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Procedure : 2014/2211(INI)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected : A8-0309/2015

Texts tabled :

A8-0309/2015

Debates :

PV 24/11/2015 - 13
CRE 24/11/2015 - 13

Votes :

PV 16/12/2015 - 11.11
CRE 16/12/2015 - 11.11
Explanations of votes

Texts adopted :

P8_TA(2015)0460

Texts adopted
PDF 297kWORD 100k
Wednesday, 16 December 2015 - Strasbourg Final edition
Developing a sustainable European industry of base metals
P8_TA(2015)0460A8-0309/2015

European Parliament resolution of 16 December 2015 on developing a sustainable European industry of base metals (2014/2211(INI))

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, in particular Articles 147, 173, 174, 192 and 345 thereof,

–  having regard to Council Regulation (EC) No 1225/2009 of 30 November 2009 on protection against dumped imports from countries not members of the European Community(1),

–   having regard to Council Regulation (EC) No 597/2009 of 11 June 2009 on protection against subsidised imports from countries not members of the European Community(2),

–  having regard to Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency(3), amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC,

–   having regard to Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control)(4),

–  having regard to Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC(5),

–   having regard to Directive 2004/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage(6), in particular Article 1 thereof and the corresponding recitals,

–  having regard to the consolidated version of Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC(7), and the various implementing regulations relating thereto,

–  having regard to the Commission Communication of 25 February 2015 entitled ‘Energy Union Package’ (COM(2015)0080),

–  having regard to the Commission Communication of 10 October 2012 entitled ‘A stronger European industry for growth and economic recovery’ (COM(2012)0582),

–  having regard to the Commission Communication of 28 May 2014 entitled ‘European Energy Security Strategy (COM(2014)0330),

–  having regard to the Commission Communication of 11 June 2013 entitled ‘Action Plan for a competitive and sustainable steel industry in Europe’ (COM(2013)0407) and the findings of the high-level group attached thereto,

–  having regard to the Commission Communication of 8 March 2011 entitled ‘A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050’ (COM(2011)0112),

–  having regard to the Commission Communication of 26 January 2011, entitled ‘A resource-efficient Europe – Flagship initiative under the Europe 2020 strategy’ (COM(2011)0021),

–  having regard to its resolution of 15 January 2014 on reindustrialising Europe to promote competitiveness and sustainability(8),

–  having regard to its resolution of 15 March 2012 on a roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050(9),

–  having regard to its resolution of 17 December 2014 on the steel sector in the EU: protecting workers and industries(10),

–  having regard to the European Council Conclusions of 23 and 24 October 2014 regarding the 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework,

–  having regard to the report of 10 June 2013, commissioned by the Commission from the Centre for European Policy Studies, entitled Assessment of cumulative cost impact for the steel industry’,

–  having regard to the report of 31 October 2013, commissioned by the Commission from the Centre for European Policy Studies, entitled ‘Assessment of cumulative cost impact for the aluminium industry’,

–  having regard to the Commission staff working document ‘Exploiting the employment potential of green growth’ (SWD(2012)0092),

–  having regard to the WTO Agreement, also known as ‘GATT 94’, and in particular Article XX thereof,

–  having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (A8-0309/2015),

A.  whereas base metals consist of:

   common and special steels, stainless steels, high strength steels and super alloys,
   non-ferrous metals whose reference price is given by the London futures market in (LME), namely aluminium, copper, tin, nickel, lead and zinc,
   metal alloys such as cobalt, molybdenum, magnesium and titanium,
   rare earths,

which all result from a primary production process that combines mining and metallurgical processing by pyrometallurgy or hydrometallurgy, whereas the secondary production source results from a process of recovery and recycling;

B.  whereas the European steel sector has played a historically significant role in the European integration process and forms the basis of the generation of European industrial value added and of European value chains; whereas the base metal sector plays a key role in the development of the overall economy, both technologically and in overcoming supply bottlenecks; whereas the steel sector, which has seen over 40 MT of steel production capacity close since 2008 and has lost more than 60 000 jobs directly and over 100 000 jobs indirectly, is experiencing its most serious peacetime crisis ever, resulting in greater dependency of the industrial manufacturing sectors on imports from third countries and in losses of industrial know-how, with a direct impact on millions of jobs; whereas global overcapacity is believed to be between 300 million and 400 million tonnes, mainly in China;

C.  whereas the base metals industry is facing a significant drop in demand and strong global competition, mainly from third countries without the same high standards and strict regulations as in Europe;

D.  whereas energy prices in Europe are higher than in a number of other economies, mainly due to insufficient energy market integration, rising taxes, levies and network costs, and significantly restrict the competitiveness of the European base metals industry in the global market;

E.  whereas the European base metals industry faces serious investment leakage to third countries, mainly driven by comparably high energy prices and the cost of carbon cost;

F.  whereas the successive closures of European electrolysis plants processing metals such as aluminium, copper and magnesium show that Europe is rapidly deindustrialising when it comes to this sector, not because of a decline in European demand but due mainly to the increase in and the increased volatility of electricity prices in several Member States and dumping from third countries;

G.  whereas the alloys of metals such as steel, aluminium, zinc, titanium and copper (including galvanised sheets), which are defined in this resolution as base metals, are essential to the manufacture of electronics, machinery, appliances and motor vehicles and in construction; whereas the EU base metals industry should be considered as a strategic asset for European competitiveness, in particular for other industrial sectors and for the development of existing and new infrastructure;

H.  whereas addressing the issue of competitiveness and the risk of carbon leakage should be the priority and whereas any protectionist measures must be avoided;

I.  whereas since 2009 the EU emissions trading system (ETS) has experienced a growing surplus of allowances and international credits compared to emissions which has significantly weakened the carbon price signal; whereas, in the future when emissions permits under the European ETS become more expensive, a competition crisis is likely to arise; whereas, unless a comparable effort is introduced at international or national level, namely through the introduction of a carbon market like the EU’s, a number of industrial sectors and installations in the EU will lose international competitiveness which may to some extent lead to carbon leakage; whereas there still exists significant potential for energy savings in the base metals industry which could be tapped effectively through private investments and support schemes for plant modernisation;

J.  whereas the EU base metals industry is facing a race against time in order to regain its global competitiveness and capacity to invest in Europe and hence meet the social and environmental challenges it faces and which it must overcome while remaining a reference for the world in terms of the social and environmental responsibility of its operations; whereas worldwide overcapacity and unfair subsidies and dumping by third countries have brought additional pressure to bear on the European market for base metals; whereas production innovation has a positive effect on employment growth in all phases of the business cycle of industries; whereas on the other hand a number of undertakings have been pursuing strategies focusing on short-term financial returns to the detriment of innovation, investments in R&D, employment and skills’ renewal; whereas involving workers in innovation and strategy definition is the best way to guarantee economic success; whereas fair trade in steel products can likewise only work in accordance with basic employment rights and environmental standards;

K.  whereas the exploitation of secondary metals (resulting from a process of recovery and recycling) is an imperative in an industrialised and resource-efficient economy and must be developed as a competitive and sustainable circular economy, but can by no means fully meet the base metal needs of European economies in terms either of quality or of quantity; whereas the EU’s scrap trade balance is positive and more efforts should be made to incentivise scrap recycling in Europe; whereas the base metal industry, its raw materials and auxiliary suppliers should be treated in a comprehensive and integral way;

L.  whereas this is especially true of energy transition, as base metals such as rare earths are at the heart of the new technologies needed for this to take place; whereas the EU is still very much dependent on imports of the metals needed to produce renewable energy generation equipment that offer real opportunities for the sector, namely to overcome possible difficulties in supply; whereas investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency are an important driver for investments in industrial products, including copper, aluminium and steel; whereas an ambitious European renewables and energy-savings policy could drive future base metal demand in Europe and, in particular, provide an opportunity to produce high value-added products; whereas there is a lack of corporate environmental responsibility and whereas certain industrial sites are in flagrant violation of European legislation and certain abandoned sites pose a threat to human health and the environment; whereas environmental standards and circular economy principles should be fundamental to development and innovation investments in the base metals industry sector in Europe; whereas the Commission’s Energy Roadmap 2050 finds that decarbonisation of the energy sector and a high renewables scenario is cheaper than a continuation of current policies, and that over time nuclear and fossil fuel energy prices will continue to rise, whereas the cost of renewables will decrease;

M.  whereas the opinion of Parliament’s Committee on Industry, Research and Energy on recommendations to the Commission on the negotiations for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (2014/2228(INI)) underlined the importance of a chapter on energy, and at the same time stressed the disadvantage of EU energy-intensive industries and the need to safeguard their competitiveness;

N.  whereas only an ambitious innovation policy which clears the way for the development of high-quality, energy-efficient and innovative products (such as high-strength yet flexible steels) and new production processes will enable the EU to hold its own in the face of ever more severe global competition; whereas 65 % of business spending on R&D is done by the manufacturing industry, and whereas the strengthening of our industrial base is therefore essential to keeping expertise and know-how in the EU;

O.  whereas the EU base metals industry is losing its competitiveness, partly due to high regulatory and administrative burdens;

P.  whereas the aim of the Energy Union Package is to create a secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy market in order to enhance the global competitiveness of the European economy, reducing and harmonising energy prices in Europe and among Member States;

Q.  whereas the recognition of market economic status to state-run or other non-market economies without reference to their actual functioning would undermine trade defence instruments and have a severe impact in terms of competitiveness and employment on the European base metal industries, by worsening the impact of the price war conducted by the world’s largest steel producer, and of its notorious overcapacity;

R.  whereas research, development and innovation in this sector is key for European industry; whereas plant closures often result in irreversible loss of technology and know-how and unskilling of the industrial workforce;

The importance of base metals for European industry

1.  Stresses the importance of the base metal industry for a whole range of downstream industries, including the automotive industry, the aerospace industry, energy production, the construction industry and packaging;

2.  Considers that Europe, which is already heavily dependent on raw materials, cannot afford a new dependency to develop in respect of base metals, which would have a very adverse impact on the aforementioned downstream industries;

3.  Points out that, in the steel industry, the EU has a flat steel production capacity shortfall due to the massive closures of recent years and a revival of demand;

4.  Stresses that demand for non-ferrous metals such as aluminium and copper is constantly growing despite the crisis;

The overriding need to act on climate change and high energy prices

5.  Stresses that a redesign of the current ETS system is one of the most pressing issues in terms of ensuring the competitiveness of the base metals industry; notes that the Commission has made proposals which will culminate in the reform of the ETS for the fourth period 2021-2030 and calls on the co-legislators, in this connection, to ensure that the reform includes the issue of carbon leakage and promotes efficiency, industrial innovation and the optimal yields that this reform is supposed to guarantee, while considering supplementing the ETS with other innovative instruments and strategies in order genuinely to reduce emissions; calls on the Commission, when reviewing the ETS, to reward the best performers within energy-intensive industry from the point of view of producing goods while achieving lower emissions;

6.  Notes the establishment of the market stability reserve in 2019 and is consideringthe Commission’s proposals for post-2020 structural reform of the ETS, which will be the subject of specific and separate scrutiny in Parliament;

7.  Calls for energy-intensive industries to continue their efforts to optimise recycling arrangements and cut CO2 emissions with a view to ensuring future industrial competitiveness and meeting the EU’s established binding reduction targets; stresses, in this connection, that industrial competitiveness, resource efficiency and emissions cuts are becoming complementary objectives since, if European production becomes carbon-virtuous, preservation of its share of the European and world markets is an effective means of contributing to an overall reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of industrial origin; adds that the same applies to the production of imported goods which meet the equivalent energy efficiency and emissions standards as to that of goods produced in the EU; stresses that undertakings in third countries that form part of the value chain must also act in line with the EU’s climate and energy targets and take account of progress on energy efficiency in particular;

Carbon border adjustment – a temporary and flexible measure of international dimension in line with the WTO

8.  Emphasises firmly that, ever since the creation of the International Negotiating Committee that prepared the Rio Convention in 1992, the EU has been seeking to negotiate with third countries an international agreement aimed at protecting against climate change, but so far without success, despite the growing urgency highlighted by a virtually unanimous scientific consensus; calls for the continued leadership of the EU and highlights the crucial need to ensure that a global binding agreement is concluded at the Paris Convention, with a full commitment by all parties to effectively averting dangerous climate change; emphasises that these negotiations must lead to a legally binding agreement with economy-wide targets for all parties, respecting the agreed objective of limiting global warming to below 2 °C; stresses that a comprehensive international agreement will level the playing field for industry and reduce the risk of carbon leakage from the EU;

9.  Highlights that international climate action is the best recipe to prevent carbon leakage; highlights the fact that an ambitious international agreement on combating climate change that creates a level-playing field for all countries prepared to cooperate at multilateral level and forge a coherent global environmental regime to reduce carbon emissions would be the most positive way of dealing with global emissions; underlines the fact that such an agreement would allow for fair competition for all base metal producers and would render considerations of border adjustments unnecessary provided that its implementation was subject to effective monitoring and any adjustments that were required; points to the fact that such an international agreement must necessarily include reliable commitments by the strongest emitting countries; also points to the need for compliance with social and environmental standards in this connection, in order to create a level playing field;

10.  Notes that, by taking both imports and exports into account, the border carbon adjustment mechanism incorporates into European regulation an emissions reduction model also encompassing a consumption‑based territorial approach and that this kind of bottom-up approach has the advantage of offering a universal solution that enables each state to decide in a sovereign manner how ambitious its climate policy is to be, subject to a careful impact assessment of the consequences; calls on the Commission to ensure that future trade agreements include provisions which significantly improve export opportunities and market access for European base metals products; reiterates that the Commission should include prohibition of distortive raw materials practices (dual pricing, export restrictions) in regional, bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements;

11.  Stresses that any measures affecting trade must respect international trade agreements; maintains that the climate policy objectives of protecting the life and health of humans, animals and plants, and of the conservation of finite natural resources, if applied in a non-discriminatory manner and not as a disguised restriction, are consonant with the exceptions set out in Article XX of the GATT Agreement; specifies that climate change, given its global nature, should receive legal attention; considers the fact that an atmosphere with a low carbon content (clean air) is already viewed as a natural resource that can be exhausted, and should therefore be considered a public good; specifies, moreover, that retaliatory measures could not be implemented as a result of the border carbon adjustment measures (BCAs) without violating the rules of international trade and without risk of conviction; reiterates that the purpose is by no means to protect European industries, but to place them on an equal footing with their foreign competitors;

12.  Points out that it would be desirable to envisage partial reallocation of the revenue derived from auctions to environmental protection initiatives and measures to combat climate change, such as the Green Fund provided for in the Cancún Agreements and other international climate finance instruments;

13.  Notes that agreed standards on the calculation of the carbon content and the life-cycle emissions of products increase transparency and can facilitate the promotion of sustainable production and consumption, including in the metals industry;

Compensation for indirect emissions

14.  Regrets that the state aid-based compensation regime for indirect costs has created a new source of unfair competition on the EU single market among producers in electricity-intensive sectors, some of whom receive financial support from the authorities in their countries; urges that this compensation be harmonised and, if justified, be granted at European level in order to ensure a level playing field with global competitors and among European producers and ensure effective carbon leakage protection; notes that this is especially true for the six non-ferrous metals that are traded against prices determined by global demand and supply, mostly set by the London Stock Exchange; understands, therefore, that base metal producers are ‘price-takers’, which are unable to pass cost increases on to their customers; reaches the conclusion that it is imperative to keep compensations on indirect emissions in place; refers to the agreement on the establishment and operation of a market stability reserve which states that ‘in pursuing the goal of a level playing field, that review should also consider harmonised arrangements to compensate for indirect costs at the Union level’(11); refers in this connection to Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2003 on the implementation of the rules on competition laid down in Articles 81 and 82 of the Treaty(12) and to Articles 107 and 108 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union; calls on the Commission to review the impact of various energy support schemes on the retail prices of energy which indirectly influence competitiveness of energy-intensive industries in individual Member States;

15.  Considers that the differentiated carbon impact on electricity prices arising from the energy mix of each supplier is a factor in competitiveness and depends inter alia on the choices made by each sovereign state; welcomes the Commission proposal on the European Energy Union; believes that a well-functioning internal energy market that delivers secure and sustainable energy and ensures adequate interconnections of Member States will help to lower energy prices for European industry and consumers; considers that the ETS is an EU harmonised measure to reduce industry emissions and that its impacts should therefore be addressed through a harmonised system;

Support for investing in the production of low carbon metals

16.  Urges that free allowances for the most efficient installations in the carbon-leakage sectors be allocated on the basis of programmes for investment in new equipment, R&D (including the capture, storage (CCS) and use of carbon (CCU)) and the training of workers, as soon as possible and at all events starting 2018 and during the fourth stage, covering the period 2021-2030 in order to meet high standards of climate and environmental protection and employment rights; stresses the absolute need for investment in research and development to enable Europe to remain a centre of excellence for the production of base metals; recalls that industries which invest are the ones which survive crises most successfully; calls for ETS auction revenues to be used to finance climate action inside the EU and in developing countries, including for investments into renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in industrial sectors; supports the plans under the 2030 climate and energy framework to establish a facility (NER400) for carbon capture and storage, innovative renewables and low carbon innovation in industrial sectors as laid down in the conclusions of the European Council of 23 October 2014; proposes that pilot and demonstration projects relating to carbon capture, utilisation and storage should be part of programmes for the funding of low-carbon technologies promoted by the Commission along the lines of NER 300 and the future NER 400, with the financial risk being shared between the financier and the operator; recalls the importance of public investment and, in the European context, of Horizon 2020 funds, in improving the environmental and energy efficiency of the base-metal industry, including the achievement of lower carbon emissions in line with Europe 2020 targets; regards the training of workers in the application of low-carbon technologies and practices in industry as a strategic investment which ought to be fully incorporated into programmes promoted by the Commission to finance the transition to a low-carbon economy;

Financial accounting and transparency

17.  Suggests that CO2 allowances be made public on publication of companies’ annual accounts and that the European Union encourage the resumption of work on an international accounting standard in this field;

18.  Underlines the importance of transparency in the use of allocation revenues by Member States; refers in this connection to the obligation on Member States to inform the Commission as to the use of ETS revenues; underlines the fact that increased transparency would help citizens see how ETS revenues are being used by national authorities;

19.  Emphasises that installations and companies must respect all legal requirements on social responsibility and reporting in order to ensure equal and effective implementation of environmental regulations and ensure that competent authorities and stakeholders, including workers’ representatives and representatives of civil society and local communities, have access to all relevant information; underlines the right of access to information in environmental matters as laid down in the Aarhus Convention and implemented in EU and national legislation, including Directive 2003/87/EC; suggests that any facility classified as subject to the ETS should make comprehensive information available every year, including in respect of combating climate change and compliance with EU directives in the field of environment, safety and health at work, and that this information should be accessible to workers’ representatives and to the representatives of civil society from local communities in the vicinity of the facility;

The issue of electricity supply contracts

20.  Highlights the importance to the competitiveness of Europe’s base metal sector of the possibility of concluding long-term contracts, under certain conditions to be clarified by the Commission, which must be compatible with a return on investment, the duration of which must be no less than 15 years in the case of highly capital-intensive industries; recalls the need felt by industrialists for their investments to be secured by means of predictable prices and a clear legal framework; stresses that, rather than annual electricity auctions, preference ought to be assigned to long-term stability of electricity supply contracts; expresses concern for market regulations allowing, in some Member States, for a structural gap between electricity prices and generation costs; calls on the Commission to fight against windfall profits of private oligopolies in the energy market;

21.  Expresses concern at market regulations which allow for a structural gap between electricity prices and generation costs;

Transfer of skills

22.  Calls for the transfer of skills between generations of workers to be organised in all plants which have unsatisfactory age pyramids for all highly skilled production posts; favours the promotion of the skills of young employees in businesses by means of a structural apprenticeship policy to develop the collective skills of employees; emphasises the importance of the skills and qualifications of workers in the base metal sector; calls for active employment and industrial policies ensuring that this knowledge is developed and recognised as an important asset of the European base metal industry; asks that the maintenance of industrial know-how and a skilled workforce be considered in assessing the viability of production in any particular plant;

Supply of raw materials

23.  Calls for European diplomatic action relating to raw materials for metal production based on strategic partnerships to share added valued between European countries and countries producing raw materials in such a way as to promote the development of skilled employment throughout the value chain; asks the Commission to establish an in-depth steel market analysis instrument that can provide precise information on the European and global steel supply-demand balance, distinguishing between structural and cyclical components of development of these markets; believes that monitoring primary and secondary base metals markets could provide valuable inputs to corrective and proactive measures which are inevitable due to the cyclical nature of these steel industries; welcomes the report by the European Rare Earths Competency Network (ERECON)(13); calls on the Commission to continue its actions under ERECON to develop a diversified and sustainable rare earths (REE) supply chain for Europe and, in particular, implement the policy recommendations and provide support for substitution solutions and greater recycling;

European trade protection measures in respect of base metals: prevention rather than a belated cure

24.  Exhorts the Council to conclude the revision of the two regulations on trade defence instruments (TDI), in order to streamline, reinforce and speed up these instruments, ensuring that they are not weakened; suggests a preliminary investigation phase of a maximum of one month for an initial review of anti-dumping and anti-subsidy complaints, following which, on the basis of the initial evidence, preventive correction measures may be announced and a thorough investigation conducted; deplores the fact that the legislative proposal on the modernisation of TDI is at a standstill in the Council despite the strong support which Parliament has expressed for tougher measures against unfair imports from third countries; calls on the Council to press ahead quickly with the modernisation of TDI, in order to ensure that an appropriate response to unfair practices can finally be put in place and that the European market can be protected against dumping, thereby ensuring a level playing field and full enjoyment of the opportunities afforded by the energy transition;

25.  Adopts the aim of making rapid progress in the recycling of rare earths and critical metals consumed in the Union;

26.  Emphasises that all base metals, including stainless steels and aluminium, are subject to global competition; considers it urgent for the Commission, in its analysis and comparisons, when defining relevant geographic markets, to take the global market as a reference and not to limit its analysis simply to the internal market; calls for an impact assessment of production capacities, which should consider, inter alia, plant and jobs, to be performed before any decisions are taken by the Commission’s DG Competition, and for its conclusions to be incorporated in the final publicity afforded to stakeholders; calls for a revision of competition policy and state aid rules in order to facilitate public intervention, with the aim of maintaining social and regional cohesion, improving environmental standards and addressing public health concerns;

27.  Supports the creation of local information and consultation committees for industrial risk prevention, which should include all stakeholders with powers to conduct monitoring and issue alerts; stresses the recognised expertise of employees’ representatives with regard to a business’s strategic choices and decision-making;

The role of base metals in the circular economy

28.  Highlights in this context the positive impact of secondary metals, which help to significantly reduce energy and raw material input; calls therefore on the Commission to facilitate the development and functioning of secondary metal markets; encourages the establishment of a circular economy at every base metals production plant in order to link the exploitation of by-products and recycled metals with the aim of increasing their competitiveness; calls for it to be made mandatory to establish a circular economy at every base metals production plant in order to link the exploitation of by-products and recycled metals with the aim of increasing their competitiveness; adopts the aim of making rapid progress in the recycling of rare earths and critical metals consumed in the Union; calls for the development of strong links between the base metal recycling sector and other industries in order to strengthen the size and resilience of the industrial base, in particular in regions affected by deindustrialisation; emphasises in this context the large potential of product and material substitution and increasing the use of scrap metal inter alia in steel and aluminium production; stresses that most base metals can be recycled many times for a fraction of the energy used for primary production; is concerned by the large energy loss for Europe caused by the legal and illegal export of aluminium and copper to countries such as China and India, states which have established aluminium export bans themselves; believes that high environmental standards and circular economy principles should be fundamental to development and innovation investments in the base metals industry sector in Europe; calls on the Commission to develop economic incentives for recycling metals, including currently uneconomical critical raw materials such as rare earths, to investigate how markets for recycled materials can be supported by inter alia green certificates for recycled materials, eco-design requirements and fiscal incentives, and to ensure that cohesion policy and European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI) budgets are also leveraged to promote resource efficiency and recycling; believes that waste legislation should be improved to sustain the functioning of the EU scrap metals market through, for instance, a revision of the End-of Life Vehicles Directive and other waste legislation; suggests that measures be taken to set collection targets, strengthen producer’s responsibility and widen the scope of end-of-life legislation, for instance relating to lorries, buses and motorcycles; stresses the need for qualified and skilled people to cope with the transition towards more sustainable production processes and products, and calls for a European training and education strategy supporting companies, research institutes and the social partners in the efforts to jointly investigate skills needs for environmental sustainability;

o
o   o

29.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1) OJ L 343, 22.12.2009, p. 51.
(2) OJ L 188, 18.7.2009, p. 93.
(3) OJ L 315, 14.11.2012, p. 1.
(4) OJ L 334, 17.12.2010, p. 17.
(5) OJ L 140, 5.6.2009, p. 16.
(6) OJ L 143, 30.4.2004, p. 56.
(7) OJ L 275, 25.10.2003, p. 32.
(8) Texts adopted, P7_TA(2014)0032.
(9) OJ C 251 E, 31.8.2013, p. 75.
(10) Texts adopted, P8_TA(2014)0104.
(11) See recital 9 of Decision (EU) 2015/1814 (OJ L 264, 9.10.2015, p. 1).
(12) OJ L 1, 4.1.2003, p. 1.
(13) http://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/raw-materials/specific-interest/erecon/index_en.htm

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