give this warning – become complacent that our work here is done. One of the greatest obstacles to successful European legislation lies within incorrect implementation at Member State level – not at Brussels, at Member State level –and this is where we have got to follow it through. The key is implementation and monitoring what has been done. To those who actually say it should be more, people are always looking for more, but you have to crawl before you walk. At least we’ve done it. At least we’ve followed it through. Congratulations to all involved.

 
  
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  Giancarlo Scottà (ENF). – Signor Presidente, onorevole relatore De Castro, onorevoli colleghi, l'approvazione della direttiva sulle pratiche commerciali sleali nella filiale alimentare è un primo passo non sufficiente verso il riconoscimento di un dato di fatto: l'UE ha costruito un mercato interno pieno di squilibri, a cominciare da quello tra fornitori soprattutto agricoli ed acquirenti commerciali. Cerchiamo così di attenuare i comportamenti sleali tra chi gode di una posizione dominante de facto e i fornitori, che spesso rimangono estranei ai meccanismi di vendita, testimoni di aste al ribasso e scontri promozionali, ai quali spesso viene chiesto in maniera illegittima di pagare alcune delle misure di vendita e stoccaggio dei loro prodotti.

Oggi, in Italia, condividiamo con apprensione le sorti del comparto zootecnico ovicaprino sardo, impegnato non solo a rivoluzionare il proprio modello aggregativo e a rendere più efficienti i meccanismi che regolano la DOP Pecorino Romano, ma anche a difendersi da alcuni comportamenti sleali di qualche acquirente che prova, anche attraverso un prezzo di conferimento troppo basso rispetto ai costi di produzione, a mantenere una distanza siderale con gli agricoltori sulla ripartizione del valore finale.

Appoggiamo quindi con convinzione questo provvedimento, nella speranza che, dalla prossima legislatura, ci si occupi di dare nuove regole al mercato interno, affinché in tutta Europa si possa riconoscere il giusto valore ai prodotti agricoli, rispettosi delle diverse realtà e dei diversi costi produttivi.

 
  
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  Michel Dantin (PPE). – Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, cher Paolo, que de chemin parcouru! Servir l’objectif essentiel de rééquilibrage des relations au sein de la chaîne d’approvisionnement et de renforcement de la position des agriculteurs était notre volonté.

Nous avons porté, au cours des deux dernières années, trois textes: la réforme du droit de la concurrence et de son application aux marchés agricoles, la révision des règles de contractualisation, avec la mise en place d’un droit individuel au contrat écrit, et la mise en place d’un cadre européen pour lutter contre les pratiques commerciales déloyales.

Oui, je crois que nous pouvons nous retourner vers les agriculteurs la tête haute. Alors que ces sujets étaient bloqués depuis des années, le Parlement a joué un rôle indispensable dans ce combat face aux timidités et aux divisions du Conseil. Il doit, à l’avenir, continuer à se saisir de ces sujets ô combien essentiels.

Nous n’aurions pas pu mener à bien ce travail sans la mise en place, au cœur de la crise du lait en 2016, de la task force sur les marchés agricoles – et nous devons vous en remercier, Monsieur le Commissaire. Les conclusions de ce groupe de travail ont été essentielles pour les avancées que nous avons marquées et que nous marquons encore ce soir.

Un dernier sujet essentiel reste sur la table, celui de la transparence des marchés. La commission y travaille et nous ferons dans les prochaines semaines des propositions concrètes dans le cadre de la réforme de la PAC. Nous aurons une fois encore, Monsieur le Commissaire, besoin de votre soutien pour parachever ce travail au sujet d’une cause qui nous paraît, à vous comme à nous, une cause noble. Nous vous en remercions.

 
  
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  Eric Andrieu (S&D). – Monsieur le Président, 350 euros par mois: il s’agit là du revenu d’un agriculteur sur trois en France. Toutes les semaines, 260 exploitations agricoles disparaissent. Pendant ce temps, les bénéfices et profits des géants de l’agroalimentaire augmentent, tandis que leurs actionnaires s’octroient toujours plus de dividendes.

Cette situation est inégalitaire et injuste. Il faut – et nous le savons tous ici – que les producteurs puissent vivre de leur travail.

Il était impératif d’intervenir. Permettez-moi de remercier Paolo De Castro, les rapporteurs fictifs ainsi que vous, Monsieur le Commissaire, d’avoir permis à cette directive d’aboutir aujourd’hui. En effet, justice et égalité s’imposent. Il va aussi falloir développer, comme évoqué précédemment, la transparence, mais aussi mettre en œuvre, comme vous l’avez dit, Monsieur le Commissaire, un observatoire dans tous les secteurs d’activité. Au-delà de ce succès, il va falloir suivre la mise en œuvre de cette directive et engager l’ensemble des États membres à aller plus loin que le seul texte qui sera voté demain.

 
  
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  Bas Belder (ECR). – Dank u wel, Voorzitter. Late betalingen of eenzijdige contractwijziging: dit zijn enkele praktijken waar producenten dagelijks mee geconfronteerd worden. Deze week stemmen wij over wetgeving tegen oneerlijke handelspraktijken, een belangrijke stap. Ik wil dan ook de rapporteur en de schaduwrapporteurs, alsmede de commissaris hartelijk danken voor hun aandeel.

Het meest essentiële onderdeel is wat mij betreft dat primair de producenten vertrouwelijk een klacht kunnen indienen. De lidstaten zijn nu aan zet om dit goed en gedegen te implementeren en een scheidsrechter aan te stellen in de voedselvoorzieningsketen. Ik hoop van harte iedere lidstaat binnenkort een voedselscheidsrechter heeft die onafhankelijk, zichtbaar en benaderbaar is, mét slagkracht. Iemand die een vertrouwensband opbouwt met de sector en die zo nodig aan de keukentafel komt zitten om te horen wat er werkelijk speelt.

 
  
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  Philippe Loiseau (ENF). – Monsieur le Président, ce rapport sur les pratiques commerciales déloyales dans les relations au sein de la chaîne alimentaire revient – je dirais enfin – en plénière.

Il aura donc fallu pratiquement un an, depuis la publication de la proposition législative, pour que le texte puisse être mis aux voix dans notre assemblée. Son renvoi en trilogue, en octobre dernier, même s’il a encore rallongé le délai d’adoption du rapport, a tout de même permis d’améliorer la sécurité économique de nos producteurs.

En effet, le nombre de pratiques considérées comme déloyales a été revu à la hausse, les acheteurs issus de pays tiers ont été ajoutés au champ d’application de la directive, les organisations de producteurs et les interprofessions pourront introduire des plaintes au nom des producteurs, l’identité des producteurs plaignants sera, elle, protégée, afin d’éviter toute forme de pression à leur égard, et enfin, la juridiction compétente sera choisie par le plaignant.

Ces améliorations permettront, nous l’espérons, une meilleure protection de nos filières agricoles face aux géants de l’agroalimentaire. C’est pourquoi nous avons soutenu ce rapport en commission de l’agriculture et nous le soutiendrons à nouveau cette semaine en plénière.

Le travail reste cependant considérable avant de parvenir à un renforcement réel de la place des agriculteurs dans la chaîne alimentaire. Nous ne devons pas considérer ce texte comme la solution miracle et ignorer ce sujet dans les discussions sur la future PAC. Malgré les efforts de certains pays, comme la France, sur ce sujet, nous ne pouvons que constater que l’influence des producteurs dans les relations commerciales reste désespérément faible.

Les producteurs attendent de nous des résultats sur cette question, qui a de fortes répercussions sur l’économie de nos filières. Sachons donc répondre à leurs préoccupations, car elles sont urgentes.

 
  
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  Daniel Buda (PPE). –Domnule președinte, dați-mi voie, în primul rând, să salut preocupările domnului comisar Phil Hogan, dar și ale celor doi raportori și ale tuturor colegilor de a urmări îndeaproape protecția agricultorilor Europeni, a organizațiilor agricole și a întreprinderilor mici și mijlocii în fața comportamentului incorect și, de multe ori, abuziv al marilor operatori din lanțul de aprovizionare cu produse.

Practicile concurențiale neloiale au loc pe tot parcursul lanțului de aprovizionare cu alimente și se extind și în legătura cu comercializarea altor produse. Micii producători sunt victimele frecvente ale comportamentului comercial abuziv ce implică întârzierea plăților, anulări și modificări unilaterale sau retroactive ale contractelor.

Extinderea domeniului de aplicare prin includerea tuturor operatorilor din lanțul de aprovizionare, precum și extinderea categoriilor de practici neloiale vor duce la o protecție mai mare acordată fermierilor, iar consumatorii vor avea garanția unor alimente de calitate și la prețuri accesibile.

Certitudinea juridică dobândită va duce la menținerea stabilității prețurilor și, implicit, la consolidarea sectorului agricol, iar interesele a peste 11 milioane de fermieri și a 300 000 de procesatori din Uniunea Europeană vor fi și mai mult și mai bine apărate.

În același timp, am certitudinea că această propunere va convinge și mai mult producătorii români de nevoia unei asocieri în organizații puternice.

Prin reglementarea unei clauze de revizuire la 4 ani, se va asigura evaluarea dispozițiilor textului legislativ pe parcursul procesului de implementare și aplicarea coerentă a măsurilor directivei în legislația subsidiară din statele membre.

 
  
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  Maria Gabriela Zoană (S&D). – Domnule președinte, domnule comisar, stimați colegi, marile lanțuri de supermarketuri reprezintă, prin puterea lor de negocierea a prețurilor și prin practicile comerciale neloiale, cea mai scurtă și cea mai acută problemă din întreg lanțul alimentar, pe care trebuie să o rezolvăm.

În cadrul lanțului de aprovizionare agricol și alimentar se constată, în mod curent, inegalități semnificative în ceea ce privește puterea de negociere a furnizorilor și cea a cumpărătorilor. Toate acestea conduc la practici comerciale neloiale în cazurile în care partenerii comerciali mai importanți și mai puternici încearcă să impună anumite practici sau clauze contractuale care sunt în avantajul lor.

Unele practici ar putea fi vădit neloiale, chiar și atunci când ambele părți sunt de acord cu ele. Noua legislație europeană interzice, pentru prima dată, până la șaisprezece practici comerciale neloiale impuse unilateral de un partener în cadrul unei relații comerciale. Alte practici pot fi permise numai dacă fac obiectul unui acord prealabil, clar și lipsit de ambiguitate, între părțile implicate. Vreau să înțelegem cu toții că respectăm orice distribuitor alimentar de tip supermarket sau hipermarket, dar că, indiferent care este numele acestui brand sau din ce țară provine, toți trebuie să respecte legislația națională și cea europeană, precum și să evite practicile comerciale neloiale.

 
  
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  Innocenzo Leontini (ECR). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, esprimo grande apprezzamento per il lavoro tenace, prezioso ed efficace svolto dal collega, l'onorevole De Castro. Il testo concordato con il Consiglio relativo alla proposta di direttiva in materia di pratiche commerciali sleali nei rapporti tra imprese nella filiera alimentare è uno strumento fondamentale e dovuto.

In un contesto di politica agricola tutto orientato al mercato, la buona ed equa gestione della filiera alimentare ha acquisito un'importanza fondamentale, in particolare per i piccoli produttori agricoli, che sono particolarmente vulnerabili rispetto alle pratiche commerciali sleali, in quanto sono spesso privi di un potere contrattuale che corrisponda a quello dei loro partner che acquistano i loro prodotti.

Ciò è dovuto principalmente alle limitate alternative di cui dispongono per fare arrivare i loro prodotti ai consumatori finali, nonché alle carenze strutturali del sistema agricolo. La direttiva mira a colpire le pratiche commerciali sleali mediante l'introduzione di strumenti di tutela comuni a tutta l'Unione europea, comprendenti un più esteso elenco di pratiche vietate.

L'obiettivo per raggiungere il quale assicuro il mio voto favorevole è quello di contribuire ad assicurare un tenore di vita equo alla comunità agricola, realizzando in tal modo uno degli obiettivi principali della PAC. Ritengo si tratti di un provvedimento legislativo di grande rilevanza anche per gli agricoltori italiani e siciliani in particolare.

 
  
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  Gilles Lebreton (ENF). – Monsieur le Président, le rapport De Castro a le mérite de chercher à lutter contre les pratiques déloyales de la grande distribution, qui étranglent les agriculteurs en les contraignant à céder leurs produits à vil prix. C’est pourquoi je voterai pour. Mais cela ne doit pas exonérer l’Union européenne de sa lourde responsabilité dans la crise actuelle, qui pousse nos agriculteurs au désespoir et, hélas, parfois au suicide.

Les traités de libre-échange que l’Union négocie avec des géants de l’agriculture, comme le Canada, l’Australie, la Nouvelle-Zélande ou le Brésil sont une folie, car ils organisent délibérément une concurrence déloyale à notre détriment. Nos agriculteurs doivent en effet respecter des règles sociales, sanitaires et environnementales qui ne s’imposent pas aux agriculteurs de ces pays.

Cet ultralibéralisme débridé a aussi amené l’Union européenne à supprimer récemment les quotas laitiers et sucriers qui permettaient de stabiliser les prix du lait et du sucre. Nous, députés du Rassemblement national, avions protesté contre cette suppression. Nous avions raison, car on en voit aujourd’hui les sinistres effets. L’entreprise allemande Südzucker vient d’annoncer la fermeture de deux sucreries en France, à Eppeville et à Cagny. Rien qu’à Eppeville, cette fermeture a bouleversé la vie de 132 salariés et de 1268 betteraviers.

Je demande à l’Union, et particulièrement à la Commission de Bruxelles, de ne pas jouer les Ponce Pilate et de reconnaître leurs torts. Je leur demande de profiter de la préparation de la nouvelle politique agricole commune pour soutenir davantage notre modèle d’agriculture familial de qualité contre le modèle agro-industriel ultralibéral d’inspiration américaine, qui détruit nos emplois et notre santé.

 
  
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  Ricardo Serrão Santos (S&D). – Senhor Presidente, Caro Senhor Comissário, gostaria, em primeiro lugar, de felicitar o nosso colega e Professor Paolo de Castro pelo resultado alcançado nas negociações, que é fruto do empenho claro na defesa dos agricultores.

Esta diretiva constitui um passo importante no reforço da posição negocial dos agricultores e no aumento da sua proteção contra práticas comerciais abusivas. Irá, de uma forma harmonizada, introduzir um nível mínimo comum de proteção em toda a União Europeia para além das disposições já adotadas em alguns países, como Portugal.

Tal não poderá deixar de contribuir, certamente, para a prática de preços mais justos pagos aos produtores.

Devemos também aqui realçar, entre outros aspetos, o papel determinante do Parlamento Europeu na melhoria da proposta inicial da Comissão, contribuindo, nomeadamente, para o aumento significativo do número de práticas abrangidas e a inclusão no seu âmbito dos compradores situados fora da União Europeia.

 
  
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  Franc Bogovič (PPE). – Gospod predsednik, velika koncentracija trgovin, izkoriščanje malega kmeta, posledično problemi potrošnika so združili ta Evropski parlament v tej sestavi, ki bo z veseljem potrdil odlično poročilo gospoda De Castra, za katerega se mu zahvaljujem.

Potrjena je bila resolucija, ki jo je pripravila gospa McGuinness, in – hvala gospod komisar za vaš prispevek, ki ste imeli dovolj hrabrosti in tudi vztrajnosti, da ste skupaj z avstrijskim predsedstvom, z našo nekdanjo kolegico Köstinger tudi v hitrem času pripeljali direktivo zopet pred nas, da bo lahko stopila v veljavo.

Kot vemo, so sedaj na vrsti države članice, ki bodo morale v dveh letih uzakoniti v svoj pravni red to direktivo in zaščititi kmeta, zaščititi potrošnika pred nepoštenimi trgovinskimi praksami. Kar šestnajst jih je tu uzakonjenih, še dosti več jih lahko, v kolikor bodo tako presodile, uzakonijo države članice, in zagotovijo, da bo trajnostna veriga, veriga preskrbe s hrano, obveljala v prihodnosti.

Vse preveč je bilo tistih kmetij, ki so morale zapuščati ta trg, kajti dohodek, prihodek, zaslužek se je nepošteno razdelil. Podatek, da je samo 21 % prihodka ostalo neposrednim pridelovalcem hrane, je zastrašujoč, in upam in prepričan sem v to, da je z današnjim dnem tudi jasen signal potrošniku, trgovcem, da bo tudi v bodoče ta ureditev bolj poštena do tistih, ki delajo v kmetijstvu.

 
  
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  Karine Gloanec Maurin (S&D). – Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, chers collègues, alors que partout en Europe, le secteur agricole vit des heures incertaines, je veux moi aussi saluer le travail efficace et énergique de mon collègue Paolo De Castro, mais aussi des rapporteurs, soutenu par la Commission européenne. Bravo pour cet accord enfin trouvé entre les colégislateurs. Il va permettre aux agriculteurs de mieux vivre du fruit de leur travail et c’est tant mieux: fini les annulations de dernière minute pour des biens périssables ou les modifications unilatérales d’un accord. Désormais, les détaillants vont devoir se plier aux exigences européennes et cesser les pratiques abusives.

Vous le savez, aujourd’hui, les agriculteurs européens touchent moins d’un quart de la part de la valeur du produit agricole. Cette proportion est vraiment déraisonnable et met en danger toutes nos filières.

En fait, si nous voulons réussir la transition agroécologique et valoriser les productions locales, il est impératif de rééquilibrer le rapport de force en faveur des petits opérateurs.

Aussi ce texte, cette directive très attendue, représente un premier pas pour une meilleure répartition de la valeur au sein de la chaîne agroalimentaire et je formule le vœu, très sincèrement, que cette directive, qui ne s’arrête d’ailleurs pas à nos frontières, soit mise en œuvre efficacement dans tous les États membres.

 
  
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  Sofia Ribeiro (PPE). – Senhor Presidente, Senhor Comissário, o final do mandato aproxima-se e agora, mais do que nunca, os nossos concidadãos olham para nós à espera de uma espécie de balanço que lhes mostre a importância para as suas vidas do que aqui fizemos.

A diretiva de combate às práticas comerciais desleais na cadeia de abastecimento agroalimentar é um bom exemplo da forma como defendemos os nossos agricultores e, por consequência, todos os europeus.

Apesar de se ter arrastado ao longo de anos, neste mandato tivemos vontade, apoio de todas as partes e chegámos a um consenso bastante rápido numa diretiva que permitirá uma maior estabilidade e segurança de rendimentos aos nossos agricultores e punirá todos aqueles que abusem da sua posição de dominância sobre os outros elos da cadeia alimentar. É, portanto, um grande dia para a agricultura europeia que passará a ver consagradas na lei as práticas comerciais desleais como são exemplos as alterações contratuais unilaterais, a tentativa de imputar aos agricultores as perdas económicas da distribuição, o pagamento de produtos perecíveis num prazo superior a 30 dias, a imposição de esquemas de descontos ou de penalizações sem serem previamente acordados, entre tantas outras.

A possibilidade de uma organização de produtores fazer uma denúncia em nome de um dos seus associados é também um grande passo com vista a acabarmos com as expressões e receios, especialmente em mercados pequenos ou em que aceitavam as condições que lhes davam ou deixariam de fornecer essa entidade.

Termino, Senhor Presidente, com a convicção de que este Parlamento Europeu deixou o setor agrícola um pouco mais protegido do que o encontrou. É um dia muito feliz para a agricultura europeia.

 
  
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  Michela Giuffrida (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la politica agricola è un pilastro dell'Unione europea e fornisce massiccio sostegno finanziario ad agricoltori e produttori, ma sempre più spesso, purtroppo, assieme alle politiche commerciali, finisce sotto accusa, perché i nostri agricoltori sono schiacciati da costo-lavoro disparitario, da carenze strutturali e dallo strapotere della grande distribuzione, che impone pratiche commerciali sleali. Così a soccombere sono gli anelli più deboli della filiera, che reagiscono spesso scagliandosi proprio contro l'Europa, contro di noi che siamo i loro rappresentanti.

Con questa direttiva dimostriamo con i fatti, finalmente, da che parte stiamo: dalla parte degli agricoltori, dei produttori, dei consumatori europei, a sostegno del sud e di regioni – come ad esempio la mia, la Sicilia – dove l'economia è principalmente agricola e l'agroalimentare conta centinaia di eccellenze che vanno sostenute e tutelate.

Da domani sarà possibile farlo, grazie all'efficace lavoro svolto dal nostro vicepresidente De Castro, dalla Commissione e da quanti come me, da sempre, si battono in difesa degli agricoltori e dei piccoli produttori, simbolo del nostro agroalimentare.

 
  
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  Othmar Karas (PPE). – Herr Präsident! Herr Kommissar, meine Damen und Herren, mein, unser, europäisches Ordnungsmodell ist die ökosoziale Marktwirtschaft. Dazu gehört, dass wir den Markt regeln. Dazu gehört, dass wir vor allem den Markt in eine Richtung regeln, damit schwächere Marktteilnehmer nicht von der erdrückenden Übermacht der großen benachteiligt werden.

Genau das machen wir mit der Richtlinie über unlautere Handelspraktiken in der Lebensmittelkette. Wir machen Schluss mit den vorhandenen Fouls großer Handelsketten zu Lasten der Landwirte und anderer wirtschaftlich abhängiger Lieferanten. Und wir beenden die Unarten, wie verspätete Zahlungen oder das kurzfristige Abbestellen von Lieferungen, denn sie könnten die wirtschaftliche Existenz der Landwirte bedrohen.

Meine Damen und Herren, wir machen auch damit Schluss, dass Geschäftsbeziehungen unfair und nicht zum Wohle beider Seiten gestaltet werden können, indem wir verhindern, dass es keine Weigerung mehr geben kann, Verträge schriftlich zu fixieren. Und ich bin daher auch froh, dass wir diese Regelung auf Drittstaaten ausweiten, dass wir anonyme Beschwerdemöglichkeiten für Landwirte und ein alternatives Streitbeilegungsverfahren schaffen. Ich bedanke mich bei der österreichischen Ratspräsidentschaft für ihren Beitrag, die unlauteren Handelspraktiken endlich zu beenden.

 
  
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  Seán Kelly (PPE). – Mr President, I’m not a member of the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development but obviously – coming from Ireland, a very strong agricultural country – I take a great interest in this issue, and I remember during my first term in Parliament, six or seven years ago, attending a number of meetings and a work group, with Mairead McGuiness and Anna Maria Corazza Bildt, where this issue was discussed. I also remember that when Commissioner Hogan was first appointed he said this was one of the issues he was going to tackle, and many people didn’t believe him at the time, because they thought it was impossible to do so. In fairness, he has delivered, as has Parliament, and therefore I think we can be happy with the results. The whole lot of the unfair practices, involving aid payments, perishable goods, non-perishable goods, contracts, ‘hello money’, etcetera, have been dealt with.

One important point, though, was mentioned by my colleague Jim Nicholson: he said all this was great, and it is, but it must be implemented and monitored properly at Member State level to ensure that the benefits are there for farmers. This is especially so at a time when they are very concerned, I know, in my own country about bad weather, falling prices and, in particular, Brexit. One message that goes out clearly from this process is that if the European Parliament and the Commission are standing behind the farmers in relation to this issue, and can take effective action, I’m quite sure the same will apply in relation to Brexit, if it does happen – although, if Mr Agnew’s prediction is correct, which we hope it is, then it may not happen at all, which would be a perfect solution.

 
  
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  Marijana Petir (PPE). – Gospodine predsjedavajući, posljednja anketa u kojoj su sudjelovali poljoprivredni proizvođači i poljoprivredne zadruge, provedena na temelju šire definicije nepoštenih trgovačkih praksi, pokazala je da se šteta prouzročena nepoštenim trgovačkim praksama procjenjuje na više od 10 milijardi eura godišnje na europskoj razini.

Upravo nepoštenu trgovačku praksu mladi navode kao jednu od glavnih prepreka za bavljenje poljoprivredom. Ukoliko se taj problem uskoro ne riješi, budućnost poljoprivrede i opskrbe hranom bit će dovedena u pitanje.

Poljoprivrednici već sada rade u sektoru s najnižim prosječnim prihodima u Europskoj uniji i ne osjećaju se sigurnima. Usto dobavljači i otkupljivači, kao snažniji u cijelom lancu opskrbe hranom, različite rizike svoga poslovanja prevaljuju na poljoprivrednike kao slabije u tom lancu, bilo da se radi o dugim rokovima plaćanja, uvjetima isporuka, skladištenja i prodaje, na koje poljoprivrednici sami ne mogu utjecati.

Zato pozdravljam brzi dogovor postignut u trijalogu oko ovog zakonodavnog prijedloga i smatram ga pobjedom malih nad velikima, koja bi trebala olakšati život poljoprivrednicima na zajedničkom europskom tržištu.

 
  
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  Andreas Schwab (PPE). – Herr Präsident, Herr Kommissar, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Zunächst mal entschuldige ich mich, dass ich zu spät kam. Ich war bei der Abstimmung im Wirtschaftsausschuss bis zum Schluss dabei und konnte deswegen erst etwas verspätet hier dazukommen.

Ich glaube, wir können nun alle festhalten, dass der Schutz kleinerer und mittlerer Unternehmen insbesondere in den Kleinproduktionen in der Landwirtschaft schon immer ein wichtiges Anliegen vieler Kräfte hier in diesem Haus war, dazu hat immer auch die EVP-Fraktion gehört. Deswegen möchte ich natürlich allen, die daran mitgewirkt haben, dass diese nun vorliegende Richtlinie zustande kam, herzlich danken, insbesondere auch dem Berichterstatter, Herrn de Castro.

Aber ich glaube schon, deutlich machen zu müssen, dass diese Richtlinie, Herr Kommissar, nicht in allen Bereichen perfekt gelungen ist. Denn der Schutz der Unternehmen, die hier jetzt in den Anwendungsbereich einbezogen sind, geht weit über die Definition dessen hinaus, was kleine und mittlere Unternehmen bis heute waren. Man kann natürlich die Frage aufwerfen, ob wir eine breitere Definition von „kleine und mittlere Unternehmen“ brauchen. Aber wenn man sich dieser Frage stellt, braucht man in Europa dafür eigentlich eine Folgenabschätzung. Und deswegen habe ich schon gewisse Zweifel, ob wir vom Agrarbereich ausgehend nun eine Erweiterung der KMU-Definition so aus der Hand schütteln können oder ob wir dafür nicht etwas mehr Zeit gebraucht hätten.

Die zweite Problematik, die sich aus meiner Sicht stellt, ist, dass diese Richtlinie eigentlich davon ausgeht, dass wir auch im Bereich der Agrarwirtschaft einen einheitlichen europäischen Markt haben. Insofern wäre es denklogisch zwingend gewesen, dann auch diese Richtlinie zur Vollharmonisierung zu führen und den Mitgliedstaaten nicht eine weitere Fragmentierung ausdrücklich in Erwägungsgrund 16 und 17 anheim zu stellen. Denn damit wird die Einheitlichkeit dieses Marktes natürlich ein Stück weit wieder in Frage gestellt.

Alles in allem: Wir werden dem zustimmen, aber es bleiben gewisse Zweifel. Wir werden sehen müssen, wie sich diese Sache in der Zukunft entwickelt.

 
  
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  Linda McAvan, rapporteur for the opinion of the Committee on Development. – Mr President, as many have said, this is legislation for which we have been campaigning for years. Thank you, Commissioner Hogan, for putting it on the table, and a big thank you to Paolo De Castro for making it happen before the end of this parliamentary term and before Brexit.

I am speaking for the Committee on Development and the most important thing for us is that this legislation covers not just EU farmers but also farmers in the global South, because they too face a squeeze, as farmers here do, and they have very little bargaining power. Take bananas: only 4% to 9% of the value goes to the farmer. Or look at cocoa: a 30-40% drop in income last year. If you think about it, prices are not going down, so somebody, somewhere, is making money, and it is not farmers.

Finally, this is a very good piece of legislation. We now need to build upon it, and I want to thank, too, all the campaigners across Europe from the Fair Trade movement, from Traidcraft in the UK, from the Fair Trade Advocacy Office and the cooperative movement, and all those who campaigned for this. Let us hope that, in the new Parliament, we will continue to work on value change, conflict minerals, textiles, cocoa and other commodities, building on the legislation we have before us.

 
  
 

Zgłoszenia z sali

 
  
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  Момчил Неков (S&D). – Г-н Председател, успехът на преговорите по нелоялните търговски практики е истинска революция за европейските производители в рамките на този Парламент. С приемането на тази директива слагаме край на фактора „страх“ за фермерите. С настоящата директива ясно установяваме минимален списък на забранени нелоялни търговски практики между купувачите, от една страна, и доставчиците и производителите, от друга.

Край на забавяния на плащания повече от 60 дни, отказ за сключване на писмено споразумение за доставка, търговски репресии или заплаха от такива, ако се прибегне до търсенето на правата. Това са само няколко от примерите за практики, които ще трябва да бъдат напълно забранени. Плащането на такса „промоция“, без предварителна уговорка и преди началото на влизането в сила на споразумението за доставка или връщане на непродадена стока, също ще престане.

Призовавам във всички държави членки, включително и в България, в най-кратки срокове да се създадат адекватни комисии с юридически правомощия, които ще следят и гарантират за гладкото прилагане на тази директива.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, οι αθέμιτες εμπορικές πρακτικές στις σχέσεις μεταξύ επιχειρήσεων στην αλυσίδα εφοδιασμού τροφίμων είναι στην ημερήσια διάταξη. Γνωρίζουμε ότι στην πράξη δεν υπάρχει δίκαιο εμπόριο. Γνωρίζουμε ότι στην πράξη υπάρχει υπερεκμετάλλευση των αγροτών. Ακούστηκε άλλωστε ότι οι ίδιοι οι αγρότες το πολύ πολύ να πάρουν το 20 % της συνολικής τιμής που πιάνει ένα προϊόν κι αυτό διότι υπάρχουν οι πολυεθνικές επιχειρήσεις, υπάρχουν οι μεγάλες αλυσίδες διατροφής και διανομής των τροφίμων, υπάρχουν οι εκβιασμοί από τον χονδρέμπορα, ο οποίος διαμορφώνει τις τιμές, πολλές φορές πληρώνει με επιταγές, εν συνεχεία δεν εξοφλεί και όλα αυτά, βεβαίως, οδηγούν σε μία πλήρη εξάρτηση τον αγροτικό κόσμο.

Γι’ αυτό, χρειάζεται η πολύ συγκεκριμένη απαγόρευση των αθέμιτων πρακτικών, η στήριξη των γεωργών μας, αλλά, βεβαίως, αυτό δεν είναι πανάκεια. Οι αγρότες πρέπει να στηριχτούν και με άλλες πρακτικές και κυρίως να υπάρξουν τράπεζες για να τους δώσουν φθηνές πιστώσεις, για να αντιμετωπίσουν το ακριβό κόστος παραγωγής.

 
  
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  Hilde Vautmans (ALDE). – Voorzitter, collega's, ik wil eerst en vooral commissaris Hogan bedanken. Ik denk dat deze richtlijn hoogst noodzakelijk is, willen we onze boeren in Europa laten overleven.

Eindelijk kunnen we met deze richtlijn een einde maken aan 16 oneerlijke handelspraktijken. Met deze richtlijn zullen we zorgen voor een gelijk speelveld en een versterkte positie van de boeren. Het zal gedaan zijn, collega's, met lastminuteannuleringen van bestellingen. Het zal gedaan zijn met het eenzijdig wijzigen van overeenkomsten en het zal gedaan zijn met het weigeren van schriftelijke overeenkomsten.

Collega's, commissaris, uit een Eurobarometer-enquête uit 2017 bleek dat maar liefst 88 % van de ondervraagden een oproep deed om de positie van de boeren in de keten te versterken. Met deze richtlijn zullen we dat doen en ik hoop dan ook dat de lidstaten heel snel uitvoering zullen geven, zodat wij de boeren in Europa wat beter kunnen ondersteunen.

 
  
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  Miguel Viegas (GUE/NGL). – Senhor Presidente, os agricultores portugueses ficam hoje com menos de 20 % do preço que os consumidores pagam pelos seus produtos. Todos conhecemos o papel predador da grande distribuição no setor agrícola. Todos conhecemos as práticas de esmagamento dos preços pagos ao produtor. É intolerável e é também lamentável que a União Europeia nada tenha feito ao longo destes cinco anos. Aparece agora com esta diretiva em vésperas de eleições e, é caso para dizer, mais vale tarde do que nunca.

Esta proposta tem certamente aspetos positivos, mas não toca no fundamental. Os seus mecanismos são insuficientes para garantir esta coisa tão simples: que os preços cubram os custos de produção e garantam um nível de vida digna aos nossos agricultores. Esta proposta será certamente um passo, mas fica muito aquém do necessário.

 
  
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  Giulia Moi (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, accolgo con favore questa direttiva, che dopo tanti anni finalmente proteggerà gli agricoltori dalle pratiche sleali delle aziende acquirenti e distributrici e porterà un migliore equilibrio in tutta la filiera alimentare.

Vorrei segnalare il caso specifico che è successo in Sardegna – la regione da cui provengo – e vorrei portare tutta la mia solidarietà per la situazione. Quindi io spero che questa direttiva restituisca giusti diritti a tutte le migliaia di operatori che hanno purtroppo lavorato senza di essi e spero che questi diritti vengano riconosciuti.

 
  
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  Caterina Chinnici (S&D). – Signor Presidente, signor Commissario, onorevoli colleghi, i miei complimenti al relatore, l'onorevole De Castro. Agricoltori e produttori agroalimentari, come sappiamo, sono vulnerabili, purtroppo, a pratiche commerciali sleali poiché il settore agroalimentare è caratterizzato da forti squilibri nel potere contrattuale fra piccoli e grandi operatori, i quali talvolta impongono ai loro partner condizioni che si discostano dalla buona fede e dalla correttezza commerciale e che possono anche compromettere la qualità dei prodotti offerti ai consumatori.

Grazie alla direttiva di cui oggi discutiamo verrà finalmente introdotto un livello minimo comune di tutela in tutta l'Unione europea attraverso la proibizione di 16 pratiche sleali unilateralmente imposte da un partner ad un altro, quali ad esempio i ritardi di pagamento o le cancellazioni last minute degli ordini. Va sottolineata l'importanza delle misure finalizzate a rafforzare la cooperazione fra le autorità nazionali e lo scambio di buone pratiche, al fine di garantire una omogenea applicazione nell'ambito dell'Unione delle regole e delle misure contenute nella direttiva, volte a tutelare gli agricoltori e ad assicurare prodotti di qualità.

 
  
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  Olga Sehnalová (S&D). – Pane předsedající, přijetím vůbec prvního celoevropského zákona, který významně ochrání zemědělce a drobné podnikatele před nekalými praktikami velkých hráčů, úspěšně uzavíráme úsilí, které jsme tady v Parlamentu odstartovali s kolegy Czesakem a McGuinness v roce 2016. Podařilo se takřka nemožné. Za necelé tři roky od píky vybudovat nástroj, který skoncuje s rušením objednávek na poslední chvíli, jednostrannými změnami smluv nebo odkládáním plateb. Slabší strana se už nebude muset bát odvetných opatření díky zachování důvěrnosti, dozorové orgány nyní budou muset spolupracovat napříč členskými státy. Vyjednávací pozice hráčů v potravinovém řetězci jsou nesrovnatelné. Tento zákon ale k nastavení férových a transparentních vztahů mezi výrobci, dodavateli a distributory hodně pomůže, takže děkuji všem, kdo se na jeho přijetí podíleli.

 
  
 

(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)

 
  
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  Phil Hogan, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, I welcome the widespread support that has been demonstrated tonight for the agreement reached last December and I look forward to this support being reflected in the vote tomorrow.

Mr De Castro is 100% right when he says that this legislation will protect 100% of EU farmers. It will also protect 97% of small businesses in the agri-food sector.

We had two very revealing contributions here tonight, from both extremes of the political spectrum. One from Mr Agnew, who actually let the cat out of the bag eventually, and revealed the greatest secret that we knew he was harbouring for so long – that the reason why people that share his view in the House of Commons have been voting against Mrs May’s deal up to now is that they really secretly want to stay in the European Union after all. I know that you’re quite correct when you wave the flag there that you say you will be here in a year’s time. That’s thanks to you and the people that actually think like you who are voting against a deal in order to exit the European Union.

(Protests)

(Addressing Mr Agnew)

No. You’ve got plenty of time to express your view over the years.

The second one is Mr Carthy’s view in relation to this legislation. Presumably speaking on behalf of his group, he now is adopting a very isolationist position, where he is actually supporting the strong versus the weak. I’m absolutely flabbergasted at this political stance of Sinn Féin, in particular, who portrayed themselves as extreme Socialists, with great pride, for many, many years. What we’re trying to do here is go in the right direction and help the weak against the strong. I thought that that very principle would be something that could be shared by Sinn Féin and actually it’s remarkable that he has now put himself in a political position where he’s on the same side as the big supermarket retailers, rather than actually on the side of the farmers who are being 100% protected and the small businesses who are being protected as well, up to EUR 350 million turnover. Nobody is saying, Mr Carthy, that this is going to be a panacea for farm prices overnight, but it’s minimum harmonisation at the European Union level for Member States, including Ireland, if you can persuade them, that will be able to do more in this case. Member States can go further due to the construction of this directive and I hope that they do so, particularly as Mr Andrieu and Mr Loiseau have mentioned, in relation to France. This is an opportunity to bring about much-needed protection for our farmers. With the help of this House, we have seized that opportunity and those who continue to oppose the legislation now make up a bizarre incoherent coalition of interests.

Mr Nicholson is quite correct and so is Ms Aguilera. This is about protecting farmers and you have to actually start somewhere in order to do this. Ms McGuinness and Ms Aguilera, and others, emphasised that what the Commission’s proposal is about, with a strong initiative and support of the farmers, is to respond to calls out there from this House about trying to protect the weak against the strong. We’re strengthening the position of the farmers in the food chain. We’re actually banning unfair trading practices in a number of areas, and I think that 96% of the respondents to our public consultation agreed that we should do this, so I don’t know where the support is for anything other than this.

Madam Heubuch, you are free to make more changes in competition law, as you attempted to do in the trilogue process, and in four years’ time, you will have another opportunity. We have made a lot of progress in competition law in relation to agriculture in the last few years through the Omnibus Regulation, through the food chain and we will be making further progress through market transparency rules that I will be publishing in the near future.

The reality of this is that the course is in front of us, but we will only start to work when the Member States take their responsibilities seriously. The EU has done its job, in the words of Mr Dantin, in a noble cause. Now let us join together to ensure the steady transposition of this directive and let us remind ourselves that this is a minimum requirement.

Mr Andrieu, Ms Zoană and others recalled that it has taken some time for there to be a Commission proposal. Let me confirm that this is a proposal that has the full support of the Commission and reflects what President Juncker said in his State of the Union speech here in 2015, when we had a milk crisis and a pigmeat crisis, that it was hard to understand how milk was cheaper than water.

So we have made a stand and I say finally, Mr President, to Mr Schwab, that I understand his comments coming from his perspective, but there was a much more ambitious proposal that ultimately was put on the table. We have reached a compromise, and there was a very rigorous impact assessment completed by the Commission before the proposal was tabled.

Finally, nothing in this legislation should provide any fear for any sector in the food chain if they are behaving in a proper manner and acting fairly towards the farmer.

(Applause)

 
  
  

PRESIDENZA DELL'ON. FABIO MASSIMO CASTALDO
Vicepresidente

 
  
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  Paolo De Castro, relatore. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, ringrazio davvero tutti i colleghi per i commenti e, ancora una volta, ringrazio il Commissario Hogan per aver sostenuto con tale forza il Parlamento europeo. Senza questo gioco di squadra non ci saremmo riusciti, colleghi. Sono passati solo otto mesi dalla presentazione della proposta all'accordo politico del 19 dicembre, e voglio anche ricordare il voto all'unanimità del Consiglio Agricoltura. Per questo mi aspetto un voto positivo di tutti i colleghi, anche di quelli che volevano di più e anche di quelli – pochi, in realtà – che non volevano per niente questa direttiva.

Colleghi, questa è proprio l'Europa che vogliamo. È l'Europa che dà una mano alle imprese più deboli e assicura ai consumatori norme trasparenti e che garantiscano la qualità. Sono d'accordo, ancora una volta, con la collega Mairead McGuinness: è un primo passo, è un primo passo e dobbiamo applicarla bene, questa direttiva.

Ricordiamo anche, però, che la direttiva amplia l'efficacia delle leggi nazionali. Quindi al collega Agnew possiamo ricordare che le imprese inglesi saranno più tutelate ora, grazie alla direttiva, perché saranno protette anche quando esportano in altri paesi dell'Unione europea. Ringrazio Linda McAvan, perché ha voluto ricordare un aspetto di cui siamo orgogliosi: la direttiva si applica anche ai produttori extraeuropei e quindi la tutela viene estesa a tutti quei piccoli produttori che magari subiscono pratiche sleali qui in Europa.

Insomma, caro Commissario Hogan, caro Phil, con questa direttiva abbiamo fatto un piccolo miracolo. Sono tutti i gruppi che la sostengono, con l'unica eccezione del collega Matt Carthy, che spero che magari durante la notte possa riflettere.

Ringrazio davvero ancora una volta tutti e ci auguriamo che un successo come quello che oggi questo Parlamento ha portato a casa si possa ripetere in futuro. Grazie a tutti.

 
  
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  Presidente. – La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà martedì 12 marzo 2019, alle 12.30.

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 162)

 
  
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  Beata Gosiewska (ECR), na piśmie. – W dniu 19 grudnia 2018 r. prezydencja austriacka i Parlament Europejski osiągnęły porozumienie w sprawie dyrektywy mającej na celu powstrzymanie nieuczciwych praktyk handlowych w relacjach między przedsiębiorstwami w łańcuchu dostaw produktów rolnych i żywności. Zasadniczym celem dyrektywy jest ochrona rolników, których uznaje się za najbardziej zagrożone podmioty w łańcuchu dostaw żywności, przed nabywcami, którzy są znacznie więksi od nich. Dyrektywa umożliwi stworzenie wspólnych ram europejskich zapewniających minimalny poziom ochrony rolników i innych dostawców produktów rolno-spożywczych, których obrót nie przekracza 350 mln euro. Porozumienie to obejmuje żywność, cięte kwiaty, karmę dla zwierząt domowych oraz paszę dla zwierząt. Całkowicie zakazane będzie osiem praktyk handlowych, w tym: opóźnienia za produkty łatwo psujące się, anulowanie zamówień w ostatniej chwili, jednostronne lub wsteczne zmiany w umowach dostawy, niewłaściwe wykorzystanie informacji poufnych oraz działania odwetowe lub grożenie takimi działaniami wobec dostawcy. Wszystko to ma na celu wzmocnienie pozycji mniejszych podmiotów (rolników) w łańcuchu dostaw żywności.

 
  
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  Laurenţiu Rebega (ECR), în scris. – Micii fermieri și producători sunt vitali pentru economia și sectorul alimentar European. De mult ar fi trebuit să facem eforturi pentru a întări poziția micilor producători și fermieri pe piață. Astăzi, sunt bucuros că, datorită acestui raport, fermierii și producătorii care se ocupă de aprovizionarea cu alimente vor fi apărați împotriva practicilor neloiale, cum ar fi anularea comenzilor în ultimul minut, întârzierile în efectuarea plăților și, în mod special, modificările unilaterale ale contractelor.

 
  
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  Daciana Octavia Sârbu (S&D), în scris. – Mă bucur că, în sfârșit, în această săptămână vom aproba un act legislativ care să combată practicile comerciale neloiale din sectorul agroalimentar. Din nefericire, doar unele state membre au adoptat legislația națională privind reglementarea practicilor neloiale și, de aceea, această directivă este mai mult decât necesară. Am așteptat-o și am cerut-o de foarte mult timp. Micii producători, în special, trebuie să fie protejați în relația loc cu „retailerii”.

Cred cu tărie că această directivă va ajuta ca micii fermieri să aibă acces mai ușor în supermarketuri și că atât contractele obligatorii, cât și asigurarea plăților la timp vor garanta un venit mai sigur și mai decent pentru acest tip de producători. Din păcate, doar 21 % din prețul final al unui produs vândut în supermarket ajunge la producător. Sper ca, după implementarea acestei directive, producătorii români să poată să aibă mai multă putere de negociere cu supermarketurile și ca aceștia să se bucure de venituri echitabile.

 
  
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  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE), písemně. – Podporuji tento návrh, jelikož souhlasím se zákazem nekalých obchodních praktik uplatňovaných ze strany obchodních řetězců vůči zemědělským a potravinářským producentům. Nekalé praktiky, jako například opožděné platby za potraviny podléhající rychlé zkáze, rušení objednávek na poslední chvíli nebo jednostranné změny smluvních podmínek způsobují malým producentům významné finanční problémy. V této souvislosti je důležité zmínit čísla ze studie Výzkumné služby Evropského parlamentu (EPRS) ze září 2018, kde se uvádí, že z celkové hodnoty potraviny obdrží evropští zemědělci v průměru pouze zhruba 20 % a zpracovatelé přibližně 28 %. Zbytek, tedy více než polovina, pak připadne samotným obchodníkům. Tento stav reflektuje nerovné postavení těchto subjektů v rámci potravinového řetězce. Toto legislativní opatření si tak klade za cíl zlepšit podmínky těch, jejichž postavení je v rámci tohoto potravinového řetězce nejslabší, tedy zejména malých a středních potravinářských a zemědělských podniků. I přesto, že opatření, která zavádí tato směrnice, nejsou dle mého názoru samospásná, tak nelze pochybovat, že jdou správným směrem.

 
Последно осъвременяване: 10 септември 2019 г.Правна информация