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Proċedura : 2018/2237(INI)
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Ċiklu relatat mad-dokument : A8-0157/2019

Testi mressqa :

A8-0157/2019

Dibattiti :

PV 27/03/2019 - 27
CRE 27/03/2019 - 27

Votazzjonijiet :

PV 28/03/2019 - 8.12
CRE 28/03/2019 - 8.12

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P8_TA(2019)0330

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L-Erbgħa, 27 ta' Marzu 2019 - Strasburgu Edizzjoni riveduta

27. Deċiżjoni li tistabbilixxi Faċilità Ewropea għall-Paċi (dibattitu)
Vidjow tat-taħditiet
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  Der Präsident. – Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die Aussprache über den Bericht von Hilde Vautmans im Namen des Ausschusses für auswärtige Angelegenheiten über die Empfehlung des Europäischen Parlaments an den Rat und die Vizepräsidentin der Kommission und Hohe Vertreterin der Union für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik zu dem Vorschlag der Hohen Vertreterin der Union für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik, mit Unterstützung der Kommission, an den Rat für einen Beschluss des Rates zur Einrichtung einer Europäischen Friedensfazilität (2018/2237(INI)) (A8-0157/2019).

 
  
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  Hilde Vautmans, Rapporteur. – Voorzitter, morgen stemt het Europees Parlement over een belangrijke aanbeveling over de Europese vredesfaciliteit, een nieuw budgettair fonds buiten de Europese begroting ter waarde van 10,5 miljard euro voor de periode 2021-2027. De Europese vredesfaciliteit is een nieuw financieringsinstrument dat de Europese Unie in staat zal stellen om activiteiten met gevolgen op militair of defensiegebied te financieren, op een meer efficiënte en een meer flexibele manier. Hoe dan? Door de verschillende bestaande instrumenten van ons extern beleid samen te voegen onder één budgettair instrument en door een aantal bestaande lacunes op te vullen.

Tot dusver kon slechts een beperkt gedeelte van de gemeenschappelijke kosten van militaire operaties door de EU gefinancierd worden, konden we slechts beperkte bijstand verlenen aan militaire activiteiten, alleen maar als het gekoppeld was aan strikte ontwikkelingsdoelstellingen, en bleef eigenlijk de steun voor militaire vredesondersteunende operaties van partners beperkt tot operaties onder Afrikaanse leiding via de vredesfaciliteiten voor Afrika. De Europese vredesfaciliteit zal dit alles veranderen.

Ten eerste zullen we zorgen voor een grote solidariteit onder de lidstaten door een betere lastenverdeling. De Europese vredesfaciliteit zal het Athena-mechanisme vervangen en een groter aandeel van gemeenschappelijke kosten van operaties financieren, tot wel 45 %. Hierdoor zullen lidstaten natuurlijk sneller geneigd zijn om deel te gaan nemen aan operaties. Want natuurlijk, als je meer gemeenschappelijke kosten kan delen, blijven er minder eigen kosten over. Ten tweede zal het ook bijdragen aan vredesondersteunende operaties van internationale organisaties of derde landen, niet langer beperkt tot Afrika. We zullen een veel breder draagvlak hebben. Ten derde – en dat is toch wel een heel belangrijk punt – zullen we ook kunnen bijdragen aan de opbouw van militaire en defensiecapaciteiten van derde landen, denk maar aan hun uitrusting. Ik geef u één concreet voorbeeld: we doen bijvoorbeeld EU-trainingsmissies in Somalië, waar we dus de militairen heel goed kunnen opleiden. Maar wanneer zij geen schoeisel hebben, geen materiaal, geen kogelvrije vesten, waartoe dient onze opleiding dan? Vanaf nu zal het vredesfonds kunnen inspringen bij de aankoop van bijvoorbeeld kogelvrije vesten en schoeisel, zodat de goed opgeleide militairen ook kunnen ingezet worden.

Tot slot is er ook een flexibiliteitsclausule om ander operationeel optreden van de Unie in het kader van het gemeenschappelijk buitenlands en veiligheidsbeleid, met gevolgen op militair of defensiegebied, te financieren. De Europese vredesfaciliteit is een extra budgettair fonds, wat natuurlijk voor mij betekent dat inspraak en controle door dit Huis belangrijk zijn. En vandaar dat we ook vragen om voldoende en tijdig geïnformeerd en geraadpleegd te worden, zodat we met elk standpunt rekening kunnen houden. Vandaar dat we ook de waarborgen vragen dat er geen activiteiten worden gefinancierd die de in artikel 21 van het EU-verdrag vastgelegde grondbeginselen schenden of gebruikt worden om het internationaal recht en de mensenrechten te schenden. En natuurlijk moeten we verzekeren dat het instrument complementair is met andere externe beleidsinstrumenten. We zeuren zo vaak, we horen het hier zo vaak, dat Europa niet in staat is om te handelen, of te laat handelt, dat het Europa aan daadkracht ontbreekt.

Welnu, onze veiligheidsomgeving wordt meer complex, meer volatiel, meer onvoorspelbaar en ambigu dan ooit. Dan moet de Europese Unie beschikken over de nodige instrumenten om vrede te bevorderen, om conflicten te voorkomen en internationale veiligheid te versterken, en natuurlijk om haar rol als globale speler op het gebied van veiligheid waar te kunnen maken. De Europese veiligheidsfaciliteit is een ontbrekende schakel daarin. Ik wil jullie dan ook echt vragen met overtuiging om die aanbeveling goed te keuren. Ik wil ook heel graag al mijn collega-schaduwrapporteurs bedanken voor het harde werk. Dit was een niet zo evident debat, maar ik denk dat we het tot een goed einde gebracht hebben en hoop natuurlijk dat het morgen breed gesteund zal worden.

 
  
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  Julian King, Member of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Mr President, let me first welcome, on behalf of the High Representative, your broad support for her proposal to establish a European Peace Facility. This reflects the need, repeatedly emphasised by this House, for funding in this area that is more flexible and efficient and which better embodies solidarity. Let me extend, on behalf of the High Representative and other colleagues, our thanks to the rapporteur, Ms Vautmans, as well as the co-rapporteurs, for their engagement and their constructive and pragmatic approach.

As you rightly recall in your report, the Union’s ambition is to be a global security provider, something which is obviously in our collective strategic interest. Given the growing and evolving threat picture which we face, we need to have the capacity to respond to a variety of security challenges. That was clearly acknowledged in the global strategy in 2016.

The idea of the Peace Facility was born out of our experience, as the rapporteur was just setting out. The EU is active on the ground, but there are strong limitations to what we can achieve currently. For example, we’ve had difficulties in financing the training of soldiers in Somalia and we have not always been able to provide the Central African Republic with the equipment it needs, as was recalled, to complete its transformation from civil war to a functioning modern democracy. The cost of EU military operations fall too much on the countries which are contributing troops, and that acts as a deterrent to others when it comes to participation and deployments.

This new facility, when adopted by the Council, will make a real difference. It will provide the Union with the ability to finance all operational actions under the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) with military or defence implications in a flexible, responsive manner. In particular there are three main strands of action that the Peace Facility will support. First, it will cover the common costs of EU military missions and operations. Indeed, more costs should be funded in common to better meet operational needs and to facilitate deployments. Second, it will enable the EU to contribute to military peace operations led by other international actors. And third, it will allow the EU to support the armed forces of our partner countries with infrastructure, equipment or military assistance when the Council so decides. The nature, scope and limits of these actions will be defined by the Council, but the proposal makes very clear that any support to our partners would be subject to strict controls such as respect for democratic principles and fundamental rights.

The High Representative’s proposal benefits from the support of the Commission, in accordance with Article 31. This support will help to facilitate synergies with our other financial instruments and to underpin sound financial management.

In conclusion, let me underline that this is a key part of the work that we’re doing collectively to make our citizens more secure, to better support our partners around the world and to contribute to our most precious common good, which is, of course, peace and security. So let me thank you again for your support for this important initiative. I look forward to our discussion and support tomorrow.

 
  
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  Brando Benifei, a nome del gruppo S&D. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, lo strumento per finanziare operazioni militari europee è un ulteriore passo avanti verso una sempre più stretta cooperazione tra gli Stati membri nel campo della politica di sicurezza e difesa comune, oltre che un meccanismo per razionalizzare i meccanismi esistenti.

Come Parlamento diamo un contributo significativo alla proposta dell'Alto rappresentante, primo su tutti, la chiara richiesta che le azioni militari finanziate attraverso tale strumento siano conformi ai principi e ai valori sanciti dalla Carta dei diritti fondamentali e al diritto internazionale.

Inoltre chiediamo un controllo stringente da parte del Parlamento stesso, che deve essere informato costantemente e avere accesso a tutti gli atti relativi alle operazioni finanziate con lo strumento. Ancora, la cessione o la vendita di equipaggiamenti o materiali militari a paesi terzi deve essere conforme alla posizione comune dell'UE sul controllo delle esportazioni di armi e con il regime di controllo sui prodotti a uso duale, mentre deve essere ugualmente reso disponibile un elenco dettagliato dei materiali forniti, salvaguardie necessarie perché la politica di sicurezza e difesa non può prescindere dalla coerenza con i valori di pace e di rispetto dei diritti umani, che sono alla base del progetto europeo.

Sono inoltre particolarmente contento che nel testo si è inserito, su mia proposta, il riferimento alla non proliferazione e al disarmo e al ruolo di primo piano dell'Unione europea nella lotta per la messa al bando delle armi nucleari. In tempi sempre più incerti, in cui solo alcune organizzazioni della società civile sembrano impegnarsi realmente per questi obiettivi, la minaccia nucleare non è più un fantasma del passato ma un pericolo concreto, da combattere attivamente tramite il diritto internazionale e il multilateralismo, di cui l'Unione è leader nel mondo.

 
  
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  João Pimenta Lopes, em nome do Grupo GUE/NGL. – Senhor Presidente, o mecanismo europeu de apoio à paz proposto pela Comissão, e que este Parlamento se prepara para aprovar, é um outro exemplo de como a União Europeia mascara as suas políticas.

Para fora vende-se o ideal da paz, um ideal usado para justificar a mobilização de verbas substanciais para a defesa e para o armamento. Na prática, o que este mecanismo vai financiar não são apenas as missões militares da União Europeia, mas o reforço das capacidades militares e de defesa de países terceiros.

Rejeitamos o caminho que a direita e a social-democracia procuram impor alimentando o cariz belicista intervencionista da União Europeia. Quem promove a guerra não pode defender a paz. A defesa da paz, tal como a Constituição da República Portuguesa preconiza, passa pela dissolução da NATO ou de estruturas militares no contexto da União Europeia e a promoção de uma política de desarmamento, incluindo o nuclear, e a resolução de conflitos mediada no respeito integral do Direito Internacional e da Carta das Nações Unidas.

 
  
 

Spontane Wortmeldungen

 
  
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  Julie Ward (S&D). – Mr President, I’d like to remind Members, and also the Commissioner, that the EU is first and foremost a peace project. I’d also like to recall the Brussels Pledge to Peace, which resulted from a conference called ‘Peace and Prosperity, founding values of the European Union’, held on 28 November 2011 here in the European Parliament.

This declaration of intent was meant to encourage projects and actions aimed at promoting peace in its most universal meaning, inspired by the universal ideals of human dignity, freedom, equality and solidarity enshrined in the preamble of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, and also confirmed by the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. The Nobel Prize for Peace awarded to the European Union seals and underlines the importance of actions like the Pledge, and also this current proposal for a peace facility.

The Pledge to Peace was intended to create the necessary conditions to initiate a broad set of actions aimed at building a world of peace and prosperity. I suggest that all new MEPs in the next legislature sign the Pledge and renew this action.

 
  
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  Luke Ming Flanagan (GUE/NGL). – Mr President, even George Orwell would have been surprised at the way this organisation has been named. You’ve allocated EUR 10.5 billion over six years. It sounds very interesting, but this fund has the potential to supply arms to African countries with histories of political unrest and human rights abuses, as well as supporting these countries with military and technical assistance.

I strongly reject this proposed facility based on this fact. If it is to go ahead, maybe you should have a name change. More appropriately, call it the European arms facilitation agencies. Some of the countries singled out by Federica Mogherini that may avail themselves of this fund are Mali and Somalia. Look at what happened this week in Mali with the Government—backed militia. Look at the fact that we joined – Ireland – this union to work together with European nations, but to preserve our neutrality. We in Ireland are not preserving our neutrality if we back projects like this. This was meant to be a peace project. It’s not now, is it?

 
  
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  Κωνσταντίνος Παπαδάκης (NI). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση συγκροτεί με τις ευλογίες του Ευρωκοινοβουλίου τον ευρωπαϊκό μηχανισμό για την ειρήνη. Ο Μπρεχτ από πολύ παλιά σάς απαντά: «Όταν αυτοί που είναι ψηλά μιλάνε για ειρήνη, ο απλός λαός ξέρει πως έρχεται o πόλεμος»· γιατί αυτός ο νέος αντιδραστικός μηχανισμός έχει ως αποστολή του την απευθείας χρηματοδότηση χωρίς καθυστερήσεις των στρατιωτικών σωμάτων για ιμπεριαλιστικές επεμβάσεις της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης και των κυβερνήσεών της όπου γης· γιατί διπλασιάζει τις στρατιωτικές δαπάνες για τέτοιες αποστολές, φτάνοντάς τες στο 1,5 δισ. ετησίως· γιατί, προκλητικά μάλιστα, στο όνομα της ισότητας κάνει προσκλητήριο πολέμου ειδικά στις γυναίκες, προκειμένου να συμμετάσχουν σ’ αυτές τις επικίνδυνες για τους λαούς αποστολές. Εβδομήντα χρόνια από την ίδρυση του ΝΑΤΟ, είκοσι χρόνια απ’ την Κοινή Πολιτική Ασφάλειας και Άμυνας της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης, είκοσι χρόνια απ’ τους δολοφονικούς βομβαρδισμούς της Γιουγκοσλαβίας από το ΝΑΤΟ, στήνεται μηχανισμός συστηματοποίησης των ιμπεριαλιστικών επεμβάσεων. Οι λαοί με την από κοινού πάλη τους να σημαδέψουν το πραγματικό αντίπαλο: τα μονοπώλια, το σύστημά τους, τις ιμπεριαλιστικές ενώσεις και τις κυβερνήσεις τους.

 
  
 

(Ende der spontanen Wortmeldungen)

 
  
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  Julian King, Member of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Mr President, I wish to thank the honourable Members who’ve intervened for their comments and suggestions.

I would just say to Mr Pimenta Lopes that, far from hiding anything, this is an exercise in transparency. It’s very clear what the purposes are, as the report I think recognises. It’s very clear what the decision—making procedures will be, and that will be open to scrutiny by all.

Indeed, work is already ongoing in some of the areas highlighted in the report – for example, ensuring that future transfers of sensitive equipment take place in compliance with international law, as well as with the relevant EU rules. This is something to which, I assure you, we will attach the highest priority.

We also fully agree that the European Parliament needs to be kept fully informed on a regular basis about the use of this facility. That is a commitment that we happily make.

So, thank you again for all those who’ve engaged on this subject. I know some of those views are strongly held. Thank you for this report. I hope it will be supported tomorrow.

 
  
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  Hilde Vautmans, Rapporteur. – Voorzitter, ik heb hier heel vaak het woord vrede gehoord, vrede en veiligheid. Helaas zijn dat noties die heel veel mensen in de wereld vandaag niet kennen. We kennen in alle uithoeken natuurlijk oorlogssituaties. Vandaar dat die vredesfaciliteit zo belangrijk is, dat flexibele instrument waarmee we ons externe optreden efficiënter kunnen maken, waarmee we onze partners kunnen ondersteunen bij operaties, waarmee we gemeenschappelijke kosten kunnen dragen. Ik heb hier heel veel argumenten gehoord die eigenlijk niet ter zake deden. Ik denk dat dit instrument echt wel is wat Europa nodig heeft, willen we efficiënter zijn. Dat is wat de burgers van ons vragen. Want tot nu toe is ons beleid toch wel vaak extern van aard. We kunnen wel blaffen, maar we kunnen niet bijten. We kunnen opleiden, maar die mensen kunnen vervolgens niet ingezet worden. Met dit instrument denk ik dat we de realiteit op het terrein kunnen wijzigen en meer vrede kunnen bewerkstelligen. Ik hoop dat hier morgen vóór gestemd wordt.

 
  
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  Der Präsident. – Die Aussprache ist geschlossen.

Die Abstimmung findet morgen, Donnerstag, 28. März 2019 statt.

 
Aġġornata l-aħħar: 28 ta' Ġunju 2019Avviż legali