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Utorok, 12. marca 2019 - Štrasburg Revidované vydanie

21. Dohoda o spolupráci, partnerstve a rozvoji medzi EÚ a Afganistanom - Dohoda o spolupráci, partnerstve a rozvoji medzi EÚ a Afganistanom (uznesenie) (rozprava)
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  Przewodniczący. – Kolejnym punktem porządku dziennego jest wspólna debata nad:

– zaleceniem sporządzonym przez Annę Fotygę w imieniu Komisji Spraw Zagranicznych w sprawie projektu decyzji Rady w sprawie zawarcia, w imieniu Unii, Umowy o współpracy na rzecz partnerstwa i rozwoju między Unią Europejską i jej państwami członkowskimi, z jednej strony, a Islamską Republiką Afganistanu, z drugiej strony (15093/2016 – C8 0107/2018 – 2015/0302(NLE)) (A8-0026/2019) oraz

– sprawozdaniem sporządzonym przez Annę Fotygę w imieniu Komisji Spraw Zagranicznych zawierającej projekt rezolucji nieustawodawczej dotyczącej projektu decyzji Rady w sprawie zawarcia, w imieniu Unii, Umowy o współpracy na rzecz partnerstwa i rozwoju między Unią Europejską i jej państwami członkowskimi, z jednej strony, a Islamską Republiką Afganistanu, z drugiej strony (15093/2016 – C8-0107/2018 – 2015/0302M(NLE)) (A8-0058/2019)

 
  
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  Anna Elżbieta Fotyga, Rapporteur. – Mr President, the Cooperation Agreement on Partnership and Development (CAPD) between the EU and Afghanistan was signed in February 2017, partially and provisionally entering into force on 1 December 2017. It was upon a Council decision that the agreement remains a mixed one, meaning that both the EU and Member States are engaged in the process of ratification.

The security situation in Afghanistan remains difficult, yet over 56% of the territory is under the control of the Afghan Government. That means that more than 65% of the population is also under the control of the Government. Since 2002, when the EU engaged in financing, more than EUR 3.66 billion of humanitarian aid has been delivered in Afghanistan. For the decade of transformation starting in 2015 we intend to deliver a further EUR 1.4 billion to stabilise this country.

Efforts by the NATO International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operation and current resolute support with the participation of many countries, including my own, has brought development to the security situation, although, after the emergence of Islamic State Khorasan (ISK), the Daesh cells and groups that emerged following operations in Iraq make this situation still vulnerable and fragile.

The CAPD focuses on areas of relevance to the rule of the law, good governance, human rights, economic stabilisation and social stabilisation. We have to acknowledge and compliment the good achievements reflected in the statistics. Access to health care has increased, due to European assistance, from 9% to 57%, a huge development. Life expectancy has increased from 45 to 60. The level of education – schooling, access to schools – is much higher. Voting patterns, in terms of participation in elections and the empowerment of women, also represent achievements in this country.

The agreement was signed by Vice—President / High Representative Federica Mogherini and by the Minister of Finance of Afghanistan, in the presence of the country’s President. We parliamentarians consider it regrettable that information about proceedings in the negotiation of the agreement came to this Chamber considerably late, after the signing of the agreement. While our role is substantial, we participate, in accordance with the Treaties, in the consent procedure for this agreement. I welcome and support it. I hope that it will be voted on positively.

 
  
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  Neven Mimica, Member of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Mr President, let me start by thanking the honourable rapporteur, Madam Fotyga, for your report, your positive opinion and the consent expressed on the conclusion of the EU-Afghanistan Cooperation Agreement on Partnership and Development.

After decades of war, Afghanistan stands at a crossroads. Last year was the deadliest ever for civilians since the start of the war in 2001. Yet 2019 could be the year of peace. In recent years, the European Union has engaged even more closely with the Government of Afghanistan to accompany the country in this delicate moment of its history.

This is the goal that we set both in the Afghanistan strategy of 2017 and in our latest Council conclusions. This agreement represents the first legal framework governing EU-Afghanistan relations and is the result of a long negotiation process.

The agreement is now being applied provisionally and we already had a promising start to our structured dialogue and cooperation. Two bilateral meetings took place in 2018 where we discussed a number of key issues that we have agreed together with our Afghan friends. These include human rights, gender issues and good governance, development cooperation, trade, regional cooperation and migration. On all of these files, Afghanistan wants to make substantial progress for the benefit of its citizens and we Europeans have offered assistance and support.

We paid special attention to the situation of Afghan refugees in the region. The European Union remains committed to working towards finding a comprehensive and durable regional solution by supporting the predictable, safe, orderly and dignified return of Afghan nationals residing in neighbouring countries and to continuing to implement the EU’s regional programmes on migration and forced displacement.

In your report, you draw a realistic picture of the situation in Afghanistan. I would like to elaborate a little more on the current developments related to peace. The situation on the ground remains worrying. Innocent Afghan men, women and children continue to suffer from this conflict. Yet there are good reasons to hope that this year could finally bring good news for the country. President Ghani’s peace offer for the Taliban in February 2018, just a little over a year ago, has created an unprecedented opportunity for peace, and since September last year, the US and the Taliban have been negotiating international troop withdrawals and counter-terrorism commitments.

We know that lasting peace will take time. A quick agreement is not necessarily a lasting one. This is why the European Union is committed to supporting Afghanistan before, during and after a peace agreement to ensure that this will be sustainable.

Last November, at the Geneva Ministerial Conference on Afghanistan, hosted by the United Nations, High Representative Mogherini made a concrete five-point offer to Afghanistan about how the European Union could support a peace deal. First, we can help make the peace process more inclusive. Second, we can assist with reforms, including in the security sector. Third, we can help with the reintegration of former fighters and their families. Fourth, we can act as a guarantor of a possible peace agreement, and fifth, we can promote regional trade and connectivity. Since then, we have been working closely with our Afghan partners to better define our assistance. We are launching a dedicated peace mechanism to help repair and build capacities for inclusive negotiations. As the High Representative said in Geneva, the Afghan people are asking to move forward and there is no going back.

During the coming months, we will continue to work together with the international community to support a better electoral process for this year's presidential elections in Afghanistan. As you rightly pointed out in your report, the EU committed a large amount of funding in terms of development aid. At a Brussels conference on Afghanistan in October 2016, the EU and its Member States pledged EUR 5 billion, and this pledge is currently being operationalised. Let me also mention the fact that the EU development support for Afghanistan has a strong focus on peace and state building and supports Afghanistan in its regional contacts. With other development partners, we are exploring how to adapt the existing development programmes to a peace scenario. This would include supporting post-conflict reforms, social cohesion at community level, cross-border trade and regional connectivity.

Afghanistan has a unique chance for peace. We Europeans will do everything in our power to help the people of Afghanistan turn this opportunity into a truly sustainable and lasting peace.

 
  
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  Bernd Lange, Verfasser der Stellungnahme des mitberatenden Ausschusses für internationalen Handel. – Herr Präsident, Herr Kommissar, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Es ist eine etwas absurde Situation heute. Wir sollen ein Abkommen billigen, das vorläufig schon seit über einem Jahr in Kraft ist und in dessen Aushandelsprozess überhaupt keine Transparenz stattfand. Eigentlich, wenn es nicht um Afghanistan gehen würde, würde ich sagen: So kann man mit dem Europäischen Parlament nicht umgehen! Und deswegen richte ich an den Rat, aber auch an die Kommission nochmal die klare Ansage: Es kann nicht sein, dass ein Abkommen vorläufig angewandt wird, ohne dass dieses demokratisch gewählte Haus die Zustimmung gegeben hat.

Das entspricht überhaupt keinem Demokratieverständnis. Wir haben im Handelsbereich die klare Abmachung, dass kein Abkommen vorläufig angewendet wird, bevor das Europäische Parlament ja gesagt hat. Und das verlange ich als generelles Prinzip von der Kommission und vom Rat. Wir sind die demokratische Institution der Europäischen Union, wir haben das Recht, transparent beteiligt zu werden und vor jeglichem Inkrafttreten eine Entscheidung hier in unserem demokratischen Haus zu treffen.

 
  
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  Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski, w imieniu grupy PPE. – Panie Przewodniczący! Kompletnie nie zgadzam się z moim przedmówcą. Wcale nie jest tak, że potrzebna jest zgoda Parlamentu Europejskiego do jakiejkolwiek współpracy. Współpraca ta natomiast wkracza w tej chwili w decydującą fazę i na tym etapie ta zgoda jest niezbędna.

Cieszę się, że Komisja Spraw Zagranicznych przyjęła pozytywną rekomendację dla zgody Parlamentu. Jestem zadowolony z tego, że dojdzie do pierwszej formalnej współpracy pomiędzy Unią Europejską i Afganistanem, ale cieszę się przede wszystkim z samego sprawozdania, które pod każdym względem jest po prostu kompletne – zawiera aspekty polityczno-strategiczne, mówi o roli i odpowiedzialności podmiotów regionalnych, porusza kwestie dotyczące bezpieczeństwa i budowania pokoju w Afganistanie, ale także budowanie państwa, bo to państwo cały czas jest w fazie budowy.

Zwracam uwagę także na prawa człowieka, które w Afganistanie są bardzo często podważane, na kwestie dotyczące gospodarki, a zwłaszcza rozwoju i handlu. Ale to, co jest także kluczowe, to same procesy migracyjne. Trzeba pamiętać, że Afganistan obawia się migracji ze strony Pakistanu czy Iranu – nie jest na to przygotowany. I bardzo istotne, że w końcowej fazie w sprawozdaniu także zawarto współpracę sektorową. To czyni to sprawozdanie, krótko mówiąc, kompletnym.

 
  
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  Doru-Claudian Frunzulică, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, the Cooperation Agreement on Partnership and Development confirms the EU commitment to Afghanistan’s future development during the decade of transformation – 2014 to 2024 – and lays the foundations for the Union’s continued support for the country in implementing key reforms. Through the report I’m also trying to flag up the point that, despite the significant progress made, Afghanistan still faces substantial challenges that require further stronger, longer force to safeguard and build on these joint achievements.

I also put emphasis on a more constructive dialogue on human rights, in particular the rights of women, of children, and of ethnic and religious minorities, which are essential elements of this agreement. The agreement aims to develop EU—Afghan relations in a growing range of mutually beneficial areas, such as rule of law, fighting terrorism and extremism, improved governance, achieving sustainable peace in development, combating terrorist financing, countering narcotics smuggling, fostering inclusive and sustainable economic growth and social and rural development and addressing global challenges such as climate change.

Afghanistan needs to refrain from involving proxies in internal rivalries. Neighbouring countries should contribute to the stability of Afghanistan instead of undermining it.

 
  
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  Petras Auštrevičius, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, first of all let me thank Anna Fotyga for her excellent job in drawing up this report being presented to us for our attention and consideration. The EU-Afghanistan Cooperation Agreement on Partnership and Development brings the EU’s relationship with Afghanistan to a new qualitative level of mutually beneficial cooperation. Undeniably, Afghanistan has made very significant progress in many fields, as rightly mentioned by Anna before. However, security concerns, corruption, human rights issues and other problems still persist, endangering the current achievements.

Afghanistan is at a crucial point in its history, as in the absence of further efforts, all of the progress and sacrifices hitherto could be wasted. Withdrawing the coalition forces prematurely could have negative consequences and should be decided by all consulting allies.

The European Union is committed to a long-term partnership with Afghanistan. Therefore, following the November 2018 Geneva Conference on Afghanistan, the European Union announced a financial package worth EUR 474 million to support state-building and public sector reforms, health, justice and elections, as well as to address migration and displacement challenges in Afghanistan.

I hope that this Agreement embedded in a regional approach which includes the Afghanistan neighbourhood, the global powers and the international community, can pave the way for a better future for the country. The first step to the path of stability is peace. Achieving a peace agreement between warring parties in Afghanistan is a priority at the moment, and I hope very much that the Qatar process of negotiations will include the Afghanistan Government in the very essence of this meaning. In particular, a peace deal cannot compromise the values of democracy, human rights and rule of law. The citizens of Afghanistan deserve this.

 
  
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  Sabine Lösing, im Namen der GUE/NGL-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Es ist gut, wenn Ziele eines Abkommens mit Afghanistan – unter anderem die Beseitigung von Armut, die Umsetzung der UN—Entwicklungsziele, die Gleichstellung der Geschlechter – ein Handeln auf Augenhöhe mit sich bringen. Doch es ist nicht so, als hätten wir keine Erfahrung mit der Strategie neoliberaler, sogenannter Reformen, welche das neue Kooperationsabkommen leitet, über das wir heute hier sprechen.

Bereits 2003 hat der Westen mit dem IWF in Afghanistan einen neoliberalen, marktradikalen Umbau des Wirtschaftssystems begonnen. Zahlreiche Studien und die Erfahrung der Jahre belegen doch, dass ein solches Befriedungskonzept ungeeignet ist, die soziale Lage der Bevölkerung zu verbessern und zu einer Stabilisierung beizutragen. Die heutige Situation in Afghanistan ist ein Desaster, doch ich fürchte, dass das Abkommen mit der Förderung ausländischer Direktinvestitionen, des Privatsektors und der Ausbeutung natürlicher Ressourcen nicht diesem gequälten Land auf die Füße helfen wird, sondern vor allem die Gewinne europäischer Unternehmen vermehren wird und soll.

Das Abkommen beinhaltet außerdem den bereits im Vorfeld – und hier setze ich ein Ausrufungszeichen – im Vorfeld informell beschlossenen Abschiebedeal mit dem zynischen Namen „gemeinsamer Weg nach vorne“, der afrikanische Geflüchtete gemeinsam zurück in den Tod schickt. Diese menschenverachtende Praxis muss sofort beendet werden.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes (S&D). – Senhor Presidente, nos últimos 17 anos, os aliados, no quadro da ISAF e da missão EUPOL e outras da União Europeia, quiseram dar voz àqueles que o regime talibã oprimiu, mulheres e minorias étnicas em especial.

A História ensinou uma lição sangrenta no Afeganistão, de que não há paz sem inclusão e com o poder entregue aos senhores da guerra.

Ora o acordo que está a ser negociado entre a Administração Trump e os talibãs com vista a uma retirada de tropas a mata cavalos do Afeganistão é muito preocupante, não inclui as vozes das mulheres afegãs, dos jovens, da sociedade civil nem sequer do governo eleito. Os parcos ganhos de inclusão duramente conquistados estão sob ameaça e podemos voltar a ver a maioria da população afegã, mulheres e crianças, barbaramente oprimidas.

Negociar assim, não é negociar, é trair, como se vê pelos ataques crescentes dos talibãs contra civis e militares no Afeganistão. À União Europeia não basta ajeitarmos o tal acordo de partenariado e cooperação que pode não valer o papel onde está escrito, temos de nos fazer ouvir politicamente e evitar o retrocesso civilizacional que tornará em vão o tal acordo de partenariado e cooperação e todos os esforços financeiros, humanitários e o sacrifício de vidas, de tantos civis e militares afegãos e também aliados, incluindo europeus naquele país.

 
  
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  Neena Gill (S&D). – Mr President, I note the agreement between the EU and Afghanistan and do believe that it would have been better had Parliament been informed earlier about the negotiations, particularly covering trade and investments. However, being mindful of the fact that Washington is no longer pressing for a military advantage means there is an opening up of space for diplomacy and the EU needs to support political resolution for the conflict in Afghanistan.

But I have a number of questions for the Commission. The US and Taliban negotiators have reached a draft peace framework in Qatar, but it has not been disclosed if it contains assurances about the rights of Afghan women or minorities. Given the EU’s efforts to enhance women’s participation in public life, how are we going to ensure that this will not be in vain, once the Taliban have a political role again.

Secondly, there is no regional agreed framework corresponding to the Doha talks. Neither the US nor the Afghan Government can lead it. How do we ensure sustained interest by regional powers and neighbours like Pakistan, China, India and Iran in a stable state? And finally, how do we ensure that the Afghan Government plays a core role in the dialogue in the Afghan peace process?

 
  
 

Zgłoszenia z sali

 
  
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  Julie Ward (S&D). – Mr President, EU Member States continue to consider Afghanistan a safe country. This allows them to return to the country people who have come to Europe to seek asylum, often through very dangerous routes. However, the security situation on the ground has severely deteriorated and the Taliban now control a significant part of the territory. It is hypocritical and irresponsible for our Member States to be sending these people back to a land where they will inevitably face persecution, especially those who came to seek shelter in Europe after being targeted for their cooperation with Western forces.

Another worrying issue is the current exclusion of women and young people from talks that could lead to a peace deal between the US and the Taliban. My colleague, Ana Gomes, brought an important initiative to our attention last week, whereby a group of Afghan women have launched an appeal regarding those who are currently excluded from the talks. It’s essential that their voice is heard in order to build sustainable peace and to safeguard women’s hard—won rights in the country.

 
  
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  Patricia Lalonde (ALDE). – Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, chers collègues, un accord vient d’être conclu entre les talibans et les États-Unis il y a quelques heures à Doha.

Pas plus tard qu’hier, les talibans ont attaqué toute une compagnie de l’armée afghane, de 50 soldats: 16 ont été tués et 40 faits prisonniers. Dix jours plus tôt, 40 soldats ont été tués par les talibans dans le sud du pays. Je pourrais multiplier les exemples récents. Les talibans refusent toujours de négocier avec le gouvernement afghan, malgré les demandes répétées de celui-ci. Au contraire, ils multiplient les attaques contre le gouvernement, qui ne contrôle plus que 50 % du territoire.

Ces négociations avec les États-Unis ouvrent la voie au retour politique des talibans au pouvoir au niveau national, face à un exécutif qui est, de ce fait, affaibli. Cela signifierait une régression importante pour le droit et la liberté fondamentale des Afghans et surtout des Afghanes. La société afghane tout entière s’inquiète à l’idée de voir se constituer, de nouveau, un Émirat islamique taliban liberticide en Afghanistan, tel que cela fut le cas dans les années 1990.

L’Union européenne ne peut pas se permettre de cautionner une telle éventualité après 20 ans d’investissement en Afghanistan. Il y va de sa crédibilité. Monsieur le Commissaire, nous ne pouvons pas laisser les Afghans retomber sous le joug des talibans, même au nom de la paix.

 
  
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  Bill Etheridge (EFDD). – Mr President, so we’re discussing Afghanistan, the historically ungovernable, impossible State, and the EU – and again, really, really, with the right intentions – we’re looking at billions of euros, offers to help with state building, social programmes, but there’s the word – ‘state building’ – to try and get to democracy and so on.

Now, Russia, the United States and the British Empire have all failed to try and impose themselves upon Afghanistan and I don’t think there’s any change to make us suggest that anything will be any different if this place – through its soft power – tries to impose itself on Afghanistan. I would suggest the best way to improve the lot of the people of Afghanistan is to agree to have tariff-free trade, to open the border to trade completely with them, and allow their economy to grow and people there to get better off and better educated through trade and the economic growth that will come with free trade. Everything else is doomed to failure.

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, l'Afghanistan è uno Stato che non può che essere vicino alla nostra sensibilità di cittadini e di europei, non fosse altro che per tutti i caduti provenienti da Stati membri e paesi alleati che in questi anni hanno sacrificato la loro vita laggiù e che oggi vorrei quindi ricordare.

Detto questo, credo che l'Afghanistan e l'Unione europea abbiano bisogno di un accordo che sostenga il dialogo politico bilaterale per consolidare la stabilità interna del paese, senza però dimenticare, anzi ponendo al centro, i diritti dei civili, lo Stato di diritto, la riforma della giustizia, lo sviluppo sostenibile e la lotta alla corruzione.

Nel contesto di un'Asia centrale in forte cambiamento, la stabilità afghana rientra infatti in una logica di win-win, con benefici per tutti gli attori regionali. Senza il loro coinvolgimento i soli sforzi dell'UE non saranno possibili, non saranno sufficienti e saranno in definitiva molto più difficili. Al di là della stabilità, l'accordo ha come logica conseguenza un preciso controllo sui fondi: si tratta di un aspetto per noi fondamentale, per far sì che questi ultimi siano utilizzati veramente a favore delle popolazioni locali.

Il cammino è arduo, ma questo è un primo passo positivo e dobbiamo tenere aperte le porte per assicurare una speranza e un futuro ai cittadini dell'Afghanistan.

 
  
 

(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)

 
  
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  Neven Mimica, Member of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Mr President, allow me to thank the Members for this useful debate. My conclusion is that we should pursue the implementation of the Cooperation Agreement with Afghanistan and the overall EU effort to support Afghanistan. This is especially important at this moment, when increased commitment from all the international community is needed. We will keep the European Parliament involved in, and informed about, our ongoing work and dialogue.

 
  
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  Anna Elżbieta Fotyga, Rapporteur. – Mr President, the Cooperation Agreement on Partnership and Development (CAPD) is the first ever legal base for a relationship between the EU and Afghanistan. It is to remain in place, in force, presumably, for the next decade. We have to use it to its full extent to further provide peace, stability, security and development, and social sustainability for this country. The task is really difficult.

I would like to thank all the shadow rapporteurs or persons who contributed to this report, the advisers of my political group, the staff of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, naturally, and my own assistants. Thank you very much indeed.

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. – Zamykam debatę.

Glosowanie odbędzie się w środę 13 marca 2019 r.

Oświadczenia pisemne (art. 162)

 
  
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  Janusz Zemke (S&D), na piśmie. – Wojna w Afganistanie trwa od wielu lat i jej końca niestety nie widać. Miniony, 2018 r., pochłonął wyjątkowo wiele ofiar, zwłaszcza wśród cywilów. Tylko w tym roku zginęło co najmniej 3800 cywilów, w tym prawie 1000 dzieci. W Afganistanie utrzymuje się cały czas wszechogarniająca bieda, 54% ludności żyje w nędzy lub na skraju nędzy. Trzeba zrobić wszystko, by tę okrutną wojnę skończyć i ograniczyć cierpienie ludności. Proponuję, by UE skupiła się na trzech działaniach. Po pierwsze, wsparła rozmowy pokojowe miedzy Amerykanami, obecnymi władzami w Kabulu i Talibami. Porozumienie tych sił jest kluczem do pokoju. Po drugie, trzeba silniej wesprzeć reformy wojska i sił bezpieczeństwa w Afganistanie. Siły te należy wspierać, ale nie wyręczać ich. Po trzecie, pilnie należy zwiększyć pomoc humanitarną, dostawy żywności i leków dla ludności cywilnej. To skrajna bieda i rozpacz powodują, że wiele osób staje się sprzymierzeńcami talibów.

 
Posledná úprava: 8. júla 2019Právne oznámenie