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Procedură : 2007/2590(RSP)
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Dezbateri :

PV 12/07/2007 - 11.1
CRE 12/07/2007 - 11.1

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PV 12/07/2007 - 13.1
CRE 12/07/2007 - 13.1

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Joi, 12 iulie 2007 - Strasbourg Ediţie revizuită

11.1. Situaţia umanitară a refugiaţilor irakieni

  Przewodniczący. Kolejnym punktem porządku dziennego jest debata nad sześcioma projektami rezolucji w sprawie sytuacji humanitarnej uchodźców irackich.(1)


  Marios Matsakis (ALDE), author. – Mr President, Commissioner, Iraq is today in a catastrophic abyss and the Iraqi people find themselves in a state of utter despair and shock. The confirmed statistics provided by international agencies, such as the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq and other UN organisations, are truly grim and heartbreaking. Every day on average one hundred people are killed and two hundred wounded; 50% of the population is living on less than one dollar a day and unemployment affects more than 80% of the population. Only a minority have access to adequate water supplies and effective sanitation. Electricity supply is severely restricted and is subject to frequent interruptions without warning. Four out of five doctors have left their hospitals and three out of four children are not at school.

Almost three million people are internally displaced, i.e. they are refugees in their own country, and this number increases by about 2000 every day. A further two million Iraqis are refugees in neighbouring states, namely Syria, Jordan, the Gulf region, Egypt and Iran. These people have no formal refugee protection status.

The EU and the international community in general have a moral duty to show compassion and understanding for the miserable circumstances the Iraqi refugees find themselves in. Additionally, and more importantly, they must take much more effective measures to ensure that these poor people are given the help and support they so desperately need in order to survive indignity and the calamity that has fallen upon them.

This joint motion for a resolution lists a number of measures that are of importance in helping the Iraqi refugees have a more human existence.

So far, I have spoken as a representative of my group, now permit me to say a few words on a personal basis. Iraq is a relatively new country: it only became independent from Britain in 1932. It then followed a history of turmoil and, eventually, Saddam Hussein came to power. He was a tyrant and a criminal but he was assisted in gaining power by the West, including, unfortunately, some European states.

Sadly, though, even the worst days of Saddam Hussein’s totalitarian rule seem nothing in comparison to the death, destruction and suffering that has fallen on the Iraqi people following the Bush-Blair invasion and continued occupation of the country. These two ‘peacekeepers’ ordered an attack on Iraq, promising to bring happiness and prosperity to the Iraqi people. Instead, they succeeded in bringing a calamity of gigantic proportions. Yet some EU circles continue to applaud this invasion and, recently, they have even agreed to rewarding Mr Blair for his ‘peace’ services to the Arab world by appointing him Special Representative of the Quartet to the Middle East. May God bring some sanity to such circles and may God save us from the Bushes and Blairs of this world !


  Esko Seppänen (GUE/NGL), anstelle des Verfassers. – Herr Präsident, Herr Kommissar! Ich verlese die Rede von Tobias Pflüger. Die Debatte über die Hilfe für die irakischen Flüchtlinge führen wir leider erst heute. Ich bedauere dies zutiefst. Warum haben denn die Fraktionen der Liberalen, Rechtsnationalisten und Konservativen das Thema von der Tagesordnung der letzten Plenarsitzung abgesetzt? Stattdessen wurden hier ideologische Debatten über Kuba geführt.

Die Lage im Irak ist dramatisch. Seit dem Einmarsch der USA und der so genannten Koalition der Willigen sind über 600 000 Menschen getötet worden. Über 2 Millionen Irakerinnen und Iraker sind ins Ausland geflüchtet. Dazu kommen 2 Millionen Binnenvertriebene und über 40 000 nichtirakische Flüchtlinge. Aber auch die Opferzahlen der US-Armee steigen täglich, auf jetzt insgesamt 3 600. Leider tragen auch Mitgliedstaaten der EU durch ihre Kriegsbeteiligung und Kriegsunterstützung — speziell auch Deutschland — ein hohes Maß an Mitverantwortung für die Situation im Irak.

Nun muss den Flüchtlingen wirklich geholfen werden. Das kann nicht allein Aufgabe der Nachbarländer sein. Hier muss sich die EU finanziell einsetzen. Abschiebungen in den Irak müssen sofort gestoppt werden. Die Truppen der USA und der so genannten Koalition der Willigen müssen zurückgezogen werden. Die Kriegsunterstützung durch EU-Mitgliedstaaten ist zu beenden. Ein Ende des völkerrechtswidrigen Krieges und der Besatzung des Irak ist notwendig.


  Charles Tannock (PPE-DE), author. – Mr President, I was one of those politicians who supported the Iraq war back in 2003 in the belief that Saddam Hussein posed a serious long-term risk to regional stability, but also because of the horrendous brutality of his Baathist regime. I believed this would be replaced by democracy and respect for human rights and the rule of law.

But I, like many others, sadly underestimated the ferocity of the subsequent insurgency and the serious lack of peace planning, post-invasion, by our US allies, in particular their disastrous dismantling of the Iraqi army as a de-Baathification measure, which unleashed disgruntled Sunni officers to lend their expertise to the insurgency. There was also a failure to secure the Jordanian and Syrian borders against jihadi extremists flocking in to have a bash at the allies, not to mention that Saddam opened his jails before his fall, which added organised crime to this lethal cocktail, and always with the fingers of Iran meddling on the side of the Shias in what has now become virtually a civil war.

Curiously, immediately after the invasion, there was little in the way of internally displaced persons or refugees compared to the previous exodus of Kurds in the Saddam days. Paradoxically, the Kurdish flow has now stopped, as this is one of the few remaining peaceful areas of the country.

Sadly, in the last two years, huge numbers of Iraqis – perhaps over two million – have left, particularly the long-suffering, persecuted Christian Assyrian minorities who have been squeezed on all sides by Islamists, who accuse them of collaborating with the crusaders, and by the Kurds, who want their lands. Canon Andrew White, who ran Iraq’s only Anglican Church, left Baghdad yesterday amid fears for his life and safety after trying to secure the release of five kidnapped Britons.

But the EU must now do more to alleviate the crisis by boosting financial aid to the surrounding Arab states, which have received the bulk of the refugees, in particular Jordan and Syria, and they have been particularly good at taking in the Assyrians. The EU Member States must also accept, within reason, more refugees on a temporary basis.


  Paulo Casaca (PSE), Autor. – Senhor Presidente, Senhor Comissário Potocnik, caras e caros colegas, irmãs e irmãos iraquianos, uma primeira palavra em memória de todas e todos aqueles que foram privados do mais precioso dos seus bens, pela sua origem étnica ou religiosa, pelas suas convicções reais ou presumidas, ou por serem um símbolo da coragem e civismo democráticos. Permitam-me que destaque o meu camarada, companheiro e amigo, o Deputado Mohammad Hossein Ahwad, paradigma da luta contra o fascismo teocrático, que foi assassinado a 12 de Abril no parlamento do Iraque.

Mas, para que as lágrimas da nossa dor, ao embaciar-nos os olhos, não nos impeçam também a nós de ver aquelas mulheres que lutam ainda para manter vivos os seus filhos nos caminhos para onde os levaram as limpezas étnicas, os incontáveis milhares de iraquianos que olham o infinito nas ruas de Aman, de Damasco ou do Cairo, vítimas de profundas síndromas pós-traumáticas, os acampamentos formados nas praças ou nos contrafortes das igrejas ou mesquitas em ruínas, quero a todas e a todos enviar uma mensagem de solidariedade, de amor, de carinho e de esperança.

A barbaridade das forças das trevas que ensaiam nas margens do Tigre e do Eufrates o que planeiam para todo o grande Médio Oriente não cabe na nossa imaginação, tão pouco nestas palavras. Mas a resolução comum que agora apresentamos é um primeiro passo indispensável para que possamos inverter a situação.


  Jean Lambert (Verts/ALE), author. – Mr President, I welcome the resolution and, like others, I am really concerned about the truly tragic situation that we see in Iraq and on its borders at the moment. This is a people that have already suffered war, ethnic cleansing, a brutal dictatorship, an illegal invasion and communal violence, and are now seeing borders closing both externally and internally, seeing little chance of resettlement, and seeing a very mixed reception should any of them make it to the European Union.

We should not be surprised when war produces refugees – it always does – and indeed, as has already been said, some of our Member States have a very grave responsibility for that situation. I would agree, for once, with Mr Tannock, certainly on the question of the lack of post-war planning.

I particularly welcome, in this resolution, the statement that there should be no forced return of Iraqi refugees, or of those who have had their claims turned down that are currently living in the European Union, and at present we certainly need to find a status for such people, rather than leaving them destitute in our own Member States, as is happening in some places.

I would say that there is no part of Iraq which is currently safe. Even in Kurdistan we see Turkish troops at the moment massing on the borders there, undermining the possibility of return to destroyed villages and undermining efforts to increase economic stability in that area. Indeed, some of those that have been returned were sent back wearing flak jackets and helmets, which, to me, says it is not exactly a safe area. We also had a report from Human Rights Watch only last week saying that, despite the efforts of authorities in Kurdistan, partisan security forces continue the practice of kidnap and torture, so there is no real safe area in Iraq.

We know that we have to increase our support to the countries dealing with refugees on the border, and to the UNHCR, because we know what happens when you ignore the plight of refugees at the border. We only have to look at our experience when we more or less turned our back on two million Afghan refugees on the Pakistani border and left them without adequate support – that vacuum is filled, and we do not always like the result.

I welcome the call, in the resolution, for the Commission to explain to Parliament’s Committee on Budgets in more detail exactly how we are helping in Iraq and how we are aiming to support those surrounding countries. But, equally, I think we should be looking at our own resettlement policies to at least offer assistance to some of those who, once again, are finding their lives absolutely in turmoil.


  Bogusław Rogalski (UEN), autor. – Panie Przewodniczący! Sytuacja humanitarna i przestrzeganie praw człowieka w Iraku ulega ciągłemu pogorszeniu. Wynika to z raportów ONZ-owskiej misji pomocy dla Iraku.

Dane są zatrważające: średnio dziennie ginie około stu osób, a ponad dwieście zostaje rannych, 50% ludności żyje za mniej niż jednego dolara dziennie, wskaźnik bezrobocia sięga 80%. Brakuje odpowiedniego zaopatrzenia w wodę, a systemy kanalizacji są niesprawne, co sprzyja rozwojowi chorób. Trzy czwarte dzieci nie uczęszcza do szkół. Działalność przestępcza, napady z bronią w ręku, porwania, zabijanie osób zaangażowanych w działalność polityczną lub odbudowę kraju to codzienność. To z tych powodów wielu Irakijczyków ucieka z kraju, a ponad dwa miliony osób stało się wewnętrznymi przesiedleńcami. Należy także zaznaczyć, że na terenie Iraku przebywa ponad czterdzieści tysięcy uchodźców z innych krajów, w tym piętnaście tysięcy Palestyńczyków. Oto obraz dzisiejszego Iraku.

Potrzebne są zatem natychmiastowe działania polityczne oraz humanitarne, aby ulżyć tragicznemu losowi uchodźców. Pamiętajmy, że pół miliona uchodźców to dzieci. Należy sprawić, aby wewnętrzni przesiedleńcy byli rejestrowani, co da im prawo do przydziału żywności. Dzisiaj tego prawa im się odmawia. Należy też wpłynąć na kraje sąsiednie, aby nie ograniczały wstępu uchodźców, zmuszając wielu do pozostania na granicy.

Unia musi sprawić, aby nasza pomoc dla Iraku, dla Irakijczyków była kompleksowa, trwała i skoordynowana z działaniami Stanów Zjednoczonych. Unia powinna raz na zawsze odrzucić antyamerykańskie uprzedzenia. Tylko w ten sposób będzie można ulżyć ciężkiemu losowi milionów uchodźców, co sprawi, że unikniemy kryzysu humanitarnego na wielką skalę.

Musimy też wezwać rząd iracki do podjęcia natychmiastowych działań, zapewniających bezpieczeństwo wysiedlonej ludności, do zaprzestania praktyk dyskryminujących ze względu na pochodzenie. Natomiast Komisja Europejska powinna zwiększyć pomoc humanitarną dla wszystkich przesiedleńców w Iraku oraz wspierać kraje sąsiednie, które taką pomoc już świadczą.


  Eija-Riitta Korhola, PPE-DE-ryhmän puolesta. – Arvoisa puhemies, Irakin pakolaisten tilanne jatkuu edelleen vaikeana, yhtä edistysaskelta lukuun ottamatta. YK:n pakolaisasioiden päävaltuutetun suositus pakolaisstatuksen antamiseksi etelä- ja keski-irakilaisille turvapaikanhakijoille vuoden 1951 yleissopimuksen mukaan oli tervetullut ratkaisu. Samoin kuin täydentävän suojamuodon tarjoaminen silloin, kun pakolaisstatusta ei anneta.

Haluan erityisesti nostaa esille kaksi asiaa Irakin rajojen sisäpuolelta. Ensinnäkin uskonnollisten vähemmistöjen asema käy yhä sietämättömämmäksi. Assyyrialais-, armenialais-, ortodoksi- ja muita kristillisiä ryhmiä sekä mandealaisia ja juutalaisia syrjitään räikeästi mm. työmarkkinoilla. Tietyillä alueilla viranomaiset ovat täysin kykenemättömiä suojelemaan vähemmistöjä muslimimilitaristien väkivallalta. Uskonnonvapaus on siten tosiasiassa supistunut olemattomiin.

Toiseksi pidän käsittämättömänä uhkauksia, joita irakilaisviranomaiset ovat antaneet tarvikehuollon jäädyttämisestä iranilaispakolaisilta. Näillä opposition jäsenillä on kansainvälisoikeudellinen pakolaisstatus ja luovuttamaton oikeus suojaan.


  John Attard-Montalto, on behalf of the PSE Group. – Mr President, we must admit that what is happening and what has happened in Iraq is much worse than civil war – a question that is often posed. Of course, there is not civil war. It is worse. There is total chaos. Nobody has any idea or any plan as to how to unravel the mess we put Iraq in. I use the word ‘put’ because what went on was not needed, not required, nor was it wanted. It was an invasion which has proved a terrible nightmare for those who have participated in it.

When one makes a mistake, one has to carry the responsibility for it. It is about time that those people who participated, those countries in the coalition as well as the willing partners, show responsibility for what has happened to the Iraqi people, especially the refugees who are seeking help – even if they find any help, they find only a minimum amount.

It is about time that those people who made the initial mistake, who are responsible for the chaotic situation, show that responsibility and the first people who should be helped are the refugees.


  Kathy Sinnott, on behalf of the IND/DEM Group . – Mr President, Commissioner, almost hidden amongst the constant news of violence in Iraq is the almost unheard voice of Iraq’s Christian minority. This small population has no protection and is almost unknown to the international community. They are experiencing intense waves of violent persecution. Christian Iraqis are faced with the choice of exile – if they can manage to escape – conversion or persecution.

The persecution takes many forms: violence, discrimination in the workplace, confiscation of property, etc. For a Chaldean Christian priest, Ragheed Aziz Ganni, this persecution resulted in death.

What will the European Community do to help the Chaldean, Assyrian and Orthodox Christian communities? The Iraqi Government states its commitment to ending violence, but the lack of security makes it impossible to enforce peace on the ground and impossible to protect vulnerable populations. They need our help.


  Jean-Claude Martinez, au nom du groupe ITS. – Monsieur le Président, c'est bien de faire une résolution sur l'Irak avec le souci de l'humanitaire, des réfugiés, de l'aide internationale, etc... Qui ne serait pas d'accord, d'ailleurs, avec le considérant A et son constat: 100 tués par jour, 200 blessés au quotidien, 70% de la population sans eau, 3 millions de sous-alimentés et 2 millions de réfugiés, dont 500 000 enfants en Syrie, en Jordanie, en Égypte, etc!

Mais qui a fait cela? Qui est responsable? Qui a semé le chaos? Est-ce que c'est Saddam Hussein, est-ce que c'est le parti Baas? Le chaos est né de la guerre, une guerre injuste au sens des théologiens du Moyen-âge, une guerre illégale au sens de la Charte de l'ONU, une guerre déclenchée à la suite du mensonge de deux chefs d'État, américain et anglais. Et qui a soutenu cette guerre, ici, au Parlement européen? Qui a justifié, qui a demandé, qui a approuvé l'intervention d'où est sorti le chaos? Il y avait l'actuel ministre français des affaires étrangères, M. Kouchner, et il y avait certains des signataires de cette résolution.

Qu'est-ce à dire? Qu'il est bien de faire de l'humanitaire traitant les effets, mais qu'il est mieux de faire de la prévention évitant les causes. Et c'est le problème de l'Europe politique! En Europe nous aimons tellement les droits de l'homme que partout, en Palestine, en Irak, en Afrique, dans la mondialisation économique, nous soutenons des politiques qui, violant ces droits de l'homme, nous permettent de réaffirmer notre infini amour de ces mêmes droits de l'homme violés en aval, avec notre soutien en amont. C'est donc bien de proposer au paragraphe 16 des centres post-traumatiques pour les réfugiés, mais il faudrait prévoir aussi des centres de prévention politique, ici, pour nos dirigeants, afin de leur apprendre la sagesse, la lucidité, le courage de dire "non" et le refus de l'angélisme exterminateur.


  Justas Vincas Paleckis (PSE). – Palaikau rezoliuciją ir užjaučiu 4 milijonus su viršum irakiečių, priverstų bėgti iš savo gimtųjų vietų – tai daugiau gyventojų negu mano šalyje, Lietuvoje. Pabėgėlių skaičius vis auga, pusė iš jų priversti pasitraukti į užsienį. Padėtis Irake negerėja, tad pabėgėliai pasmerkti skurdžiam vegetavimui, paprastai jie nedirba, o jų vaikai auga beraščiais. Dėl šių priežasčių teroristinės organizacijos sėkmingai verbuoja tarp jų pasekėjus.

Humanitarinė pagalba pabėgėliams yra gėdingai maža, palyginus su Irako karą sukėlusių JAV ir Jungtinės Karalystės išlaidomis ginklavimuisi. Donorų skirta 60 milijonų JAV dolerių pagalba – tik lašas jūroje.

Šiais metais Europos Sąjungos šalis pasieks apie 40 000 pabėgėlių iš Irako – dvigubai daugiau nei pernai – o Jungtinės Valstijos šiemet priėmė vos kelias dešimtis irakiečių.

Būtų gerai, jeigu JAV ir Jungtinės Karalystės lyderiai, atvykę į Iraką ir kaimynines valstybes, savo akimis pamatytų pabėgėlių kančias. Gal tada jie elgtųsi kitaip.


  Janez Potočnik, Member of the Commission. Mr President, the security deterioration in Iraq has provoked a large scale displacement: approximately two million Iraqis have fled within the borders of Iraq and approximately two million into the neighbouring countries, with 750 000 people in Jordan and 1.4 million people in Syria. This displacement may result in a humanitarian crisis, and could present a threat to regional stability and the Commission is extremely concerned about the scale of human suffering.

We are following the situation closely on the ground and constantly reviewing any developments. We are in close contact with other key players of the international community, such as the United Nations High Commission for Refugees. In this regard, the Commission has actively participated at the UNHCR International Conference last April in Geneva.

In terms of existing assistance, in order to alleviate the difficulties of the displaced, the Commission, via EuropeAid, allocated EUR 10 million in 2006 to support internally displaced persons. In February 2007, as a rapid response to the deteriorating situation and following the UNHCR appeal in January, the Commission, via ECHO, announced an additional allocation of EUR 10.2 million, composed of EUR 4 million for the internally displaced and EUR 6.2 million for the externally displaced Iraqis. Furthermore, the Commission is continuing its support of the delivery of basic services inside Iraq.

We understand that this support remains limited in the face of the scale of human suffering. Nevertheless, it constitutes only a first, immediate response to the humanitarian situation. The Commission is currently looking at various options on how to better assist the Iraqi refugees in the future. However, delivery of assistance inside Iraq is severely constrained by the security situation. Many of our partners, including UNHCR, have only a very minimal presence in Iraq.

Through various technical and political missions, the Commission attempts to better assess the situation and, at the same time, convey its readiness to further support the Iraqi refugees. Commissioner Michel visited the region himself at the end of April. Several technical missions to Jordan and Syria have also followed since then.

We remain, therefore, committed to working with the countries that are accommodating Iraqi refugees. The Commission has already and will retain regular discussions with the Syrian and Jordan authorities about the situation.

We are looking forward particularly to participate in the Sharm El-Sheikh agreed Working Group on Refugees, which, according to the latest indication, is scheduled to meet on 22 July in Amman. Commissioner Ferrero-Waldner has already expressed the Commission’s readiness to provide technical assistance to the working group in order to facilitate the process.

We believe that the only durable solution for the refugees is peace and reconciliation inside Iraq. Towards this end, we will continue our support to the Iraqi refugees. I agree with you that we have a moral duty to help.


  Przewodniczący. Zamykam debatę.

Głosowanie odbędzie się pod koniec debaty.


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