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Procédure : 2019/2823(RSP)
Cycle de vie en séance
Cycles relatifs aux documents :

Textes déposés :

RC-B9-0089/2019

Débats :

PV 19/09/2019 - 4.3
CRE 19/09/2019 - 4.3

Votes :

PV 19/09/2019 - 7.3

Textes adoptés :

P9_TA(2019)0019

Débats
Jeudi 19 septembre 2019 - Strasbourg Edition révisée

4.3. Iran, notamment la situation des défenseurs des droits des femmes et des personnes ayant à la fois une nationalité de l’Union et la nationalité iranienne
Vidéo des interventions
PV
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  President. – The next item is the debate on six motions for resolutions on Iran, notably the situation of women’s rights defenders and imprisoned EU dual nationals (2019/2823(RSP)).

 
  
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  Anna Fotyga, author. – Mr President, I pay tribute to the women of Iran, to their courage, resolve and determination, not only in the fight for women’s rights, but also in speaking out in defence of the whole society against the regime. One of the major opposition movements in Iran, the National Council of Resistance of Iran, is led by a woman as well.

Recently, many women were sentenced to a long time in prison for just protesting against the compulsory wearing of the hijab, but also women with dual nationality, both EU and Iranian, as well, arm in arm with men, are suffering because of persecution there. We appeal for their immediate release.

 
  
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  Hannah Neumann, Verfasserin. – Herr Präsident, Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Viele von Ihnen kennen diese Tradition sicherlich, am Internationalen Frauentag, dem 8. März, Blumen an Frauen zu verschenken. Es ist ein friedliches – ich muss sagen, mir selber manchmal zu friedliches – Zeichen für die Rechte der Frauen. Eigentlich – denn am 8. März dieses Jahres haben Frauen im Iran, in Teheran, in der Metro Blumen verschenkt.

In Teheran sind in der Metro das erste und das letzte Abteil für Frauen reserviert, und drei Frauen nahmen dort ihren Schleier ab und haben ihr Anliegen sehr deutlich zum Ausdruck gebracht. Sie haben gesagt: Ich hoffe, dass wir mit und ohne Schleier eines Tages gemeinsam auf der Straße in Teheran im Iran marschieren können, denn im Iran ist genug Platz für alle IranerInnen da. Man sieht auf einem Video, das in den sozialen Medien geteilt wurde, wie Frauen mit und ohne Schleier sich umarmen, wie es Applaus gibt. Die Spannung und auch ein Gefühl des Aufbruchs sind richtig zu spüren.

Und was war die Reaktion des iranischen Regimes? Inhaftierung, Schikane, Gefängnis bis zu 24 Jahren. Und das ist nicht der einzige Fall. Nasrin Sotudeh, die von uns hier im Parlament den Sacharow-Preis bekommen hat, wurde selbst zu 33 Jahren und 148 Peitschenhieben verurteilt, weil sie Frauen wie die in der Metro vor Gericht verteidigt hat.

Eines zeigen uns diese Strafen ganz deutlich: Das iranische Regime fühlt sich von diesen mutigen Frauen bedroht.

Ja, die Lage in der Region ist wahrlich kompliziert, und sie wurde in den letzten Tagen nochmal komplizierter. Aber ich finde, gerade dann, wenn das mit Gut und Böse nicht so einfach ist, müssen wir hier an der Seite der Menschen stehen, die sich für Menschenrechte starkmachen, die im Iran gegen Diskriminierung von Frauen kämpfen, wie die Frauen in der Metro, gegen Diskriminierung wie ein ungerechtes Scheidungssystem, wie sexuelle Gewalt. Und da gibt es noch so viel anderes Unrecht.

Wenn anderswo die Rechte von Menschen missachtet werden, dann dürfen wir hier in diesem Haus nicht schweigen. Deswegen: Lasst uns gemeinsam nachher für diese Entschließung und für die Frauen im Iran unterzeichnen!

 
  
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  Jytte Guteland, författare. – Herr talman, fru kommissionär! Förra veckan fylldes av rapporter om Sahar Khodayaris hemska och fruktansvärt onödiga död till följd av skadorna efter att ha tänt eld på sig själv. Hon gjorde det i desperation efter att ha blivit gripen och riskerat brutalt fängelsestraff när hon ville se en fotbollsmatch, något som är så naturligt och som alla människor skulle ha rätt till. Det är en sådan fruktansvärt tragisk händelse och min solidaritet och vårt parlaments solidaritet med hennes familj är där i dag. Vi tänker på henne.

Debatten i dag handlar om situationen för kvinnorättskämpar och om fängslade EU-medborgare med dubbla medborgarskap i Iran. Vi skickar nu ett tydligt budskap om att situationen för kvinnor som kämpar för mänskliga rättigheter i Iran måste förbättras. Många har blivit fängslade endast för att de har stått upp mot diskrimineringen. Vi talar om fall där det är människorättskämpar, kvinnorättsförsvarare, advokater, journalister, fackliga aktivister och miljöaktivister som sitter fängslade utan rättegång år efter år, månad efter månad med ett stort lidande som följd. Vi tar upp fallen med Mojgan Keshavarz, Nasrin Sotoudeh och Narges Mohammadi. Vi upprepar vårt tydliga krav om att Ahmad Reza Jalali och andra fängslade personer med dubbla medborgarskap omedelbart måste friges och att man måste få en rättvis behandling.

 
  
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  María Soraya Rodríguez Ramos, autora. – Señor presidente, debatimos una Resolución de urgencia para pedir la inmediata liberación de todas las mujeres activistas condenadas en Irán y también para que sean liberados los ciudadanos con doble nacionalidad europea e iraní, que están ahora mismo en condiciones dramáticas en las cárceles de Irán, sin comunicación ni acceso con sus abogados ni con sus familias.

Las tres últimas mujeres condenadas lo fueron por un vídeo que se hizo viral el pasado 8 de marzo, en el que, quitándose el velo, repartían flores y decían a las mujeres que ojalá pudieran caminar juntas en Irán, unas con velo, otras sin él, pero fruto de una decisión libre y propia. Este fue su delito, un delito considerado como atentado contra la seguridad nacional, por el que han sido condenadas a más de veintitrés años de cárcel, en un juicio sin garantías, sin tener acceso a la elección de abogado.

Las autoridades iraníes han abierto una verdadera campaña de acoso y persecución contra las mujeres activistas, contra las abogadas que defienden sus derechos, contra las periodistas que difunden sus actos. Y ellas han dicho que van a seguir hacia adelante, que sienten que ya llevan demasiado tiempo viviendo en una cárcel: lo que es su país para ellas. Que van a defender su derecho, su libertad y el futuro de sus hijas.

Por eso, hoy es importante que este Parlamento lance un mensaje muy claro. Por una parte, a la Comisión, para decirle que, en el diálogo político con Irán, la Unión Europea debe tener una prioridad política, que es la defensa de los derechos humanos, de las mujeres y de las niñas iraníes. Pero también un mensaje muy claro a las mujeres iraníes, para decirles que no están solas, que el Parlamento Europeo está con ellas y que vamos a estar con todas las que están hoy resistiendo, en las cárceles y en las calles.

 
  
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  Željana Zovko, author. – Mr President, the Iranian authorities continue to criminalise human rights activism. Journalists, lawyers and activists are constantly facing harassment, arrests and prosecution for their peaceful work.

With this resolution, the European Parliament is calling upon Iran to suppress all these sentences and immediately and unconditionally release all human rights defenders and all EU-Iran dual nationals who are arbitrarily detained.

Three Iranian women appeared in a video while protesting against the compulsory wearing of veils. The protest was peaceful and advocated for women’s right to choose whether to wear the hijab or not. These three women have been convicted and sentenced to between 16 and 23 years’ imprisonment. The authorities reasoned that they were acting against national security and promoting moral corruption and prostitution. This case is a clear example of an extremely disproportionate punishment. Moreover, these women were arrested although they were solely exercising their right of freedom of expression – one of the core rights of every human being.

In another case, an Iranian woman set herself on fire in protest at her arrest because she wanted to watch a football match in a stadium. Besides this violation of women’s rights, the joint resolution also reacts to Iranian measures taken against several EU-Iran dual nationals. These persons have been arrested on the basis of vague or unspecified charges and sentenced without a fair trial. It is clear that Iran is severely violating human rights, and we – as a democratic body that represents those imprisoned European citizens – have a moral duty to support them and to react in a resolute manner.

This House is constituted to protect all European citizens wherever they are. Iran is one of the founding states of the United Nations, and has ratified multiple legally binding treaties under international law, focusing on respect for human rights. However, reality shows that they don’t respect these obligations. With this resolution, we urge the Iranian authorities to halt their repressive actions and to implement the internationally agreed standards.

Colleagues, please show your support for these arbitrarily imprisoned women and European Union citizens, and send a strong message to the authorities in Iran.

 
  
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  Cornelia Ernst, Verfasserin. – Herr Präsident, meine Damen und Herren! Ich dürfte eine der wenigen Abgeordneten hier sein, die die Menschenrechtsaktivisten und Anwältin Nasrin Sotudeh in Teheran kennenlernen durfte – 2013 nach ihrer Entlassung. Drei Jahre später wurde sie wieder verurteilt und 2018 wieder verhaftet. Im März 2019 erhielt sie nun das Urteil: 33 Jahre Haft dafür, dass sie Frauen, die den Kopftuchzwang ablehnen und dagegen protestiert haben, unterstützt hat.

Angesichts solcher Schandurteile dürfen wir nicht schweigen! Egal, was sonst im Iran passiert: Wir dürfen nicht schweigen! Internationale Solidarität braucht jede einzelne dieser verhafteten Frauen – auch die, deren Namen wir nicht kennen.

An die Adresse der iranischen Regierung will ich eigentlich nur eines sagen: Man kann den zivilisatorischen Fortschritt auf Dauer nicht beiseiteschieben, man kann ihn nicht aufhalten. Man kann ihn verzögern, man kann dessen Repräsentantinnen einsperren, man kann sie mundtot machen – das kann man alles tun, aber die Idee von Freiheit und Gleichheit, die kann man nicht ausrotten – weder per Gesetz noch mit Gewalt.

Das ist so, weil uns das als Menschen ausmacht, unsere universellen Rechte begründet. Ob in meiner Heimatstadt Dresden, ob in Hongkong oder Teheran – die Zukunft des Irans sind die Frauen, niemand sonst, und daran wird auch ein Revolutionsführer nichts ändern.

 
  
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  Radosław Sikorski, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Mr President, the Islamic Republic of Iran is clearly a mass violator of human rights, and women are particularly targeted. Crimes punished there that are not crimes in our world. Traditionally Shia societies prided themselves on being more liberal than some other creeds, but today Iran is a country which executes one of the greatest numbers of its citizens, while its justice system doesn’t meet any criteria that we would recognise.

Medieval mullahs pass harsh sentences on people who, according to our standards, have not committed crimes at all. I think I am right in saying that Iran has the death penalty for homosexuality, for example. So I would like to associate myself fully with all the voices that have been heard here in defence of the victims of Iran’s unfair justice system, and particularly the women who have been targeted by it.

But Iran is also a geopolitical challenge today. We have just had attacks on Saudi oil facilities, and I don’t think those drones and those missiles were built by some rebels in the mountains. That equipment came from somewhere, and Saudi Arabia has made a case for it being supplied by the Islamic Republic of Iran. A few weeks ago, we had an attack on tankers anchored in the mouth of the Strait of Hormuz.

It looks to me like the theocratic regime is trying to provoke the United States into an armed attack, and I just hope that neither the United States nor we allow ourselves to be provoked, because we have been provoked before and I don’t like the consequences.

 
  
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  Tonino Picula, u ime kluba S&D. – Poštovani predsjedavajući, neprihvatljivo je da ženama prijeti zatvor zbog pokušaja gledanja utakmice na stadionu, dugogodišnja kazna zatvora zbog mirnog protesta radi nametnutog stila oblačenja darivanjem cvijeća na Dan žena. Zatvorske kazne se uz to dodatno kažnjavaju bičevanjem.

Posebno zabrinjavajuća su učestala uhićenja i optužbe protiv žena, često državljanke Europske unije, koje se bore za pravo izbora i načina života koji žele. Čak i kad se suočavaju s ovako neprimjerenim optužbama i kaznama, svi zatvorenici moraju imati pravo na odvjetnika i zdravstvenu skrb u zatvorima. Temeljna ljudska prava ne smiju biti otuđena pod izlikom drugačijih tradicionalnih i kulturnih običaja. Ona moraju biti neotuđiva, bez obzira gdje se zahtijevaju. Iran treba konačno uskladiti svoje zakonodavstvo s konvencijama o ljudskim pravima čiji je potpisnik, a Europska unija mora ovaj problem aktivno držati na agendi cjelokupnih bilateralnih i multilateralnih odnosa s Iranom.

 
  
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  Luisa Porritt, on behalf of the Renew Group. – Mr President, my constituent, Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe, a dual EU—Iranian national, has been unlawfully imprisoned for more than 1 200 days. Having initially been refused access to a trial for months, she then faced one by a kangaroo court that was neither free nor fair. In prison Nazanin has often been deprived of proper medical assistance. She is no longer allowed international phone calls and can only see her five-year-old daughter, Gabriella, once a month. This treatment is tantamount to state hostage-taking. Nazanin has previously gone on hunger strikes and has warned she may do so again if she continues to be deprived of her fundamental human rights.

Her husband, Richard, has recently pointed out that the dominance of Brexit means her case has fallen off the UK Government’s agenda. As Foreign Secretary, Boris Johnson also contributed to making her situation worse and has failed to meet with Richard since becoming Prime Minister.

In circumstances such as these, the EU must make its voice heard. Nazanin is not alone. Other EU dual nationals suffer from violations of their human rights in Iranian prisons and are denied free and fair trials. Colleagues, it is our duty to stand up for their protection at home and abroad. Please support this urgency.

 
  
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  Ernest Urtasun, en nombre del Grupo Verts/ALE. – Señor presidente, la situación de las mujeres en Irán es cada vez más preocupante y este Parlamento no puede dejar de denunciarlo. Uno de los últimos casos alarmantes es la trágica muerte de la joven de veintinueve años, Sahar Jodayarí, que decidió prenderse fuego ante una posible condena de seis meses de cárcel por haber intentado acceder a un partido de fútbol disfrazada de hombre.

Irán es el único país del mundo que prohíbe la entrada de mujeres en los estadios, pero, desde luego, esta no es —ni mucho menos— la única discriminación. Desde enero del año pasado, al menos treinta y dos personas han sido detenidas, y diez, encarceladas, por protestar contra el uso del velo obligatorio, lo que supone una violación manifiesta de su derecho a manifestarse como ejercicio de la libertad de expresión.

Por ello, exigimos la liberación de todas las personas detenidas y encarceladas arbitrariamente por ejercer sus derechos fundamentales. Además, las mujeres iraníes siguen fuertemente discriminadas en cuestiones de estatus personal relacionadas con el matrimonio, el divorcio, la herencia y la cuestión de los hijos, y están marginadas en el ámbito económico. La discriminación en los sectores público y privado debe llegar a su fin. Esperamos que nuestro llamamiento de hoy, desde aquí, sirva para que la Unión Europea y sus Estados miembros prioricen la protección de las defensoras de los derechos humanos en Irán.

Todos queremos que el acuerdo nuclear con Irán funcione y tenga viabilidad, y creo que estamos haciendo muchos esfuerzos desde la Unión Europea para que eso sea así. Los tambores de guerra deben quedar lejos y debemos poner todos nuestra energía para que eso funcione, pero eso debe ir estrechamente vinculado a la defensa de los derechos humanos en el país.

No podemos apartar eso porque ahora necesitamos que el plan nuclear salga adelante. Las dos cosas deben ir de la mano, y es por ello que pedimos, en una idea también de que el feminismo impregne el conjunto de la política exterior de la Unión Europea, que los derechos de las mujeres en Irán sean priorizados en todas nuestras relaciones con el país.

 
  
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  Silvia Sardone, a nome del gruppo ID. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, forse non tutti sanno che le donne in Iran, fino agli anni '70, erano come noi, si vestivano come noi e potevano accedere all'educazione esattamente come noi. Poi a un certo punto, nel 1979, è arrivato il regime, si è creata la Repubblica islamica e, in nome della religione, i diritti delle donne sono stati totalmente calpestati, portandole nel Medioevo. Considerate che le nazionali femminili di basket, calcio o pallavolo oramai giocano con il velo. Poi qualcuno vi verrà a raccontare che il velo è una scelta, ma non è così! Il velo è oppressione, è sottomissione, le donne non vogliono mettersi il velo, non vogliono coprirsi.

Noi siamo fermamente dalla parte degli attivisti che, quotidianamente, lavorano per difendere i diritti e gridano quello che sta succedendo, cercano in qualche modo di combattere la sottomissione della donna in quei paesi. L'Europa, devo dire, troppo spesso per buonismo, o anche un po' per paura, è stata zitta, non è intervenuta in tutti quei paesi islamici che sottomettono costantemente i diritti della donna.

Penso che noi non possiamo girare la testa, dobbiamo combattere per le donne e non possiamo assolutamente stare in silenzio.

 
  
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  Witold Jan Waszczykowski, on behalf of the ECR Group. – Mr President, as a former Polish ambassador to Iran, I have to say that I’m not very happy that we have to discuss today this misbehaviour by the Iranian authorities. I would prefer to discuss the contribution of Iranian culture to our civilisation.

In a time of growing tension in the Persian Gulf, we expect Iran to play a more constructive role in this region. Especially, we expect that Iran will respect the human rights of Iranian citizens and those living in or visiting the country. We also expect Iran to stop its policy of arbitrary detentions and immediately and unconditionally to release all the EU dual nationals and human rights defenders, especially women’s rights promoters.

Finally, we hope that Iran will refrain from offensive policies in the region. If Iran truly wishes to keep friendly relations with the European Union, it needs to change its policy urgently and to stick to international norms and standards.

 
  
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  Mick Wallace, on behalf of the GUE/NGL Group. – Mr President, while we know that women play a prominent role in Iran in a way that would put Saudi Arabia to shame, we also know that Iran has no defence on many of these issues relating to women’s rights, and things must change.

But to erase all mention of the illegal US sanctions against Iran is to ignore the world that these women and children must live in. We all know that economic sanctions hit the poor. It’s a slow form of torture to hit the weak – children and women – the most. To claim to champion the human rights of a people, while refusing even to acknowledge, let alone criticise, a brutal economic sanctions regime against the same people speaks volumes about the political nature of that concern for human rights.

Iran is under siege from many international players at the moment and we need to work with them to help them out of the impasse. It’s in our interest too. The motion, as it stands, is just another political weapon against Iran and, unless our amendments are accepted, my Group will be opposing this motion.

 
  
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  Belinda De Lucy (NI). – Mr President, I’d like to first say I stand with those courageous women peacefully protesting for their rights in Iran. But as Iran grows bolder in its provocations, it appears the EU’s deal with Iran is failing in its objectives. Even its most important signatory, the United States, has pulled out. British citizens are the subject of kidnapping, solitary confinement and barbarity. Our citizens have become pawns in this geopolitical game and yet the EU remains the biggest global champion of the Iran nuclear deal with cynical commercial undertones. Iran benefits from EU investment while it continues to prop up terrorist groups in the region.

And while the EU rightly speaks about the human rights atrocities, what does speaking do?

It is sanctions, not words, that are needed or Iran will be emboldened further. But the names of just some of those languishing in Iranian prison cells need to be spoken. Our citizens who live in fear and isolation right now, real people like Jolie King and Mark Firkin, Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe, Kylie Moore-Gilbert, Anoosheh Ashoori and Morad Tahbaz. It’s time to act now.

 
  
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  Rosa Estaràs Ferragut (PPE). – Señor presidente, una vez más, Irán ocupa y es protagonista de un debate siempre bajo el mismo común denominador: la conculcación de los derechos humanos. Periodistas, defensores de los derechos humanos, minorías, discapacitados, mujeres, activistas, personas con doble nacionalidad, todos ellos sufren acoso, juicios injustos, torturas, arrestos arbitrarios, y ello simplemente por realizar su trabajo y por defender los derechos humanos. No pueden realizarlo sin amenazas y sin vejaciones ni intimidación.

Son muchos los casos —aquí se han mencionado— de esas torturas y de gente que ha sufrido. Me gustaría centrarme en el caso de la Chica Azul, en Sahar Jodayarí; esa chica de azul, de veintinueve años, cuyo delito fue ser mujer. Apasionada del fútbol, vestida de azul, el color de su equipo, el Esteghlal, se disfrazó de hombre para acudir al estadio a ver a su equipo preferido.

Pero los gobernantes de su país prohíben y no permiten a las mujeres acudir a los estadios —el único país del mundo—. Se inmoló ante el tribunal de Teherán, al entender que sería encarcelada. Su único delito —como dije— es ser mujer en un país donde los hombres determinan la vida de las mujeres y las privan de sus derechos humanos básicos.

Desgarradora es la trágica muerte, como desgarrador es el terrible desprecio de las autoridades iraníes hacia los derechos de las mujeres. Desde el inicio de la revolución, más de 120 000 personas han sido ejecutadas. Periodistas Sin Fronteras dice que Irán es la mayor cárcel del mundo de mujeres periodistas.

Necesitamos una respuesta nada silenciosa ante tanta opresión y, por eso, la comisaria Thyssen, que tiene una especial sensibilidad, nos ayudará a gritar un grito de paz, un grito de ayuda. La muerte de Sahar no puede ser, en ningún caso, en vano.

Las mujeres iraníes son valientes, son muchas y están decididas a luchar por conquistar sus derechos. No podemos dejarlas solas. Ellas son, de verdad, la verdadera revolución islámica. Y Europa tiene que hacer gala de su galardón por la paz y estar a su lado.

 
  
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  Maria Arena (S&D). – Monsieur le Président, les discriminations à l'égard des femmes en Iran sont une réalité quotidienne.

Quand une femme, et je pense particulièrement à Sahar Khodayari, préfère s'immoler plutôt que d'être jugée par un tribunal révolutionnaire pour avoir osé mettre les pieds dans un stade de foot, nous comprenons à quel point les femmes sont privées des bases essentielles de leurs droits fondamentaux.

Une société qui ne garantit pas les droits à la moitié de sa population ne peut grandir, ne peut prétendre au développement.

Malheureusement, l'Iran n'est pas unique et on pourrait citer ici tous les États en infraction en matière de droits des femmes. La liste serait bien longue et j'aurais besoin de plus d'une minute pour pouvoir les citer. Mais l'Iran est un partenaire de l'Union. L'Union a défendu, a été l'initiatrice de l'accord sur le nucléaire avec l'Iran. Il peut sembler incongru à certains de parler du droit des femmes quand on parle d'un accord nucléaire. Pourtant l'Union doit saisir tous les instruments dont elle dispose pour lutter contre la plus grande des injustices au monde qui est de priver la moitié de l'humanité de ses droits les plus élémentaires, à savoir le droit des femmes.

 
  
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  Phil Bennion (Renew). – Mr President, the state of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran has often been criticised. Freedom of speech and expression is severely restricted, and it is no secret that the Iranian authorities have been engaging in a severe clampdown on journalists and advocates of human rights.

This imprisonment and the level of unfair trials we see are particularly predominant amongst the ethnic minority groups in Iran, including the Ahvaz Arabs, the Kurds and the Baloch populations, and these groups form a substantial part of the population.

Now Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe is a dual EU-Iranian national. She is a British citizen. She has been unlawfully imprisoned in Iran, having been refused a trial or access to any legal assistance for months. She was then found guilty of espionage after a very, very short and unfair trial. I met her husband, Richard Ratcliffe, recently when we shared a platform in Geneva. He struck me as a good man of deep integrity, who is courageously leading a campaign to try to free his wife.

In the more geopolitical sense, in 2018 the US withdrew its support for the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and imposed sanctions, whereas the European Union has maintained its support for the agreement. Has not this been a clear sign to Iran that the EU can be a potential friend?

I urge Iran to immediately release all those named in this resolution. I also want to urge Iran to rethink its policies and approach to human rights, and particularly freedom of speech and expression. In this way, we can create the foundation for a normalisation of relations between Iran and the EU.

 
  
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  Jérôme Rivière (ID). – Monsieur le Président, oui, il faut condamner et dénoncer tous ces pays qui oppriment les femmes: l'Iran, bien sûr, comme évoqué dans cette résolution, mais aussi l'Arabie saoudite et le Pakistan. Comment ne pas se souvenir des persécutions subies par Asia Bibi?

La réalité, c'est que tous les pays qui ont inscrit la charia comme un texte juridique fondamental oppriment les femmes. C'est l'usage de ce texte qui doit être fermement condamné. Mme von der Leyen a choisi de nommer un commissaire à la protection de notre mode de vie européen. L'une des premières protections sera de dénoncer ce texte, la charia, pour qu'aucune communauté n'en revendique l'usage en Europe.

Nous voterons ce texte. Il vaut mieux une petite avancée, un petit pas, plutôt qu'aucun texte. Mais faute de nommer le véritable problème, nous restons des facilitateurs de l'oppression des femmes dans de trop nombreux pays.

 
  
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  Assita Kanko (ECR). – Mr President, she liked soccer, maybe she was in love with someone, and enjoyed specific scents or food. Her name is Sahar Khodayari. She was also known as the Blue Girl, the colour of her favourite soccer team. Facing a jail sentence for trying to watch a soccer game, which is forbidden for women in her country – as another Flemish Iranian, Darya Safai, has been telling the world – the 29—year—old Iranian set herself on fire two weeks ago in front of the Islamic Revolutionary Court of Tehran.

In Iran, human rights defenders, or people like her who just want to enjoy freedom, face harassment, prosecution and detention. Protecting women’s rights is not a crime. Since January 2018, 32 people have been arrested in Iran, and at least 10 imprisoned, for protesting against the mandatory wearing of the hijab. The compulsory dress code is a violation of human rights and women’s dignity. In the past three years, 30 EU dual nationals have been unjustly arrested – like, for example, Professor Ahmad Reza Jalali who was also a visiting professor at the Free University Brussels (VUB).

After all the resolutions, Council conclusions and so on, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy stressed, earlier this year, that dialogue is the only way, but it’s not enough. It was not for Khodayari: she is dead because she liked soccer and was 29. It was not for Jalali: he’s in jail and sick. Many others are threatened.

 
  
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  Eugenia Rodríguez Palop (GUE/NGL). – Señor presidente; «Os haré sufrir a todas»: estas fueron las palabras del juez que condenó a tres mujeres iraníes por protestar pacíficamente contra el uso obligatorio del velo islámico. Condenadas a largas penas de cárcel en un juicio sin garantías y previamente golpeadas y torturadas.

Desde enero de 2018 decenas de mujeres han sido arrestadas en Irán por protestar contra el uso obligatorio del velo, y más de cincuenta personas detenidas en su lucha por los derechos de las mujeres. El hiyab obligatorio es un puro apartheid de género, una imposición discriminatoria que marca la vida de miles de niñas y mujeres.

Pero no hay cultura, identidad nacional o creencia religiosa que pueda utilizarse para violar nuestra dignidad y nuestros derechos. Ni para vestirnos ni para desvestirnos.

Queremos que se inste a las autoridades iraníes a anular las condenas y liberar a las defensoras detenidas arbitrariamente; a garantizar su acceso a la justicia y a proteger su derecho a la libertad de expresión, manifestación y no discriminación.

Nosotras no pensamos que las mujeres que se cubren son sumisas y las que no lo hacen están empoderadas. Lo que queremos es que se dejen de usar nuestros cuerpos como símbolos religiosos y banderas patrias en cualquier rincón del mundo.

 
  
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  Matthew Patten (NI). – Mr President, every day Nazanin Zaghari—Ratcliffe, Aras Amiri and other UK citizens languish in Iranian jails is a tragedy for them and their families. The EU and our Parliament is complicit in this tragedy: our hands are stained. The EU promised Iran that it would get round American sanctions. Fourteen months on, the Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges (INSTEX) is still an empty promise.

EU sanctions led to UK Marines in Gibraltar impounding an Iranian oil tanker, only for the EU to demand it be freed to carry on its sanction—busting voyage to Syria. When the UK asked the EU for support to protect shipping in the Straits of Hormuz it refused. The EU’s desperation to have the foreign policy trappings of a national state is like watching Pinocchio wanting to be a real boy. It’s too easily led, it’s full of deceit and it has no conscience. Can you imagine the disaster if it had its own army?

And what about this Parliament. I’m a member of the Parliament’s Delegation for relations with Iran. I wrote to Parliament in July asking for the Iranian delegation to meet urgently. I had no response. I tried again: zero response. Seventy days have passed in this session and still the Parliament’s Delegation for relations with Iran has not met: 70 days rotting in jail for Nazanin, Aras and many more. It’s a tragedy. Our hands are stained.

 
  
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  Jackie Jones (S&D). – Mr President, women’s lives are under threat in many different countries, we know this, but in Iran we’ve had the Iranian Revolutionary Courts in recent months substantially ratchet up their punishments for even modest peaceful acts of protest by women, human rights defenders in particular. For what? For being a woman, for not wearing a hijab, or headscarf, watching a football match – or trying to – at a stadium, handing-out flowers on International Women’s Day.

The women, many of them with dual nationalities that are EU, are being targeted with dire consequences. For example women journalists on BBC Persia are subjected to sexualised slander, women human rights defenders are denied access to legal representation. They are arrested at peaceful Labour Day marches. There is a long list in this resolution of names, including Nazanin, as has been mentioned many times here already, of extreme punishments, of years and years in prisons, lack of medical care and lack of access to legal representatives.

Now these human rights offences are of the highest order, and we must call it out and we must do something about it. Iran must cease and desist and we must make sure that women have their full rights enforced wherever occurrences of human rights offences take place.

 
  
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  Christophe Grudler (Renew). – Monsieur le Président, Mesdames, Messieurs, chers collègues, je veux saluer le courage de tous les défenseurs des droits des femmes en Iran, qui dénoncent pacifiquement la répression continue qu’elles subissent en raison de l’exercice de leur droit à la liberté d’expression et de leur opposition au voile obligatoire.

En 2018, en Iran, une centaine de femmes ont été arrêtées pour de telles actions. Elles sont toujours en détention. Au moins cinq d’entre elles ont une double nationalité, Union européenne-Iran. Considérées comme des ennemies de l’État, elles sont privées d’accès à la justice. Nous demandons à la justice iranienne leur libération immédiate et inconditionnelle.

Enfin, nous demandons à nos États membres présents à Téhéran de tout mettre en œuvre pour obtenir la liste complète des personnes emprisonnées ayant une double nationalité Union européenne-Iran, de les soutenir et de les protéger, notamment par des visites en prison, des déclarations publiques et des démarches diplomatiques pour obtenir leur libération rapide.

 
  
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  Isabella Tovaglieri (ID). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, in Iran le discriminazioni, le intimidazioni e le repressioni contro le donne si sono inasprite da quando le donne iraniane hanno deciso di diffondere in tutto il mondo, attraverso il web, gli abusi della cosiddetta "polizia morale", gli arresti, le sopraffazioni e le percosse di cui sono vittima ogni giorno.

L'Europa, che si fonda su valori di libertà e di responsabilità, non può accettare queste violazioni dei diritti umani, praticate da un sistema politico arcaico e ipocrita che utilizza la religione islamica per imporre il proprio potere.

Questo fanatismo sta diffondendo anche nelle città europee la sottocultura del sopruso sulle donne, con la complicità di una miope politica di sinistra che si batte per il diritto al velo in Europa come se fosse un privilegio anziché un'imposizione.

Non possiamo rassegnarci all'alibi della diversità culturale. Salvaguardare i nostri valori di civiltà è un atto che si impone.

La solidarietà dell'Europa alle donne iraniane deve estendersi quindi a tutte le donne di religione islamica presenti in Occidente, perché la loro libertà è la libertà e la sicurezza del nostro domani.

 
  
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  Ryszard Czarnecki (ECR). – Panie Przewodniczący! Naród irański ma długą, wspaniałą historię. To naród starożytny i tym bardziej powinniśmy wymagać od niego respektu dla kobiet. Czy to nie paradoks - mówię to jako historyk - że przed czterdziestoma, pięćdziesięcioma laty, za czasów szacha Rezy Pahlawiego, kobiety w Iranie miały więcej praw niż obecnie. Tutaj nastąpił regres, to smutne. Oczywiście mówiąc o prawach kobiet w Iranie, powinniśmy szczególnie wsłuchiwać się w głos kobiet, które w Iranie były, z Iranu wyjechały i świadczą pewną prawdę o tym, co się tam dzieje. Także w Parlamencie Europejskim mieliśmy szereg konferencji z udziałem właśnie takich kobiet, między innymi pani Radżawi. Pamiętajmy też o tych, którzy są Irańczykami dla Iranu, a obywatelami naszych krajów dla państw członkowskich Unii - o tych, którzy mają podwójne obywatelstwo. O wszystkich nich musimy pamiętać i musimy dbać o ich prawa.

 
  
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  Evelyn Regner (S&D). – Herr Präsident! 70 % der iranischen Frauen sind gegen die strengen Bekleidungsvorschriften im Land. Das geht aus einer Studie des staatlichen Parlamentarischen Forschungszentrums des Irans selbst hervor. Immer mehr Frauen protestieren gegen Gesetze der Zwangsverschleierung und verteidigen das Recht jeder Frau zu entscheiden, was sie tragen will, ohne Angst vor Belästigung, Gewalt oder gar Inhaftierung. Seit Jänner 2018 sind Dutzende FrauenrechtlerInnen, darunter auch Männer, festgenommen und als Kriminelle behandelt worden.

Friedlicher Protest ist ein Menschenrecht und gehört in jeder Gesellschaft dazu. Vier mutige Frauen – Saba Kord-Afshari, Mojgan Keshavarz, Yasaman Aryani und Monireh Arabshahi – haben friedlich gegen das diskriminierende Verschleierungsgesetz des Irans protestiert und sind zu skandalösen 16 bis 24 Jahren an Gefängnisstrafe verurteilt worden. Das ist nicht hinnehmbar, das ist nicht akzeptabel. Wir fordern die unverzügliche Freilassung dieser Frauenrechtlerinnen.

 
  
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  Karin Karlsbro (Renew). – Herr talman! Under de senaste månaderna har de iranska myndigheterna tagit ytterligare steg för att förvärra förtrycket mot kvinnor i Iran. I april i år greps till exempel kvinnorättsaktivisterna Mojgan Keshavarz, Monireh Arabshahi och Yasaman Ariyani efter att de har lagt ut en video på sig själva där de utan slöja delar ut blommor till resenärerna i tunnelbanan i Iran. För denna så kallade förseelse – att dela ut blommor i kläder de själva hade valt – dömdes de till mellan 16 och 24 års fängelse.

Europaparlamentet måste enat fördöma den kvinnofientliga regimen i Iran. EU ska alltid vara en kristallklar röst för flickors och kvinnors mänskliga fri- och rättigheter. Det är 2019 nu! Alla måste ha makt över sina egna liv och sin egen kropp!

 
  
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  Charlie Weimers (ECR). – Herr talman! Tänk att din syster bränner sig till döds i protest mot en regim som kvävt all hennes livsglädje. Tänk att din dotter döms till 20 års fängelse bara för sin vägran att bära slöja. Du skulle uppskatta omvärldens stöd. Istället bär världens första feministiska regering slöja på besök i Iran. På svensk mark accepteras den iranske utrikesministerns vägran att ta sin kvinnliga motpart i hand. När vi konservativa påtalar att i Sverige har vi tagit kvinnor i hand sedan urminnes tider avfärdas vi med okunniga påståenden om att iranier inte tar kvinnor i hand, vilket är rent nonsens.

Kvinnor som förtrycks i islams namn förtjänar omvärldens helhjärtade stöd. Därför måste vi stå upp för västerländska värderingar i mötet med den barbariska regimen i Teheran och vi måste sluta bära symbolen för kvinnoförtryck bara för att vara mullorna till lags!

 
  
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  Dietmar Köster (S&D). – Herr Präsident, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Frauen werden im Iran in nahezu allen gesellschaftlichen Bereichen massiv diskriminiert. Das gilt unter anderem in Hinsicht auf das Rechtssystem im Iran – also die Scharia, die auch die Todesstrafe vorsieht. Das klerikal-diktatorische Regime basiert auf männlicher Herrschaft islamistischer Fundamentalisten und ihrem Frauenhass. Das schließt die Gleichstellung der Geschlechter und die Rechte von Minderheiten und Andersdenkender gezielt aus.

Die Fälle der iranischen Aktivistinnen verdeutlichen die Abscheulichkeit eines solchen Systems. Jahrzehntelange Haft und Dutzende von Peitschenhieben für Frauen, die sich für Menschenrechte starkmachen, das ist inakzeptabel!

All dies zeigt: Solange diese klerikale Diktatur vorherrscht, in der Frauen gewaltsam unterdrückt werden, sind die Bedingungen für eine friedliche Koexistenz der Staaten im Nahen und Mittleren Osten nicht gegeben.

 
  
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  Petras Auštrevičius (Renew). – Mr President, allow me to start by expressing my deepest respect for, and solidarity with, all Iranian human rights defenders. I’m especially touched by the bravery of Iranian women, who choose such a peaceful way to claim their rights, giving flowers to other women in underground trains and discussing their rights. To some extent it reminds me of our peaceful resistance to the Soviet occupation, especially with the Baltic Way – only we achieved freedom, while Iranian colleagues have been sentenced to prison, with sentences of unimaginable length.

The impact of continuing human rights violations and the suppression and intimidation of opposition and journalists has long overreached the borders of Iran. It causes regional instability and threatens global security and the economy.

I call on the Iranian Government to respect human rights and fundamental freedoms, in accordance with international human rights standards and international instruments ratified by that country. I also urge the Council to review the European position on Iran by considering additional sanctions.

 
  
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  Jadwiga Wiśniewska (ECR). – Panie Przewodniczący! Sytuacja kobiet w Iranie jest niezwykle trudna. Muszą walczyć o prawa podstawowe. Kamienowanie jest jedną z metod egzekucji przewidzianych przez islamskie prawo karne. Gdy zostaną zgwałcone, są karane na równi z gwałcicielem. Pozbawione praw wyborczych i prawnie zmuszane do noszenia hidżabu, kobiety irańskie potrzebują wsparcia. Irańscy obrońcy praw kobiet, w tym obywatele Unii, za działania, które nie mają nawet znamion przestępstwa, skazywani są na długoletnie kary więzienia. Pretekstem do takich kar jest na przykład kontakt z przedstawicielami Unii Europejskiej, ONZ czy kontakt z mediami.

Rząd irański dąży do zacieśnienia stosunków z Unią Europejską, więc powinien zostać wezwany do przestrzegania praw człowieka, zaprzestania kryminalizacji obrony praw kobiet, a także szanowania praw obywateli Unii Europejskiej.

 
  
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  Josianne Cutajar (S&D). – Il-mara hija umana u għax umana għandha drittijiet inaljenabbli. Ma jistgħux jittiħdulha, hi fejn hi, u li ladarba aħna nemmnu fis-saltna tad-dritt dawk id-drittijiet fundamentali nipproteġuhom kullimkien inkluż lil hinn mill-fruntieri Ewropej.

Filwaqt li nifhmu u nipproteġu d-differenzi soċjokulturali u reliġjużi, ma nifhmu qatt li dawn jintużaw bħala deterrent għat-tgawdija ħielsa tad-drittijiet tan-nisa Iranjani. Ma nifhmu qatt l-attakk iffukat fuq l-attivisti u l-professjonisti li ta' kuljum jitħabtu għal soċjetà ħielsa. Il-kburija tiegħi li pajjiżi, Malta, implimenta bis-sħiħ il-Konvenzjoni ta' Istanbul kontra l-vjolenza fuq in-nisa.

Ittini din iktar determinazzjoni biex ningħaqad ma' sħabi għas-sejħa sabiex l-awtoritajiet Iranjani jagħmlu r-riformi legali neċessarji sabiex jikkriminalizzaw il-vjolenza abbażi tal-ġeneru u d-diskriminazzjoni kontra n-nisa.

 
  
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  Samira Rafaela (Renew). – Mr President, three Iranian women’s rights activists disappeared and were sentenced to 16 and 22 years in prison. And their crime you ask? Taking the liberty to decide for themselves what to wear. In reality, this is about a regime of men scared of women claiming their rights and demanding equality. This latest incident is not an isolated one. The Iranian regime has a long history of human rights abuses. There have been thousands of sham court cases, many of which even led to the death penalty.

Madam Commissioner, I urge you and the High Representative to do everything in your power to have these courageous women’s rights defenders released immediately. No government should arrest and imprison women for what they wear, not in Iran and not in Europe. We don’t need men in power to tell us what to wear.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye procedure

 
  
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  Juan Fernando López Aguilar (S&D). – Señor presidente, ¿cuál es el sentido de este debate habitual en el Parlamento Europeo, la mañana de los jueves, en el Pleno, acerca de violaciones flagrantes de los derechos fundamentales? Expresar las prioridades y los valores de la ciudadanía a la que representamos y determinar la política exterior de la Comisión y de la Unión Europea en su conjunto, con una Resolución que, en este caso ‑y es raro‑, tiene la unanimidad en la expresión de la condena que merece la violación sistemática y flagrante de los derechos de las mujeres y su discriminación en Irán.

Se han comentado casos pavorosos de manera elocuente: una mujer que se suicida dramáticamente después de haber asistido a un estadio de fútbol disfrazada de hombre, porque sabe que va a ser condenada; mujeres que padecen penas inhumanas y castigos degradantes de manera sistemática. La Unión Europea ha hecho un esfuerzo por mantener el acuerdo nuclear iraní, ha ejercido su diplomacia, haciendo valer sus prioridades. Eso no disminuye, sino al contrario, refuerza la autoridad moral para exigir en la política exterior hacia Irán la cesación de la violación y persecución sistemática de los derechos de las mujeres.

 
  
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  Clare Daly (GUE/NGL). – Mr President, I too stand shoulder to shoulder with women struggling for human rights and equality in Iran. I fully support calling for the release of those women in prison for their political and protest activity to advance women’s rights in Iran, and indeed their right to wear whatever they like. And I absolutely condemn the death penalty, including on those under age. But I have to say that I do find the motion imbalanced at a time when tone is important, at a time when Iran is under siege from many international players.

We had somebody come in here today and tell us that Iran is trying to provoke a war with the USA – when it’s the USA which has torn up the nuclear deal, when it is the USA that is crippling the economy of Iran and causing immense harm to women and children. So, in that sense, we all know Iran has to change – they’re not the only ones – but of course they know this and I welcome the fact that there is now an equal number of women as clerics in the Iranian Parliament. I’m looking forward to a time when there are more, but this motion won’t help unless we include the amendments on the sanctions.

 
  
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  Seán Kelly (PPE). – Mr President, I just wanted to concur with what has been said by many speakers. The situation of women in Iran is unacceptable, and particularly from the point of view of the European Union, when I was a member of the Iranian delegation in the last mandate, we worked very hard to keep the nuclear accord in place, and the European Union stuck its neck out in that regard, but that must be reciprocated.

As has been said, by particularly allowing women the freedom they deserve, and as one MEP said, men in Iran should not be telling women what to wear. I also concur with my colleague, Clare Daly, on the obligations of the United States in relation to Iran, and the nuclear accord. It was they who pulled out of it, and that was done despite the fact that there was an agreement done with the previous president, President Obama, so that in itself is also a cause for condemnation.

 
  
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  Ben Habib (NI). – Mr President, I’m absolutely staggered by the debate I’ve heard this morning. The greatest ally the European Union Member States have had in history is the United States of America.

When the USA rightly imposed sanctions on Iran, the European Union actively went about trying to undermine those sanctions by setting up a subsidiary, a special purpose vehicle to step around the sanctions. Thankfully that failed. In June this year, the USA asked for support in the Straits of Hormuz, and EU Member States turned it down. You won’t forget that, in July, a British ship was taken by the Iranians, something which might not have happened had the EU supported American efforts.

And now we have all this virtue-signalling in this inept Chamber, and no action taken by the European Union to support the greatest ally this country has ever had. And, one more thing, the EU does not put enough money into NATO and yet it is putting money into a new European defence force. It’s completely wrong.

Get your priorities right. Get behind the United States of America.

 
  
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  Julie Ward (S&D). – Mr President, I’ve met Richard Ratcliffe, the husband of dual national, Nazanin Zaghari—Ratcliffe, who’s led the three—year campaign for her release from prison in Iran, even going on hunger strike earlier this year in solidarity with his wrongfully incarcerated wife.

Nazanin is alone in a country that refuses to recognise her dual citizenship, forces her into solitary confinement and holds the threat of a second trial and conviction over her head. The appalling conditions she endures are undeniably inhumane and must come to an end.

Nazanin is a prisoner alongside UK resident Aras Amiri, who was jailed last year while visiting family in Iran, whilst dual British—Iranian national, Kamil Ahmadi – a hugely respected academic and campaigner dedicated to ending FGM – was recently detained in Iran on unknown charges. Dual nationals, European citizens, must not be forgotten, but neither should they be put in further danger through careless words. And I refer here to the unfortunate and misleading statements made by Boris Johnson when he was Foreign Secretary. We deserve better than this.

 
  
 

(End of catch-the-eye procedure)

 
  
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  Marianne Thyssen, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, our commitment to support human rights defenders, including women’s rights defenders, is a fundamental part of our human rights policy. Unfortunately, in too many countries, including Iran, women continue to face threats and abuse because they are human rights defenders or simply because they are women. They receive defamatory comments and slander. They face hatred, harassment, intimidation and incitement to violence, often of a sexual nature, or they face imprisonment for standing up for their basic rights.

In this context, I would like to express how deeply saddened I am by the fate of Sahar Khodayari, who earlier this month set herself on fire after learning that she faced a prison sentence for trying to attend a football match, and who died in the hospital from her wounds. Her tragic death is the heart-breaking aftermath of an appalling contempt for women’s rights. No woman should fear imprisonment for attending a sporting event.

Every year, on 8 May, the international community marks International Women’s Day. For the European Union, this is a time to pay tribute to acts of courage and determination by ordinary women around the world who have played an extraordinary role in the history of their countries and communities. In the joint statement that the EU published on 8 May this year, we stated that we are committed to giving all women and girls equal access to health services, education and economic empowerment and opportunities to shape their own future. We will never stop fighting for true equality for all, inside and outside the European Union, to make sure that progress achieved is not undone.

Our commitment to support human rights defenders, including women’s rights defenders, also applies to our work in Iran. In the context of the regular, high-level political dialogue with Iran that aims to advance bilateral cooperation in a number of areas of mutual interest, the European Union has been consistently raising issues of human rights. We have regularly engaged with the authorities to demand that human rights defenders, including women, must not be subjected to harassment or detention.

We have been vocal in this demand, for instance in the case of the 2012 Sakharov Prize laureate Nasrin Sotoudeh, who was sentenced to long periods of imprisonment because of her advocacy for fundamental human rights.

And we continue to be vocal, including in international fora such as the United Nations Human Rights Council. The rights of women and girls are also likely to figure prominently during Iran’s upcoming Universal Periodic Review in November.

I am acutely aware that the focus of this debate also extends to the situation of EU dual nationals imprisoned in Iran. There again I would like to be clear: the practice of detaining and imprisoning individuals, such as the UK Iranian citizen Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe, solely on account of their nationality is contrary to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which Iran has ratified and is bound to uphold. Iran’s continued practice of detaining dual nationals clearly breaches the commitment that no one shall be subject to arbitrary arrest or detention.

As the European Union, we will continue to call for the release of all EU-Iranian dual nationals and all Iranian human rights defenders. We also call on Iran to ensure that no individual is detained arbitrarily, and that detainees are not subject to any form of mistreatment. Detainees should also have timely access to a lawyer of their own choosing, and to adequate medical care.

Honourable Members, thank you for this debate. I can tell you that we are encouraged by the attention paid to these issues by the Members of the European Parliament and we will continue our efforts to work together with you to support human rights defenders across the world.

(Applause)

 
  
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  President. – The debate is closed.

The vote will be held at the end of the debates.

(The sitting was suspended at 11.46)

 
  
  

VORSITZ: RAINER WIELAND
Vizepräsident

 
Dernière mise à jour: 11 novembre 2019Avis juridique