Facts and figures on European Parliament elections 

 
 

Parliament provides up-to-date key facts and figures about the electoral process.

European elections are organised under the provisions of the overarching European electoral law (revised in 2002 and 2018).

Practical details of the electoral process are governed by national laws and could still change under the authority of each member state. Some countries have voting obligations, some will go to vote on 23 May, others on 24 or 26 May, the minimum voting age differs from country to country and so do thresholds. Find out about national rules.


In July, Parliament and Council adopted a reform of the EU electoral law, which needs to be ratified by member states’ parliaments. Read more.

Practical details of the electoral process are governed by national laws and could still undergo changes under the authority of each member state. Some countries have voting obligations, some will go to vote on 23 May, others on 24 or 26 May, the minimum voting age differs from country to country and so do thresholds. View infographic on national rules (to date).

2019 European elections national rules.png 

Regular updates on voting information for citizens, constituencies and candidates in each member state, including information on how to vote from abroad, are provided on the EP elections website

An extensive EP Research Briefing provides key facts and figures about the European Parliament, both today and in the seven previous terms since direct elections were introduced in June 1979.

You will find graphics, charts and figures on


  • the composition of the European Parliament now and in the past,
  • the increase in the number of parties represented in the Parliament and evolution of political groups,
  • the rise in the number of women sitting in the Parliament,
  • the electoral systems used in elections to the Parliament across the member states,
  • turnout in European elections compared with national elections,
  • the annual cost of the Parliament compared with other parliaments, and
  • the composition of the Parliament’s main governing bodies.

Parliament's future composition

The number of MEPs after Brexit and the 2019 elections will be reduced to 705.

Monitoring European and national election results

Parliament’s Public Opinion Monitoring Unit carefully tracks any change in policies on offer within the EU member states and constantly monitors the national and European political spectrum, in the light of past European elections and current trends. They follow elections, referenda and political developments in the member states with regard to their relevance and impact on the European Union and to the composition of the European Parliament.

Find out more in the regularly updated Review of European and National Election Results, the most complete and comprehensive database of developments in the political spectrum across the EU since the first direct European elections in 1979.