The Common Agricultural Policy in figures  

The tables below show basic statistical data in several areas relating to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), namely: the agriculture and food industries in the Member States (Table II), the integration of environmental concerns into the CAP (Table III), the forestry sector (Table IV), CAP financing and expenditure (Tables I and V) and trade in agricultural and food products (Table VI).

Table I: The CAP in the 2014/2020 multiannual financial framework (EU-28) (excluding adjustments)  

Commitment appropriations
(EUR million at 2011 constant prices)
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Total
2014/2020
A. Total multiannual commitment appropriations
(EU-28)
134 318
(100%)
135 328
(100%)
136 050
(100%)
137 100
(100%)
137 866
(100%)
139 078
(100%)
140 242
(100%)
959 988
(100%)
As a percentage of GNI
(EU-28)
1.03% 1.02% 1.00% 1.00% 0.99% 0.98% 0.98% 1.00%
B. CAP — Pillar 1 (EAGF) 41 585
(30.9%)
40 989 40 421 39 837 39 079 38 335 37 605
(26.8%)
277 851
(28.9%)
Of which: B.1. Direct payments 39 715 (29.1%) 39 139 38 580 38 007 37 265 36 566 35 881 (25.6%) 265 153 (27.6%)
Of which: B.2. Market-related expenditure 2 503 (1.8%) 2 471 2 449 2 427 2 399 2 342 2 286 (1.6%) 16 879 (1.7%)
Of which: B.3. Assigned revenue -633 -621 -609 -597 -585 -574 -562 -4 181
C. CAP — Rural development
(EAFRD)
12 865
(9.6%)
12 613 12 366 12 124 11 887 11 654 11 426
(8.1%)
84 936
(8.8%)
D. TOTAL CAP
(Pillars 1 and 2) (B + C)
54 450
(40.5%)
53 602 52 787 51 961 50 966 49 989 49 031
(34.9%)
362 787
(37.8%)
Appropriations as a percentage of GNI
(EU-28)
0.41% 0.40% 0.38% 0.38% 0.36% 0.35% 0.34% 0.37%
Source: European Commission (based on Council Regulation (EU, Euratom) No 1311/2013 of 2 December 2013 (OJ L 347, 20.12.2013, p. 884), as well as on the political agreement reached in June 2013 by Parliament, the Council and the Commission (vote in Parliament on 20 November 2013 — resolution P7_TA(2013)0455)).  
Note: Technical adjustments of the original amounts are excluded: see COM(2017) 220 of 24.5.2017 for the technical adjustment of MFF for 2018.  

Table II: Basic figures relating to agriculture and the food industry (EU-28)  

  Utilised agri-cultural area (UAA)
(1 000 ha)
No of farms
(1 000 farms)
UAA per farm
(ha)
Employment in agriculture
(1 000 persons)
Total agricultural output
(million EUR)
Share of primary sector of GVA/GDP
(%)
Factor income per annual work unit
(EUR/AWU)
Employment in the food industry
(1 000 persons)
Share of food industry in GVA
(%)
  2013 2013 2013 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2012
BE 1 307 37 34.6 55.4 7 990 0.7 31 384 119.7 2.0
BG 4 651 254 18.3 171.8 4 004 4.71 7 446 109.0 3.8
CZ 3 491 26 133.0 118.0 4 918 2.5 20 046 130.5 2.4
DK 2 619 39 67.5 65.8 9 733 1.1 26 234 60.3 1.4
DE 16 700 285 58.6 500.5 52 940 0.6 26 420 913.2 (2011) 1.7
EE 957 19 49.9 17.7 750 2.6 8 053 14.0 2.0
EL 4 857 710 6.8 436.2 10 398 4.0 14 122 128.5 (2011) 3.2
ES 23 300 965 24.1 712.0 46 807 2.8 31 578 482.4 (2011) 2.7
FR 27 739 472 58.7 696.5 70 350 1.6 29 143 648.8 1.9
IE 4 959 139 35.5 107.3 7 420 1.0 17 228 56.6 4.7
IT 12 099 1 010 12.0 810.0 53 407 2.1 19 259 493.7 1.9
CY 109 35 3.1 12.1 686 2.1 16 365 9.5 2.0
HR 1 571 157 10.0 100.6 2 184 4.1 5 947 62.8
LV 1 878 82 23.0 51.4 1 316 3.9 5 458 27.9 (2010) 2.4
LT 2 861 172 16.7 94.0 2 835 3.3 5 152 38.7 4.6
LU 131 2 63.0 2.4 413 0.3 19 024 1.3 0.7
HU 4 656 491 9.5 193.1 8 309 4.4 8 594 141.5 2.2
MT 11 9 1.2 1.9 126 1.4 10 903 4.6 1.7
NL 1 847 67 27.4 170.1 27 020 1.8 46 360 141.0 2.8
AT 2 727 140 19.4 172.9 6 810 1.2 16 761 82.9 1.9
PL 14 410 1 429 10.1 1 621.5 22 411 2.7 6 210 542.1 (2011) 2.9
PT 3 641 264 13.8 294.2 6 941 2.2 10 781 103.4 (2011) 2.2
RO 13 056 3 629 3.6 1 902.2 15 444 4.3 3 786 216.1 (2011) 6.1
SI 486 72 6.7 42.3 1 211 2.2 5 620 17.0 1.5
SK 1 901 23 80.7 52.5 2 391 3.7 16 197 54.4 1.7
FI 2 282 54 42.0 71.3 4 314 2.7 20 435 36.8 1.6
SE 3 035 67 45.2 62.4 5 959 1.3 23 766 46.3 1.3
UK 17 327 185 93.6 318.5 27 925 0.6 29 762 416.2 (2011) 1.6
EU- 15 124 573 4 439 28.1 4 475.3 -- 1.4 24 374 3 736.7 1.9
EU-13 50 040 6 402 7.8 4 379.1 -- 3.2 6 079 1 379.9 3.3 (EU-12)
EU- 28 174 613 10 841 16.1 8 854.4 405 008 1.5 15 433 5 116.6 2.0 (EU-27)
Sources: Eurostat, ‘Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics’, 2017 Edition; European Commission, ‘CAP Context Indicators 2014-2020, 2017 update’.  

Table III: Basic agri-environmental indicators (EU-28)  

  Share of UAA classed as Natura 2000 area
(%)
Territory classed as nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ)
(%)
Farming intensity (Euro per ha UAA in constant input prices) Share of UAA under organic farming
(%)
Share of agriculture in production of renewable energy
(%)
Share of forestry in production of renewable energy
(%)
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural soils
(1 000 t CO2 equivalent) and share of total (%)
  2016 2012 2015 2016 2015 2015 2015
BE 7.2 76.2 1 317.4 5.8 28.2 39.6 10 709 (9.3%)
BG 22.4 34.6 179.8 3.2 1.5 57.1 5 116 (9.4%)
CZ 6.6 41.6 299.0 14.0 18.1 69.0 7 587 (6.3%)
DK 4.7 100.0 818.1 7.7 3.6 45.1 14 086 (27.1%)
DE 10.6 100.0 582.9 6.8 26.6 31.0 99 936 (11.3%)
EE 5.7 7.2 169.5 18.0 0.0 94.0 1 489 (9.5%)
EL 18.7 24.3 379.1 6.7 4.7 36.1 7 152 (7.7%)
ES 16.8 16.2 316.4 8.5 6.2 31.2 34 677 (11.7%)
FR 8.3 45.5 470.6 5.3 11.8 45.1 83 654 (19.9%)
IE 3.7 100.0 299.1 1.7 3.0 20.5 24 643 (38.4%)
IT 10.8 12.6 520.3 14.2 8.3 31.2 24 997 (6.3%)
CY 6.1 5.3 943.8 4.9 9.7 5.5 558.5 (6.8%)
HR 25.7 n.a. 246.0 6.1 1.9 68.8 2 542 (13.7%)
LV 6.6 12.8 190.6 13.4 6.2 86.2 6 098 (48.1%)
LT 4.6 100.0 162.1 7.5 8.9 82.2 6 467 (48.3%)
LU 21.1 100.0 526.9 3.3 14.2 48.7 670 (6.8%)
HU 14.7 56.2 285.6 3.5 10.0 77.5 6 032 (11.1%)
MT 7.9 100.0 3 574.6 0.2 9.3 0.0 67 (3.0%)
NL 4.3 100.0 2 363.9 2.9 37.8 28.3 26 312 (13.0%)
AT 11.5 100.0 385.6 21.3 7.1 48.1 7 443 (10.1%)
PL 11.5 4.5 338.2 3.7 10.0 72.6 28 665 (8.0%)
PT 18.1 3.7 220.4 6.8 4.6 50.2 7 279 (12.1%)
RO 12.7 57.8 163.5 1.7 2.4 59.3 16 339 (16.6%)
SI 23.2 100.0 249.4 9.1 2.2 57.5 1 696 (15.1%)
SK 16.0 29.8 249.1 9.8 18.7 55.9 1 926 (5.5%)
FI 1.2 100.0 318.3 10.5 4.7 76.0 13 657 (46.3%)
SE 4.1 19.8 357.1 18.3 0.9 49.7 6 629 (20.8%)
UK 2.5 43.6 415.4 2.8 7.2 32.3 46 597 (9.4%)
EU-15 10.2 48.6 484.3 7.4 -- -- --
EU-13 12.8 35.7 (EU-12) 250.9 5.0 -- -- --
EU-28 11.0 45.3 (EU-27) 416.7 6.7 11.7 44.6 493 032 (12.3%)
Source: European Commission, ‘CAP Context Indicators 2014-2020, 2017 update’.  

Table IV: Basic data on EU forests  

Member State
EU-28
Forests[1]
(1 000 ha, 2015)
Other wooded land[2]
(1 000 ha, 2015)
Other land
(1 000 ha, 2015)
Ownership of forest: Public forests
(1 000 ha, 2010)
Forest and other wooded land per inhabitant
(ha, 2015)
Volume of total roundwood removals
(1 000 m³, 2010)
Austria 3 869 153 4 221.5 878.5 0.47 18 614
Belgium 683.4 35.7 2 308.7 317.2 0.06 3 690.9
Bulgaria 3 823 22 7 011 3 286 0.53 5 863.6
Croatia 1 922 569 3 105 1 376 0.59 5 714
Cyprus 172.7 213.5 538 118.9 0.34
Czech Republic 2 667.4 0 5 054.2 2 036.7 0.25 15 773.4
Denmark 612.2 45.5 3 585.3 139.4 0.12 2 621.5
Estonia 2 232 223.6 2 067.2 922.8 1.85 5 889
Finland 22 218 801 7 370 6 744 4.23 48 801.8
France 16 989 590 37 187 4 064 0.27 54 020
Germany 11 419 0 23 442 5 932 0.14 53 267.7
Greece 3 903 2 636 6 351 2 907 0.59 1 238.6
Hungary 2 069.1 121.3 7 113.2 1 178 0.22 5 709.5
Ireland 754 47.2 6 087.8 386.2 0.17 2 476.4
Italy 9 297 1 813 18 304 3 032 0.19
Latvia 3 356 112 2 750 1 755 1.72 11 429
Lithuania 2 180 104 3 983.5 1 333 0.77 6 415.2
Luxembourg 86.8 1.4 170.9 41 0.16 284.9
Malta 0.3 0 31.7 0.3 0.00
The Netherlands 376 0 2 999 181.3 0.02 1 030.2
Poland 9 435 0 21 187 7 643 0.24 36 746.6
Portugal 3 182.1 1 725.1 4 118.3 98.3 0.47 10 210.7
Romania 6 861 90 16 051 4 363 0.35 13 923
Slovakia 1 940 0 2 870 973.9 0.36 9 073.8
Slovenia 1 248 23 743 315.4 0.62 3 063.4
Spain 18 417.9 9 208.8 22 253.3 5 332.8 0.59 15 610.3
Sweden 28 073 2 432 10 528 6 822 3.18 69 700
United Kingdom 3 144 20 21 029 868 0.05 9 379.6
EU-28 160 931 29 987 242 461 64 372 0.36 410 547.1
Source: ‘State of Europe’s Forests 2015’ (Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe).  

Table V: CAP expenditure by Member State  

  1. Distribution by Member State
Direct Aids/Markets and other measures 2017 / Rural Development 2017
(EUR million)
2. Percentage of farms benefiting from direct aids under the EAGF
(2016)
Member State
 
a. Direct aids EU-28
(1st pillar — EAGF)
b. Total
1st pillar — EAGF EU-28
(incl. (a.))
c. Total EAFRD
EU-27 (2nd pillar)
(b+c) % of total EU d. With aid ≤ EUR 5 000 e. With aid ≤ EUR 20 000 f. With aid ≥ EUR 50 000
BE 508.6 592.8 371.1 1.1 33.62 73.00 4.38
BG 774.1 811.6 194.5 1.8 70.00 91.20 4.26
HR 198.9 209.3 150.2 0.6 93.19 99.22 0.17
CZ 837.5 865.3 259.3 2.0 58.96 81.26 10.24
DK 844.3 865.5 99.9 1.7 47.81 72.72 12.82
DE 4 846.6 5 048.3 951.0 10.8 44.06 80.43 4.41
EE 113.9 124.4 99.4 0.4 81.21 92.97 2.69
EL 2 021.5 2 111.6 708.0 5.1 83.05 98.21 0.15
ES 5 063.9 5 619.7 702.7 11.4 74.05 92.29 1.68
FR 7 365.4 8 005.5 1 753.8 17.5 29.31 59.49 8.95
IE 1 208.3 1 232.2 254.6 2.7 44.27 88.65 1.35
IT 3 795.0 4 444.3 790.3 9.4 82.85 95.90 1.19
CY 49.7 57.0 14.6 0.1 94.48 98.94 0.18
LV 203.8 218.7 162.5 0.7 90.47 97.48 0.77
LT 437.2 449.9 254.0 1.3 87.89 97.73 0.51
LU 33.3 34.6 8.8 0.1 27.58 61.19 5.25
HU 1 257.6 1 312.4 196.6 2.7 79.14 93.26 2.46
MT 5.0 5.7 2.1 0.0 96.89 99.20 0.08
NL 734.7 822.0 57.6 1.6 32.48 71.52 4.04
AT 692.6 721.8 478.4 2.1 60.00 94.87 0.37
PL 3 354.8 3 482.8 573.6 7.3 88.52 99.06 0.23
PT 654.9 770.2 524.2 2.3 87.57 96.38 1.27
RO 1 690.7 1 828.4 1 569.2 6.1 95.78 98.77 0.47
SI 135.8 144.5 80.2 0.4 89.81 99.14 0.10
SK 432.1 443.8 167.9 1.1 75.36 86.62 8.50
FI 523.4 537.8 319.2 1.5 47.90 87.56 1.99
SE 685.7 707.1 104.3 1.5 60.06 84.08 4.60
UK 3 082.0 3 172.4 537.8 6.7 32.51 69.30 9.88
EU-28 41 551.2 44 639.4 11 051.8 100.0 76.80 92.73 1.81
Sources: Columns (a) and (b): European Commission, 11th Financial Report on the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund — EAGF 2017. Column (b) does not include expenditure made directly by the Commission (EUR 63.9 million in 2016).  
Column (c): European Commission, 11th Financial Report on the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development — EAFRD 2017, Total payments made by Member State, Tables 10a (2007-2013 period) and 10b (2014-2020 period).  
Columns (d), (e) and (f): European Commission, ‘Indicative Figures on the Distribution of Aid, by size-class of aid, received in the context of direct aid paid to the producers in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No 1307/2013 — Financial Year 2016’.  

Table VI: Trade in agricultural and food products in EU-28 by selected countries (2017)  

EXTRA-EU28 TRADE A. Imports
(EUR million)
% of row 2 B. Exports
(EUR million)
% of row 2 Balance
(B-A)
1. All trade 1 855 907 1 878 779 22 872
2. Agricultural-food trade 117 466 100 138 059 100 20 593
% agricultural-food trade (2/1) 6.3% 7.4% 90.0%
Commodities / primary products 81 526 69.4% 47 588 34.4% -33 938
Processed (incl. wine) 12 816 10.9% 26 754 19.4% 13 938
Food preparations and beverages 10 577 9.0% 48 458 35.1% 37 881
Non-edible 12 547 10.7% 15 260 11.1% 2 713
COUNTRY          
Argentina 5 688 4.8% 285 0.2% -5 403
Brazil 11 812 10.1% 1 691 1.2% -10 121
China 5 407 4.6% 11 978 8.7% 6 571
India 3 432 2.9% 883 0.6% -2 590
Indonesia 5 297 4.5% 773 0.6% -4 524
Japan 329 0.3% 6 421 4.7% 6 092
Russia 1 285 1.1% 6 517 4.7% 5 232
Switzerland 4 659 4.0% 8 213 6.0% 3 544
Turkey 4 493 3.8% 3 677 2.7% -816
Ukraine 5 499 3.6% 1 815 1.2% -3 684
United States of America 10 997 9.4% 21 958 15.9% 10 961
SELECTED COUNTRIES 56 151 50.1% 64 211 46.5% -5 313
Source: European Commission (DG AGRI), Agri-Food Trade Statistical Factsheet. EU — Extra EU-28, March 2018; Monitoring EU Agri-Food Trade: Developments until December 2016; Trade Statistics 2017 — DG AGRI (Trade picture files by country — Main EU partners).  

 

[1]‘Forest’: land spanning more than 0.5 ha with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of more than 10%, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. 
[2]‘Other wooded land’: land not classified as ‘forest’, spanning more than 0.5 ha, with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of 5-10%, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ; or with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes and trees above 10%. 

Albert Massot