The Common Agricultural Policy in figures

The tables below show basic statistical data in several areas relating to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), namely: the agriculture and food industries in the Member States (Table II), the integration of environmental concerns into the CAP (Table III), the forestry sector (Table IV), CAP financing and expenditure (Tables I and V) and trade in agricultural and food products (Table VI).

Table I: The CAP in the 2014-2020 multiannual financial framework (EU-28) (excluding adjustments)

Commitment appropriations
(EUR million at 2011 constant prices)
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Total
2014-2020
A. Total multiannual commitment appropriations
(EU-28)
134 318
(100%)
135 328
(100%)
136 050
(100%)
137 100
(100%)
137 866
(100%)
139 078
(100%)
140 242
(100%)
959 988
(100%)
As a percentage of GNI
(EU-28)
1.03% 1.02% 1.00% 1.00% 0.99% 0.98% 0.98% 1.00%
B. CAP — Pillar 1 (EAGF) 41 585
(30.9%)
40 989 40 421 39 837 39 079 38 335 37 605
(26.8%)
277 851
(28.9%)
Of which: B.1. Direct payments 39 715 (29.1%) 39 139 38 580 38 007 37 265 36 566 35 881 (25.6%) 265 153 (27.6%)
Of which: B.2. Market-related expenditure 2 503 (1.8%) 2 471 2 449 2 427 2 399 2 342 2 286 (1.6%) 16 879 (1.7%)
Of which: B.3. Assigned revenue -633 -621 -609 -597 -585 -574 -562 -4 181
C. CAP — Rural development
(EAFRD)
12 865
(9.6%)
12 613 12 366 12 124 11 887 11 654 11 426
(8.1%)
84 936
(8.8%)
D. TOTAL CAP
(Pillars 1 and 2) (B + C)
54 450
(40.5%)
53 602 52 787 51 961 50 966 49 989 49 031
(34.9%)
362 787
(37.8%)
Appropriations as a percentage of GNI
(EU-28)
0.41% 0.40% 0.38% 0.38% 0.36% 0.35% 0.34% 0.37%

Source: European Commission (based on Council Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 1311/2013 of 2 December 2013 (OJ L 347, 20.12.2013, p. 884), as well as on the political agreement reached in June 2013 by Parliament, the Council and the Commission (vote in Parliament on 20 November 2013 — resolution P7_TA(2013)0455)).

Note: Technical adjustments of the original amounts are excluded: see COM(2017)0220 of 24.5.2017 for the technical adjustment of the MFF for 2018.

Table II: Basic figures relating to agriculture and the food industry (EU-28)

  Utilised agri-cultural area (UAA)
(1 000 ha)
No of farms
(1 000 farms)
UAA per farm
(ha)
Employment in agriculture
(1 000 persons)
Total agricultural output
(million EUR)
Share of primary sector of GVA/GDP
(%)
Factor income per annual work unit
(EUR/AWU)
Employment in the food industry
(1 000 persons)
Share of food industry in GVA
(%)
  2017 2016 2016 2017 2016 2016 2017 2016 2012
BE 1 329 36.8 36.7 51.4 7 990 0.7 33 617 119.7 2.0
BG 5 030 202.7 22.0 186.6 4 004 4.71 8 965 109.0 3.8
CZ 3 521 26.5 130.2 113.3 4 918 2.5 19 840 130.5 2.4
DK 2 631 35.0 74.6 56.7 9 733 1.1 43 461 60.3 1.4
DE 16 687 276.1 60.5 490.3 52 940 0.6 33 443 913.2 (2011) 1.7
EE 1 002 16.7 59.6 17.1 750 2.6 13 353 14.0 2.0
EL 5 151 684.90 6.6 437.8 10 398 4.0 15 070 128.5 (2011) 3.2
ES 23 841 945.0 24.6 749.7 46 807 2.8 32 459 482.4 (2011) 2.7
FR 29 101 456.5 60.9 646.1 70 350 1.6 32 272 648.8 1.9
IE 4 470 137.6 35.5 104.3 7 420 1.0 22 783 56.6 4.7
IT 12 843 1 145.7 11.0 797.8 53 407 2.1 19 579 493.7 1.9
CY 123 34.9 3.2 8.7 686 2.1 16 459 9.5 2.0
HR 1 497 134.5 11.6 92.2 2 184 4.1 5 961 62.8
LV 1 932 69.9 27.6 45.7 1 316 3.9 6 269 27.9 (2010) 2.4
LT 2 935 150.3 19.5 90.9 2 835 3.3 6 413 38.7 4.6
LU 131 1.9 66.3 3.1 413 0.3 23 082 1.3 0.7
HU 5 352 430.0 10.9 197.3 8 309 4.4 8 715 141.5 2.2
MT 11 9.2 1.2 1.5 126 1.4 9 913 4.6 1.7
NL 1 790 55.7 32.3 171.1 27 020 1.8 54 576 141.0 2.8
AT 2 656 132.5 20.1 157.2 6 810 1.2 19 628 82.9 1.9
PL 14 498 1 410.7 10.2 1 574.2 22 411 2.7 6 965 542.1 (2011) 2.9
PT 3 603 259.0 14.1 278.6 6 941 2.2 10 902 103.4 (2011) 2.2
RO 13 378 3 422.0 3.7 1 925.2 15 444 4.3 4 380 216.1 (2011) 6.1
SI 481 69.9 7.0 49.4 1 211 2.2 5 072 17.0 1.5
SK 1 911 25.7 73.6 48.5 2 391 3.7 19 212 54.4 1.7
FI 2 272 49.7 44.9 70.8 4 314 2.7 19 736 36.8 1.6
SE 3 011 62.9 47.9 60.8 5 959 1.3 27 785 46.3 1.3
UK 17 360 185.1 90.1 329.4 27 925 0.6 36 365 416.2 (2011) 1.6
EU- 28 178 548 10 467.7 16.6 8 756.0 405 008 1.5 17 304 5 116.6 2.0 (EU-27)

Sources: Eurostat, ‘Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics’, 2017 Edition; European Commission, ‘CAP Context Indicators 2014-2020, 2018 update’.

Table III: Basic agri-environmental indicators (EU-28)

  Share of UAA classed as Natura 2000 area
(%)
Territory classed as nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ)
(%)
Farming intensity (Euro per ha UAA in constant input prices) Share of UAA under organic farming
(%)
Share of agriculture in production of renewable energy
(%)
Share of forestry in production of renewable energy
(%)
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural soils
(1 000 t CO2 equivalent) and share of total (%)
  2016 2012 2016 2017 2016 2016 2016
BE 7.2 76.2 1 322 6.3 27.2 42.1 10 582 (8.8%)
BG 22.4 34.6 201 2.7 2.3 58.3 5 603 (10.4%)
CZ 6.6 41.6 303 14.1 17.9 69.4 7 604 (6.0%)
DK 4.7 100.0 803 8.6 3.0 45.5 14 773 (26.2%)
DE 10.6 100.0 632 6.8 26.6 30.8 98 556 (10.8%)
EE 5.7 7.2 113 19.6 0.0 95.6 1 948 (11.4%)
EL 18.7 24.3 363 8.0 5.4 31.7 6 324 (6.7%)
ES 16.8 16.2 280 8.7 6.8 30.0 30 774 (10.5%)
FR 8.3 45.5 454 6.0 9.9 46.4 82 927 (18.8%)
IE 3.7 100.0 344 1.7 3.2 23.3 25 793 (38.1%)
IT 10.8 12.6 509 14.9 8.7 30.4 25 839 (6.2%)
CY 6.1 5.3 972 4.6 9.4 7.4 206 (2.3%)
HR 25.7 n.a. 339 6.5 1.9 67.1 2 955 (15.3%)
LV 6.6 12.8 139 13.9 5.9 85.2 5 958 (56.1%)
LT 4.6 100.0 128 8.0 7.3 80.1 6 344 (51.6%)
LU 21.1 100.0 458 4.2 14.1 50.6 740 (7.7%)
HU 14.7 56.2 232 3.7 13.5 75.1 6 587 (11.2%)
MT 7.9 100.0 4 581 0.4 7.8 0.0 66 (3.1%)
NL 4.3 100.0 2 213 3.1 35.0 29.0 26 110 (12.8%)
AT 11.5 100.0 395 23.4 7.0 48.1 7 589 (9.8%)
PL 11.5 4.5 244 3.4 10.3 71.1 28 785 (7.6%)
PT 18.1 3.7 271 7.0 4.3 44.7 7 392 (11.3%)
RO 12.7 57.8 194 1.9 2.7 58.7 16 098 (17.8%)
SI 23.2 100.0 280 9.6 2.2 55.1 1 673 (12.8%)
SK 16.0 29.8 161 9.9 18.5 52.1 1 267 (3.6%)
FI 1.2 100.0 403 11.4 4.3 79.0 14 105 (42.6%)
SE 4.1 19.8 343 19.2 1.2 54.1 10 438 (95.8%)
UK 2.5 43.6 336 2.9 9.8 30.9 43 060 (8.9%)
EU-28 11.0 45.3 (EU-27) 396.6 7.0 11.7 44.7 490 098 (11.9%)

Source: European Commission, ‘CAP Context Indicators 2014-2020, 2018 update’.

Table IV: Basic data on EU forests

Member State
EU-28
Forests[1]
(1 000 ha, 2015)
Other wooded land[2]
(1 000 ha, 2015)
Other land
(1 000 ha, 2015)
Ownership of forest: % of Public forests
(2015)
Forest and other wooded land per inhabitant
(ha, 2015)
Volume of total roundwood removals
(1 000 m³, 2010)
Austria 3 869 153 4 221.5 25.8 0.47 17 550
Belgium 683.4 35.7 2 308.7 46.5 0.06
Bulgaria 3 823 22 7 011 87.9 0.53 6 372
Croatia 1 922 569 3 105 71.7 0.59 5 178
Cyprus 172.7 213.5 538 68.8 0.34 11
Czech Republic 2 667.4 5 054.2 76.6 0.25 16 183
Denmark 612.2 45.5 3 585.3 23.7 0.12 3 180
Estonia 2 232 223.6 2 067.2 41.3 1.85 7 736
Finland 22 218 801 7 370 30.4 4.23 59 411
France 16 989 590 37 187 24.7 0.27 51 005
Germany 11 419 23 442 52 0.14 55 613
Greece 3 903 2 636 6 351 77.5 0.59 1 217
Hungary 2 069.1 121.3 7 113.2 57.6 0.22
Ireland 754 47.2 6 087.8 53.2 0.17 2 908
Italy 9 297 1 813 18 304 33.6 0.19
Latvia 3 356 112 2 750 52.3 1.72 12 294
Lithuania 2 180 104 3 983.5 61.4 0.77 6 414
Luxembourg 86.8 1.4 170.9 47.1 0.16 381
Malta 0.3 31.7
The Netherlands 376 2 999 48.5 0.02 1 173
Poland 9 435 21 187 81.9 0.24 41 375
Portugal 3 182.1 1 725.1 4 118.3 3 0.47 11 533
Romania 6 861 90 16 051 67 0.35 15 315
Slovakia 1 940 2 870 50.2 0.36 8 995
Slovenia 1 248 23 743 25.3 0.62 5 054
Spain 18 417.9 9 208.8 22 253.3 29.2 0.59 16 719
Sweden 28 073 2 432 10 528 24.3 3.18 74 300
United Kingdom 3 144 20 21 029 28.4 0.05 10 550
EU-28 161082 20836 242 461 39.7 0.36 446 819

Source: Eurostat

Table V: CAP expenditure by Member State

  1. Distribution by Member State
Direct Aids/Markets and other measures 2017 / Rural Development 2017
(EUR million)
2. Percentage of farms benefiting from direct aids under the EAGF
(2016)
Member State
 
a. Direct aids EU-28
(1st pillar — EAGF)
b. Total
1st pillar — EAGF EU-28
(incl. (a.))
c. Total EAFRD
EU-27 (2nd pillar)
(b+c) % of total EU d. With aid ≤ EUR 5 000 e. With aid ≤ EUR 20 000 f. With aid ≥ EUR 50 000
BE 508.6 592.8 371.1 1.1 33.62 73.00 4.38
BG 774.1 811.6 194.5 1.8 70.00 91.20 4.26
HR 198.9 209.3 150.2 0.6 93.19 99.22 0.17
CZ 837.5 865.3 259.3 2.0 58.96 81.26 10.24
DK 844.3 865.5 99.9 1.7 47.81 72.72 12.82
DE 4 846.6 5 048.3 951.0 10.8 44.06 80.43 4.41
EE 113.9 124.4 99.4 0.4 81.21 92.97 2.69
EL 2 021.5 2 111.6 708.0 5.1 83.05 98.21 0.15
ES 5 063.9 5 619.7 702.7 11.4 74.05 92.29 1.68
FR 7 365.4 8 005.5 1 753.8 17.5 29.31 59.49 8.95
IE 1 208.3 1 232.2 254.6 2.7 44.27 88.65 1.35
IT 3 795.0 4 444.3 790.3 9.4 82.85 95.90 1.19
CY 49.7 57.0 14.6 0.1 94.48 98.94 0.18
LV 203.8 218.7 162.5 0.7 90.47 97.48 0.77
LT 437.2 449.9 254.0 1.3 87.89 97.73 0.51
LU 33.3 34.6 8.8 0.1 27.58 61.19 5.25
HU 1 257.6 1 312.4 196.6 2.7 79.14 93.26 2.46
MT 5.0 5.7 2.1 0.0 96.89 99.20 0.08
NL 734.7 822.0 57.6 1.6 32.48 71.52 4.04
AT 692.6 721.8 478.4 2.1 60.00 94.87 0.37
PL 3 354.8 3 482.8 573.6 7.3 88.52 99.06 0.23
PT 654.9 770.2 524.2 2.3 87.57 96.38 1.27
RO 1 690.7 1 828.4 1 569.2 6.1 95.78 98.77 0.47
SI 135.8 144.5 80.2 0.4 89.81 99.14 0.10
SK 432.1 443.8 167.9 1.1 75.36 86.62 8.50
FI 523.4 537.8 319.2 1.5 47.90 87.56 1.99
SE 685.7 707.1 104.3 1.5 60.06 84.08 4.60
UK 3 082.0 3 172.4 537.8 6.7 32.51 69.30 9.88
EU-28 41 551.2 44 639.4 11 051.8 100.0 76.80 92.73 1.81

Sources: Columns (a) and (b): European Commission, 11th Financial Report on the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund — EAGF 2017. Column (b) does not include expenditure made directly by the Commission (EUR 63.9 million in 2016).

Column (c): European Commission, 11th Financial Report on the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development — EAFRD 2017, Total payments made by Member State, Tables 10a (2007-2013 period) and 10b (2014-2020 period).

Columns (d), (e) and (f): European Commission, ‘Indicative Figures on the Distribution of Aid, by size-class of aid, received in the context of direct aid paid to the producers in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No 1307/2013 — Financial Year 2016’.

Table VI: Trade in agricultural and food products in EU-28 by selected countries (2017)

EXTRA-EU28 TRADE A. Imports
(EUR million)
% of row 2 B. Exports
(EUR million)
% of row 2 Balance
(B-A)
1. All trade 1 855 907 1 878 779 22 872
2. Agricultural-food trade 117 466 100 138 059 100 20 593
% agricultural-food trade (2/1) 6.3% 7.4% 90.0%
Commodities / primary products 81 526 69.4% 47 588 34.4% -33 938
Processed (incl. wine) 12 816 10.9% 26 754 19.4% 13 938
Food preparations and beverages 10 577 9.0% 48 458 35.1% 37 881
Non-edible 12 547 10.7% 15 260 11.1% 2 713
COUNTRY          
Argentina 5 688 4.8% 285 0.2% -5 403
Brazil 11 812 10.1% 1 691 1.2% -10 121
China 5 407 4.6% 11 978 8.7% 6 571
India 3 432 2.9% 883 0.6% -2 590
Indonesia 5 297 4.5% 773 0.6% -4 524
Japan 329 0.3% 6 421 4.7% 6 092
Russia 1 285 1.1% 6 517 4.7% 5 232
Switzerland 4 659 4.0% 8 213 6.0% 3 544
Turkey 4 493 3.8% 3 677 2.7% -816
Ukraine 5 499 3.6% 1 815 1.2% -3 684
United States of America 10 997 9.4% 21 958 15.9% 10 961
SELECTED COUNTRIES 56 151 50.1% 64 211 46.5% -5 313

Source: European Commission (DG AGRI), Agri-Food Trade Statistical Factsheet. EU — Extra EU-28, March 2018; Monitoring EU Agri-Food Trade: Developments until December 2016; Trade Statistics 2017 — DG AGRI (Trade picture files by country — Main EU partners).

 

[1]‘Forest’: land spanning more than 0.5 ha with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of more than 10%, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ.
[2]‘Other wooded land’: land not classified as ‘forest’, spanning more than 0.5 ha, with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of 5-10%, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ; or with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes and trees above 10%.

Albert Massot