Parliament endorsed Romania's European Court of Auditors candidate George Pufan, but rejected Croatia's candidate Neven Mates, in a vote on Wednesday. The final decision on appointments to the Luxembourg body will be taken by the Council after consulting Parliament.
Mr Pufan's nomination was approved by 334 votes to 290, but Mr Mates's was rejected by 231 to 396.
Mr Pufan is currently the administrative head of the Romanian Court of Accounts.
He is the third Romanian candidate to be put forward, after Bucharest withdrew the candidature of Mircea Vasile Popescu and Leonard Orban withdrew his own, after a negative vote in plenary. The Romanian seat in the Court of Auditors has been vacant since 1 January 2013.
Mr Mates, who has served as the International Monetary Fund's head of mission in Central and Eastern Europe, is currently a senior advisor to the governor of the Croatian National Bank.
Members of the Luxembourg-based Court of Auditors are appointed for six years. The Council, after consulting the European Parliament, decides upon the proposals made by each member state.