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Procedure : 2019/2610(RSP)
Stadium plenaire behandeling
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Ingediende teksten :

RC-B8-0204/2019

Debatten :

PV 14/03/2019 - 8.1
CRE 14/03/2019 - 8.1

Stemmingen :

PV 14/03/2019 - 11.1

Aangenomen teksten :

P8_TA(2019)0203

Debatten
Donderdag 14 maart 2019 - Straatsburg Herziene uitgave

8.1. Mensenrechtensituatie in Kazachstan
Video van de redevoeringen
PV
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  La Présidente. – L’ordre du jour appelle le débat sur six propositions de résolution concernant la situation des droits de l’homme au Kazakhstan (2019/2610(RSP)).

 
  
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  Heidi Hautala, author. – Madam President, it’s very important that the European Parliament now addresses the worsening human rights and democratic standards situation in Kazakhstan. This is a country which has signed an enhanced partnership and cooperation agreement with the European Union and this agreement aims at providing a broad framework for reinforced political dialogue. There is no doubt that the rule of law, human rights and fundamental freedoms and principles of market economy and sustainable development must be at the core of the negotiations.

Now we know that there are many victims of politically motivated charges. There are many political prisoners, there is torture in the prisons and we, as the European Union, must react to the worsening of the situation. We must also address the situation of trade union activists – I’m mentioning two names, there are more in our common resolution – Nurbek Kushakbaev and Amin Eleusinov were released on parole in May 2018, but they remain banned from trade union activities. This is not possible, with a country which has an enhanced partnership ...

(The President cut off the speaker)

 
  
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  Mark Demesmaeker, Auteur. – Ja, we zijn tevreden dat het Europees Parlement de mensenrechtenschendingen in Kazachstan aansnijdt. We hebben inderdaad met Kazachstan in 2015 een versterkt samenwerkingsakkoord gesloten waarin respect voor de rechtsstaat en de mensenrechten een fundamenteel onderdeel zijn. Maar toch word ik als Europees Parlementslid te pas en te onpas geconfronteerd met getuigenissen van Kazakse burgers die beknot worden in hun grondrechten.

Dat gebeurt op tal van manieren, al zijn die niet altijd zichtbaar voor de buitenwereld. Intimidatie, juridische pesterijen, foltering, onwillekeurige arrestatie en preventieve opsluiting. Het vrije leven wordt beknot om het regime van president Nazarbayev te beschermen.

Ik noem nadrukkelijk de namen van politieke gevangenen: Maks Bokayev, Iskander Yerimbetov of Mukhtar Dzhakishev. Zij worden het zwijgen opgelegd.

Ook wij, het Europees Parlement, zijn het slachtoffer. Activisten die in september vorig jaar hun bezorgdheden wilden meedelen aan een AFET-delegatie van dit Huis, werden vakkundig afgeschermd en monddood gemaakt door Kazachse autoriteiten.

Ik vraag aan de EDEO en aan de Commissie om niet alleen oog te hebben voor – ontegensprekelijk interessante – zakelijke en economische banden met Kazachstan, maar vooral in de gesprekken aan te dringen op respect voor fundamentele waarden die wij in Europa hooghouden.

 
  
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  Helmut Scholz, Verfasser. – Frau Präsidentin! Es ist eine der zentralen Lehren des Zusammenbruchs der realsozialistischen Gesellschaften vor 30 Jahren, dass soziale und politische Menschenrechte untrennbar miteinander verbunden sind. Zur Garantierung dessen bedarf es der Stärkung von Rechtsstaatlichkeit, Demokratie und Freiheit. Das gilt überall, denn Demokratie und die Teilnahme- und Teilhabemöglichkeit von Menschen an gesellschaftlichen Entwicklungsprozessen muss überall möglich sein. Es ist deshalb bedauerlich, dass sich in den letzten Jahren die Situation der Menschenrechte und bürgerlichen Freiheiten in Kasachstan verschlechtert hat, insbesondere seitdem die Gesetzgebung gegen Extremismus zur Verfolgung politischer Gegner genutzt wird. Die jüngsten Äußerungen von Unzufriedenheit der Bevölkerung – wir haben davon zahlreiche Berichte – zeigen die Bereitschaft und das Bedürfnis der Bürgerinnen und Bürger nach einer demokratischeren Mitgestaltung ihrer Gesellschaft. Deshalb müssen die politisch motivierten Fälle von Verfolgung auch schnell beendet werden.

 
  
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  Wolf Klinz, Verfasser. – Frau Präsidentin, Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Nach dem Zusammenbruch der Sowjetunion wurde Kasachstan ein unabhängiger Staat. Mit dieser Entwicklung haben die Bürger des Landes die Hoffnung verbunden, dass sich dieses Land nach vielen Jahren autoritären Herrschens nun endlich zu einem demokratischen Land entwickeln würde – zu einem Land, in dem die Freiheits- und Grundrechte Gültigkeit haben, in dem es freie Meinungsäußerung gibt, in dem das Rechtsstaatsprinzip und die Regeln der Marktwirtschaft gelten und in dem alle Bürger sicher und frei leben können und sich einen Wohlstand erarbeiten können.

Leider hat sich diese Hoffnung nicht erfüllt. Die EU ist der größte Handelspartner Kasachstans und hat im Partnerschafts- und Kooperationsabkommen im Dezember 2015 noch einmal deutlich unterstrichen, wie wichtig es für die Zusammenarbeit zwischen der EU und Kasachstan ist, dass Menschenrechte, demokratische Grundrechte und das Prinzip der Rechtsstaatlichkeit gewahrt und eingehalten werden. Leider müssen wir heute mehr als drei Jahre nach diesem Abkommen feststellen, dass sich immer noch nichts verbessert hat, im Gegenteil, zum Teil ist die Situation noch schlechter geworden.

Unschuldige Menschen werden eingesperrt, gefoltert, es gibt keine freie Meinungsäußerung, und politische Gegner werden verfolgt. Deshalb bin ich froh, dass sich Mitglieder dieses Hauses parteiübergreifend zu diesem Entschließungsantrag zusammengefunden haben, um die Regierung zu ermahnen, etwas zu tun.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes, Autora. – Senhora Presidente, a visita de uma missão da AFET ao Cazaquistão, em setembro último, que integrei, pôs a nu a estupidez repressiva do regime de Nursultan Nazarbayev que vive do culto da personalidade delirante, à cabeça de um sistema totalitário e cleptocrático.

À frente da nossa delegação, em Almaty, a polícia cazaque prendeu ativistas que nos queriam contactar. Exigimos, na altura, a libertação imediata dessas vítimas e de todos os outros cidadãos presos e torturados por um regime que restringe a Internet, reprime ativistas de direitos humanos e todo e qualquer opositor. Exigimos isso, hoje, de novo, nesta resolução, a libertação de todos os que como Mukhtar Dzhakishev, que está a ponto de perder a vista, Iskander Yerimbetov, Aset Abishev, e tantos outros que estão listados, incluindo apoiantes do movimento Escolha Democrática do Cazaquistão, ou todos os que saiam à rua com as cores desse movimento.

Na semana que vem, Nazarbayev vai outorgar indultos presidenciais. É a altura de a União Europeia fazer valer os compromissos do acordo de parceria com o Cazaquistão e mostrar que precisa de reformas, que não é possível continuar com este dinossauro que já não tem mais tempo à frente e oprimindo um país em que precisamos absolutamente de estabilidade e de reformas democráticas.

 
  
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  Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski, autor. – Pani Przewodnicząca! Trwają właśnie rozmowy trójstronne, z tego też powodu jestem w pewnym zastępstwie Róży Thun, która była współautorką dzisiejszej rezolucji.

Mamy szesnaście zaleceń, nie jestem w stanie w tak krótkim czasie przytoczyć wszystkich, natomiast zwrócę uwagę na te najważniejsze. Po pierwsze – rezolucja wzywa rząd Kazachstanu do wdrożenia zaleceń specjalnego sprawozdawcy ONZ do spraw wolności, pokojowych zgromadzeń i stowarzyszeń. Wzywa rząd Kazachstanu do zaprzestania wszelkich form arbitralnych zatrzymań, represji i nękania wobec działaczy na rzecz praw człowieka i organizacji społeczeństwa obywatelskiego. Wzywa także rząd Kazachstanu do dokonania przeglądu zmian w prawie medialnym i informacyjnym, które weszły w tym roku.

Na koniec – bardzo istotne jest – na co zwraca uwagę ta rezolucja – stosowanie artykułu 174 kodeksu karnego w sprawie tak zwanego podżegania do niezgody społecznej, narodowej czy klanowej. Zwracam uwagę na nadużywanie tego artykułu.

 
  
  

PRZEWODNICTWO: BOGUSŁAW LIBERADZKI
Wiceprzewodniczący

 
  
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  Julie Ward, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, for the past five years I have engaged extensively with Kazakhstani civil society. Standing in solidarity with persecuted human rights defenders, I’ve become familiar with the bleak human rights situation in the country. There are many worrying cases. I will highlight a few of them.

Ablovas Dzhumayev was sentenced to three years simply for posting online his criticism of the Government. Aigul Akberdiyeva, a mother of four, is being persecuted in the same case – and I’m very disappointed that the final resolution we will vote on does not include her name, as her case is still pending and is just as relevant as the others.

International observers who monitor such cases are expelled by the authorities without justification, as happened to Lyudmyla Voloshyna and Valeriy Yavtushenko. Judges such as the Chair of Aqtau City Court, Malik Kenzhaliev, can be punished when they do not follow orders. Similarly, others, like Aset Abishev, sentenced to four years in prison, and Almat Zhumagulov and Kenzhebek Abishev, sentenced respectively to eight and seven years, are punished under the pretext of the fight against extremism. They must all receive justice.

 
  
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  Nathan Gill, on behalf of the EFDD Group. – Mr President, this Parliament has a specific mandate and responsibility to its citizens and must be a beacon to Kazakhstan and our neighbours. The mechanism to allow these debates, bizarrely, is in the hands of unelected bureaucrats and although human rights of the people of Kazakhstan cannot be belittled, we have a much more pressing human rights issue right on our doorstep. With the presidential elections in Ukraine at the end of this month, the security and prosperity of the EU relies on EU standards being adhered to in countries that have an association agreement with the EU, countries that will potentially join the EU.

Reliable reports from human rights watchdogs warn of serious challenges to democracy when the current government, before an election, is putting undue pressure on independent TV channels like News One and Channel 112. If you do not have a free press, you cannot have a free and fair election. I put forward a resolution on freedom of the press in Ukraine, which was signed by 43 MEPs from all groups in this Parliament. The European People’s Party (EPP) bureaucracy blocked this. I hope they do not do this when it is represented next Strasbourg. We need to send an unequivocal message to Ukraine and the world on the need for freedom of the press.

 
  
 

Zgłoszenia z sali

 
  
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  José Inácio Faria (PPE). – Senhor Presidente, Caros Colegas, o Cazaquistão, que foi o primeiro país da Ásia Central a conseguir um lugar entre os membros não permanentes do Conselho de Segurança da ONU, não é capaz de garantir internamente a paz e a segurança dos seus próprios cidadãos. Nesta antiga república soviética, continua sem existir liberdade de associação, os ativistas de direitos humanos e a comunidade LGBTI e as vozes dissidentes são perseguidas, detidas e muitas vezes sujeitas a tortura e a tratamentos cruéis, desumanos e degradantes.

O regime do Presidente Nazarbayev persegue judicialmente líderes sindicais, incluindo os que denunciam as condições de trabalho absolutamente degradantes de milhares de imigrantes quirguizes, incluindo crianças, e a ameaça do islamismo militante é usada como desculpa para restringir a liberdade religiosa das minorias, incluindo a cristã, que vive vigiada quase constantemente e é multada por orar sem a permissão do Governo.

A União Europeia, no âmbito do acordo de parceria e cooperação reforçada, deve instar as autoridades cazaques, enquanto membros da Comissão de Veneza, a cumprirem as obrigações internacionais assumidas em matéria de direitos humanos e apelar ao Governo de Astana a libertação dos presos políticos e respeito pela liberdade que religião e crença.

 
  
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  Juan Fernando López Aguilar (S&D). – Señor presidente, comisario Mimica, creo que es un caso muy especial el que nos ocupa cuando hablamos de violaciones de los derechos humanos en Kazajistán, teniendo en cuenta que Kazajistán disfruta de una relación privilegiada con la Unión Europea, un importante acuerdo de asociación que lo distingue como un gigante en Asia Central en sus relaciones estratégicas con la Unión Europea.

Pero en Kazajistán ha habido un retroceso democrático pavoroso. Un presidente vitalicio, Nursultán Nazarbáyev, cuyo liderazgo en Kazajistán se remonta a los tiempos de la Unión Soviética, y persecución de los opositores a la concentración de poder en la familia y el clan Nazarbáyev, entre ellos Mukhtar Dzhakishev, que ha sido objeto de una especial atención por el Comité de Derechos Humanos de las Naciones Unidas y por las autoridades españolas, porque ha habido presión diplomática para intentar la extradición de oponentes kazajos residentes en países de la Unión Europea.

Este caso de Mukhtar Dzhakishev es especialmente sangrante porque padece torturas y se han violado sistemáticamente sus derechos fundamentales en prisión, y ha recibido, por tanto, un mensaje claro del Comité de Derechos Humanos de las Naciones Unidas que la Unión Europea debiera respaldar diplomáticamente.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, νομίζω ότι από τη συζήτηση αναδείχθηκε ότι υπάρχει ένα σοβαρό θέμα προστασίας δημοκρατικών δικαιωμάτων στο Καζαχστάν. Οι χώρες αυτές, οι οποίες κατάφεραν ή ήθελαν, εν πάση περιπτώσει, έφυγαν από τον σοβιετικό εναγκαλισμό, δεν πέρασαν όμως δυστυχώς στη δημοκρατία. Δεν στήριξαν την δημιουργία μιας κοινωνίας των πολιτών, έναν χώρο όπου πραγματικά να λειτουργούν τα δημοκρατικά δικαιώματα. Από την άλλη πλευρά, όμως, και η Δύση θώπευσε αυτές τις χώρες. Και τις θώπευσε διότι είχε οικονομικά συμφέροντα, διότι εκεί βρήκαν μια μεγάλη ευκαιρία οι πολυεθνικές της Ευρώπης αλλά και της Αμερικής να κάνουν επενδύσεις, να εκμεταλλευτούν τις πλουτοπαραγωγικές πηγές και, φυσικά, να βγάλουν υπερκέρδη.

Στη βάση αυτή, λοιπόν, παρέμειναν τα καθεστώτα, δεν έγιναν δημοκρατικές αλλαγές, και τώρα έρχονται όλοι να διαμαρτύρονται. Αυτή είναι η πραγματικότητα, όταν κανείς κοιτάζει μόνο όπως κάνουν οι πολυεθνικές το να κερδίζουν χωρίς να ενδιαφέρονται, φυσικά, για την ανάπτυξη της δημοκρατίας. Εμείς στηριζόμαστε και θέλουμε να στηρίξουμε τη δημοκρατία, γι’ αυτό στηρίζουμε και το συγκεκριμένο ψήφισμα.

 
  
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  Fabio Massimo Castaldo (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il Kazakhstan non è solo uno dei paesi più vasti del mondo, ma anche uno dei più ricchi per cultura, storia e tradizioni. Certamente la coesistenza pacifica tra diverse comunità etniche e religiose rende questo paese un modello dal quale imparare. Oggi, però, tutta questa diversità e ricchezza culturale sono fortemente minacciate da leggi anacronistiche e azioni repressive contro chiunque la pensi diversamente dalla linea del governo.

Sono sempre più numerosi gli attivisti, i membri della comunità LGBTI, i giornalisti e i membri dei sindacati che sono presi di mira senza alcuna giustificazione. Pensiamo alle proteste del 2016, quando mille persone vennero arrestate solo per aver pacificamente partecipato al corteo; pensiamo alle violenze perpetrate dalle autorità il 10 maggio scorso contro un gruppo di manifestanti in occasione di una visita di una delegazione del Parlamento europeo; pensiamo ad Ardak Ashim, la blogger detenuta in un ospedale psichiatrico per aver incitato alla discordia, attraverso i suoi post, sulla base dell'articolo 174 del codice penale, articolo non ancora riformato.

Allora chiedo: a cosa serve avere un accordo di partenariato e di cooperazione rafforzata che pone l'accento sulla democrazia e sullo Stato di diritto, se poi si viene sempre meno alla parte più importante, quella del rispetto della libertà e dei diritti fondamentali?

 
  
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  Seán Kelly (PPE). – Mr President, this resolution is about the troublesome situation regarding human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Kazakhstan. The new Criminal Code has tightened the criminal laws being used to prosecute journalists, activists and opposition politicians. Freedom of expression is being restricted, with many receiving long—term prison sentences and being subjected to torture, ill treatment and psychological pressure in the detention facilities. The use of social networks is controlled and restricted by the authorities and social network users are being sentenced to imprisonment, while religious beliefs are being used by authorities as a pretext for arbitrary detention.

Therefore, I call on Kazakhstan to amend its legislation, in particular, the articles on criminal liability from the Criminal Code, which are overtly political in nature and I would recommend Kazakhstan apply the standards of the Council of Europe in its legal system.

 
  
 

(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)

 
  
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  Neven Mimica, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, I would like to thank you for this opportunity to discuss the human rights situation in Kazakhstan. As you know, the EU-Kazakhstan Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, which has now been ratified by 25 EU Member States, provides the EU and Kazakhstan with a solid framework to advance our cooperation. It’s full ratification will enable us to further strengthen our cooperation, also on human rights, building on the existing regular dialogue with Kazakhstan. The human rights dialogue and the Justice and Home Affairs Subcommittee, last November, discussed, among other issues, the importance of an independent judiciary and legislative powers to ensure the effectiveness of the constitutional mechanisms of checks and balances, as well as zero tolerance to torture and ensuring independent monitoring of detention facilities.

On that occasion, the European Union also raised concerns in relation to an independent media, freedom of expression and freedom of association and peaceful assembly. It remains important for Kazakhstan to continue to take steps to foster an enabling environment for civil society, human rights defenders, lawyers, trade unionists and journalists.

We are closely monitoring the human rights related developments in Kazakhstan, including in relation to the updated law on trade unions and its compatibility with ILO conventions, with international human rights standards and the impact on civil society of the law on the financing of NGOs. The EU-Kazakhstan Cooperation Committee in January agreed that the EU delegation and the Kazakh authorities would follow up on specific concerns raised and this is what we are doing.

The rule of law will remain a key priority sector of the EU support in Kazakhstan through the new regional EU–Central Asia rule of law programme, which will begin in 2019.

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. – Zamykam debatę.

Głosowanie odbędzie się po zakończeniu debat.

 
Laatst bijgewerkt op: 8 juli 2019Juridische mededeling